Tribal colleges and universities
In the United States, tribal colleges and universities are a category of higher education, minority-serving institutions defined in the Higher Education Act of 1965. Each qualifies for funding under the Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities Assistance Act of 1978 or the Navajo Community College Act; these educational institutions are distinguished by being controlled and operated by American Indian tribes. The first was founded by the Navajo Nation in 1968 in Arizona, several others were established in the 1970s; as of 1994, they have been authorized by Congress as land-grant colleges. Presently, there are 32 accredited Tribal Colleges and Universities in the United States, with one formal candidate for accreditation; the Tribal College movement grew out of the American Indian "self-determination" movement of the 1960s. Tribal colleges are located on or near Indian reservations and provide access to post-secondary education, accredited degrees, vocational training for both Indian and non-Indian students.
Navajo Community College, now called Diné College, the first tribal college, was founded on the reservation in Tsaile, Arizona, in 1968 and accredited in 1979. Tensions arose between two philosophies: one that the tribal colleges should have the same criteria and procedures for educational quality as mainstream colleges, the other that the faculty and curriculum should be adapted to the particular historical culture of the tribe. There was a great deal of turnover, exacerbated by tight budgets. Several other tribal colleges were established in the 1970s and enrollment has increased. Indian culture and tradition have become a part of the curricula since the 1970s, when many of the colleges were established; these institutions are located on reservations and face problems similar to those of other rural educational institutions: recruitment and retention of students and faculty, curriculum issues. Lack of funding, along with the minimal resources of some tribes, have been obstacles for some tribes.
For some Native American nations, revenues from casino gambling have aided in their building educational institutions. In general, enrollment has increased particularly in areas where reservations have significant populations. In 1982, the total enrollment at tribal colleges in the United States was 2,100. By 2003, it had increased to 30,000; this reflects a return to reservations by numerous American Indians, for instance, on the Great Plains. By contrast, California's only tribal college, D-Q University located west of Davis, closed in 2005, it re-opened with six students in 2006. Unlike most of the institutions, it is not affiliated with reservation. In 1994 under the Elementary and Secondary Education Reauthorization Act, the tribal colleges were authorized by the US Congress as land-grant colleges. Most offer two-year degrees, although six are four-year institutions, three have master's degree programs. Several colleges, such as the College of the Menominee Nation, have developed transfer agreements with affiliated state universities to allow students who graduate from the two-year tribal college to receive junior status at the state university system.
Sinte Gleska University in South Dakota has a master's program affiliated with Red Crow Community College and Canadian universities in Alberta. On December 2, 2011 President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13592—Improving American Indian and Alaska Native Educational Opportunities and Strengthening Tribal Colleges and Universities, which ordered that federal agencies work with tribal governments to help improve educational opportunities provided to all AI/AN students, including students attending postsecondary institutions such as Tribal Colleges and Universities; this executive order was signed to address the high drop out rate, to help close the achievement gap between AI/AN students and their non-native peers, while preserving and revitalizing Native languages. This executive order is run by The White House Initiative on American Indian and Alaska Native Education; this initiative is part of the Department of Education, it supports activities that will expand education opportunities and improve education outcomes for all AI/AN students.
As of 2013, Montana is the only state in which each Indian reservation has established a accredited tribal college. The University of Montana "was the first to establish dual admission agreements with all of the tribal colleges and as such it was the first institution in the nation to facilitate student transfer from the tribal colleges." The Montana legislature passed the Indian Education for All Act, creating the only state mandate for public schools to "teach American Indian history and heritage to preschool through higher education students." In 2017 Ahmed Al-Asfour and Suzanne Young conducted a survey study of the professional development needs of faculty at TCUs. The areas of greatest concern were low salary. Low teacher salaries may be attributed to the unique situation. Most tribal colleges are located on reservations and therefore are not supported by local taxes, they only remain chronically underfunded. Al-Asfour and Young argue that this underfunding and subsequent low faculty salaries may be a cause of low retention of faculty, result in inexperienced faculty accepting positions at TCUs.
Additionally, Al-Asfour and Young found that Non-Native American
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo
Port Huron, Michigan
Port Huron is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of St. Clair County; the population was 30,184 at the 2010 census. The city is administratively autonomous. Located along the St. Clair River, it is connected to Point Edward, Ontario in Canada via the Blue Water Bridge; the city is the easternmost point on land in Michigan. Port Huron is home to two paper mills, Mueller Brass, many businesses related to tourism and the automotive industry; the city features a historic downtown area, marina, museum and the McMorran Place arena and entertainment complex. This area was long occupied by the Ojibwa people. French colonists had a temporary trading fort at this site in the 17th century. In 1814 following the War of 1812, the United States established Fort Gratiot at the base of Lake Huron. A community developed around it; the early 19th century was the first time a settlement developed with a permanent European-American population. Until 1836, an Ojibwa reservation occupied land in part of the modern area of Port Huron.
