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Bavaria

Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Munich and Augsburg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire in 1871 while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.

The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria reorganized itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's former Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke a Germanic dialect which developed into Old High German during the early Middle Ages, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century.

These peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli. The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni, they first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600.

Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616. After Garibald II, little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onward, he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century.

Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria. He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onward, he was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonizing these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. W

Aeroflot accidents and incidents in the 1950s

Following is a list of accidents and incidents Aeroflot experienced in the 1950s. The deadliest event the Soviet Union's flag carrier went through in the decade occurred in October 1958, when a Tupolev Tu-104 crashed en route to Sverdlovsk located in the Russian SSR, killing all 80 occupants on board. In terms of fatalities, the accident ranks as the eighth worst accident involving a Tu-104, as of July 2016. Another aircraft of the type was involved in the second deadliest accident the airline experienced in the decade, this time in August 1958, when 64 people were killed when the aircraft crashed near Chita after entering an updraft; the Tu-104's tail was modified and the service ceiling lowered in the wake of these two accidents. The number of recorded fatalities aboard Aeroflot aircraft during the decade rose to 1059. Most of the fatal accidents took place within the borders of the Soviet Union; the reluctance the Soviet government had for publicly admitting the occurrence of such events might render these figures higher, as fatal events tended to be admitted only when there were foreigners aboard the crashed aircraft, the accident took place in a foreign country, or they reached the news for some reason.

Aeroflot accidents and incidents Aeroflot accidents and incidents in the 1960s Aeroflot accidents and incidents in the 1970s Aeroflot accidents and incidents in the 1980s Aeroflot accidents and incidents in the 1990s Transport in the Soviet Union

Edible tableware

Edible tableware is tableware, such as plates and glasses, utensils and cutlery, edible. Edible tableware can be homemade and has been mass-produced by some companies, can be prepared using many various foods. Edible tableware can be homemade and is mass-produced, is prepared from various foods. For example, homemade tableware can be fashioned using sliced celery as chopsticks, celery can be used to scoop foods such as dips and cream cheese. A leaf of cabbage can be used as a spoon, a carrot stick, sharpened can be used as a skewer. Edible bowls and plates can be prepared with many methods. Bread which has had its center removed can be used for soups, baking cheese in an oven and forming the cheese into the desired shape. Chocolate can be fashioned into edible tableware. Flatbread such as khobez is sometimes used as an eating utensil, such as when it's used to scoop hummus, Ethiopian injera bread is used as a utensil to scoop wat. In West Africa, flatbread is sometimes used to scoop fufu for consumption.

In India, chapati flatbread is used as a utensil to consume dhal. In North and Central America, the tortilla is used as a utensil to scoop various foods such as salsa and bean dips. Foods such as crackers and tortilla chips, crudités, bread and cheese sticks can be used as edible utensils. Edible tableware such as cups, bowls and platters prepared using sugar paste have been in use since at least the Elizabethan era and edible tableware was considered as a sign of wealth. In 1562, a recipe for edible tableware and cutlery, such as knives, forks and spoons, was published by Alexius Pedemontanus