They were removed by the United States to west of the Mississippi River in Minnesota. In 1857, Port Huron became incorporated, its population grew after the 1850s due a high rate of immigration attracted by the successful shipbuilding and lumber industries. In 1859 the city had a total of 4,031 residents. By 1870, Port Huron's population exceeded that of surrounding villages. In 1871, the State Supreme Court designated Port Huron as the county seat. On October 8, 1871, the city, as well as places north in Sanilac and Huron counties, burned in the Port Huron Fire of 1871. A series of other fires leveled Holland and Manistee, Michigan, as well as Peshtigo and Chicago on the same day; the Thumb Fire that occurred a decade also engulfed Port Huron. In 1895 the village of Fort Gratiot, in the vicinity of the former Fort Gratiot, was annexed by the city of Port Huron; the following historic sites have been recognized by the State of Michigan through its historic marker program. Fort St. Joseph; the fort was built in 1686 by the French explorer Duluth.
This fort was the second European settlement in lower Michigan. This post guarded the upper end of the St. Clair River, the vital waterway joining Lake Erie and Lake Huron. Intended by the French to bar English traders from the upper lakes, the fort in 1687 was the base of a garrison of French and Indians. In 1688 the French abandoned this fort; the site was incorporated into Fort Gratiot in 1814. A park has been established at the former site of the fort. Fort Gratiot Light; the Fort Gratiot Lighthouse was built in 1829 to replace a tower destroyed by a storm. In the 1860s workers extended the tower to its present height of 84 feet; the light, automated in 1933, continues to guide shipping on Lake Huron into the narrow and swift-flowing St. Clair River, it was the first lighthouse established in the State of Michigan. Lightship Huron. From 1935 until 1970, the Huron was stationed in southern Lake Huron to mark dangerous shoals. After 1940 the Huron was the only lightship operating on the Great Lakes.
Retired from Coast Guard Service in 1970, she was presented to the City of Port Huron in 1971. Grand Trunk Railway Depot; the depot, now part of the Port Huron Museum, is where 12-year-old Thomas Edison departed daily on the Port Huron – Detroit run. In 1859, the railroad's first year of operation, Edison convinced the railroad company to let him sell newspapers and confections on the daily trips, he became so successful. He made enough money to buy chemicals and other experimental materials. Port Huron Public Library. In 1902 the city of Port Huron secured money from philanthropist Andrew Carnegie to erect a municipal library. In 1904, a grand Beaux-Arts-style structure was built at a cost of $45,000. At its dedication, Melvil Dewey, creator of a used book classification system, delivered the opening address; the Port Huron Public Library served in its original capacity for over sixty years. In 1967, a larger public library was constructed; the following year the former library was renovated and re-opened as the Port Huron Museum of Arts and History.
An addition was constructed in 1988. Harrington Hotel; the Hotel opened in 1896 and is a blend of Romanesque and Queen Anne architecture. The hotel closed in 1986, but a group of investors bought the structure that same year to convert it into housing for senior citizens; the Harrington Hotel is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Grand Trunk Western Railroad Tunnel; the tunnel links Port Huron with Canada. This international submarine railway tunnel was the first international tunnel in the world; the tunnel's total length is 6,025 feet, with 2,290 feet underwater. The tunnel operations were electrified in 1908. Tracks were lowered in 1949 to accommodate larger freight cars. During World War I, a plot to blast the tunnel was foiled. A new tunnel has since been opened; the city received the All-America City Award in 1955 and 2005. Port Huron is the only site in Michigan; the event is now memorialized. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.26 square miles, of which 8.08 square miles is land and 4.18 square miles is water.
The city is considered to be part of the Thumb area of East-Central Michigan called the Blue Water Area. The easternmost point of Michigan can be found in Port Huron, near the site of the Municip
Whitefish Bay is a large bay on the eastern end of Lake Superior between Michigan, United States, Ontario, Canada. It is located between Whitefish Point in Michigan and Whiskey Point along the more rugged wilderness Canadian Shield of Ontario; the international border runs through the bay, used by shipping traffic northbound from and southbound to the Soo Locks. The Whitefish Point Light marks the entry of the bay, Ile Parisienne Light is in the middle of the bay, Gros Cap Reefs Light lies near the outlet of the bay and the approach to the Soo Locks at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. Whitefish Point Lighthouse is the oldest active light on Lake Superior. Part of the lighthouse station houses the Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum, it holds artifacts from the above shipwrecks and has information on the notable wreck of SS Edmund Fitzgerald in 1975, in which all 29 crew were lost. After the Soo Locks opened in 1855 and ship traffic increased on Lake Superior, Whitefish Bay was the site of numerous shipwrecks due to hazardous weather.
The Whitefish Point Underwater Preserve was established to preserve many of the shipwrecks of Whitefish Bay for future generations of sports divers. Known wrecks include the ships Comet, John B. Cowle, Samuel Mather, Myron, John M. Osborn, Superior City, Vienna. Ile Parisienne Batchawana Bay - smaller sub-bay of Whitefish Bay Goulais Bay - smaller sub-bay of Whitefish Bay Sandy Islands Provincial Park Shipwrecks of the 1913 Great Lakes storm South Shore Whitefish Bay National Forest Scenic Byway Ile Parisienne Light photographs from Marinas.com Iroquois Light Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum Whitefish Point Underwater Preserve Whitefish Point Bird Observatory
Candice Sue Miller is an American politician, the U. S. Representative for Michigan's 10th congressional district from 2003 to 2017, she is former Michigan Secretary of State, Macomb County Treasurer, Harrison Township Supervisor. She is a member of the Republican Party. In November 2016, she was elected Macomb County Public Works commissioner, defeating 6-term incumbent Anthony Marrocco; the district includes all of Michigan's Huron, Sanilac, St. Clair counties, plus northern Macomb and eastern Tuscola counties, she is a graduate of Lake Shore High School of Michigan. Miller did not seek re-election in 2016 and resigned her seat in the House on December 31, 2016, in order to take office as Public Works Commissioner the next day. United States House Committee on Administration In the 113th Congress, Representative Miller was appointed to serve as Chairman of the Committee on House Administration, in the 114th Congress she continues to serve as the Committee's Chair. CHA was established in 1947 and is charged with the oversight of federal elections and the day-to-day operations of the House of Representatives.
The Committee has the responsibility to ensure that the House of Representatives runs in an effective and efficient manner, vital as we work to meet the many challenges facing this great nation. Most this committee has jurisdiction over the federal election process, and, as Chairman, Representative Miller has been committed to making certain the Committee enacts rules to ensure our nation continues to have open and fair elections. Under her leadership as Chairman, the U. S. House received consecutive "clean" audits, demonstrating her commitment to transparency and accountability, she played a major role in advancing legislation to end the practice of using millions of dollars in taxpayer funding to host political party conventions and, redirected that funding for pediatric research. Working with House officers, she has helped to increase the availability of low-cost digital tools used by the House to improve the House's daily functions and reduce operating costs, she oversaw the Committee’s review of the report generated by the Bauer-Ginsberg Commission, which focused on utilizing good, local governance over elections and made recommendations on different ideas to help locals election administrators improve upon their own voting processes.
Committee on Homeland Security Subcommittee on Border and Maritime SecurityRepresentative Miller has served on the House Committee on Homeland Security since March 2008. Representative Miller is serving as Vice Chair of the full House Committee on Homeland Security and served as Chairman of the Subcommittee on Border and Maritime Security from 2011 until February 2016, she is serving as a member of the Subcommittee on Counterterrorism and Intelligence. The federal government's first and foremost responsibility is to provide for our national defense, our common defense begins with a secure homeland; the Committee is charged with oversight of the Department of Homeland Security and ensuring its primary focus remains on the protection of the American people. As Chairman of the Subcommittee on Border and Maritime Security, Representative Miller exercised effective oversight and initiated legislative efforts to ensure our nation's borders are adequately secured against international terrorist organizations, illegal immigration and human smuggling, as well as the exploitation of the legitimate visa process.
During the 113th Congress, Representative Miller championed legislation to formally authorize Customs and Border Protection and clarify the security mission of the agency for the first time since the Department of Homeland Security was created in 2002. The legislation passed the House on July 28, 2014, she has long advocated for ways to strengthen the Department of Homeland Security's ability to identify and stop terrorists with western passports, authoring legislation in that would allow DHS to suspend a country's participation in the U. S. Visa Waiver Program if it fails to provide the U. S. with pertinent traveler information related to terror threats. Additionally, Representative Miller crafted legislation to increase oversight over the maritime security mission of DHS, as well as strengthen maritime security at home and abroad as we trade with our trusted partners. In the 114th Congress, Representative Miller continued to push needed legislation that helped ensure we implement strong protections for our borders and global supply chain.
Our nation's borders can and must be secured, her goal has been to see that DHS is making progress to confront the threats of terrorism, cyber terrorism, mismanagement of the Department in these areas vital to our national security, continuing to work towards a secure border and a safer homeland. Michigan's 10th Congressional District is a border district, it is home to the Blue Water Bridge, the second-busiest border crossing on the northern tier. S.. Miller focused her efforts on building a stronger presence of homeland security assets at Selfridge, enhancing the security of our airways, roadways and waterways, in addition to securing our food and water supplies by enhancing Northern Border security; the Committee on Homeland Security was established in 2002 to provide congressional oversigh