Bay leaf

The bay leaf is an aromatic leaf used in cooking. It can be used as dried and ground. Bay leaves come from several plants, such as: Bay laurel. Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive fragrance; the leaves should be removed from the cooked food before eating. The leaves are used to flavour soups, braises and pâtés in many countries; the fresh leaves are mild and do not develop their full flavour until several weeks after picking and drying. California bay leaf – the leaf of the California bay tree known as California laurel, Oregon myrtle, pepperwood, is similar to the Mediterranean bay laurel, but has a stronger flavour. Indian bay leaf or malabathrum differs in that bay laurel leaves are shorter and light to medium green in colour, with one large vein down the length of the leaf, while tejpat leaves are about twice as long and wider olive green in colour, with three veins down the length of the leaf and is culinarily quite different, having a fragrance and taste similar to cinnamon bark, but milder.

Indonesian bay leaf or Indonesian laurel is not found outside Indonesia. West Indian bay leaf, the leaf of the West Indian bay tree, used culinarily and to produce the cologne called bay rum. Mexican bay leaf; the leaves contain about 1.3% essential oils, consisting of 45% eucalyptol, 12% other terpenes, 8-12% terpinyl acetate, 3–4% sesquiterpenes, 3% methyleugenol, other α- and β-pinenes, linalool, geraniol and contain lauric acid also. If eaten whole, bay leaves have a sharp, bitter taste; as with many spices and flavourings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable than its taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal floral, somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf, they contain eugenol. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine, bay laurel leaves are sometimes used in place of Indian bay leaf, although they have a different flavour, they are most used in rice dishes like biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala.

Bay leaves are packaged as tejpattā, creating confusion between the two herbs. In the Philippines, dried bay laurel leaves are used in several Filipino dishes such as menudo, beef pares, adobo. Bay leaves were used for flavouring by the ancient Greeks, they are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines, as well as in the Americas. They are used in soups, meat, vegetable dishes, sauces; the leaves flavour many classic French dishes. The leaves are most used whole and removed before serving. Thai and Laotian cuisine employs bay leaf in a few Arab-influenced dishes, notably massaman curry. Bay leaves can be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, thus they are used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger. Bay leaves are used in the making of jerk chicken in the Caribbean Islands; the bay leaves are placed on the cool side of the grill.

Pimento sticks are placed on top of the leaves and the chicken is placed on top and smoked. Bay leaves can be used scattered in a pantry to repel meal moths, cockroaches and silverfish. Bay leaves have been used in entomology as the active ingredient in killing jars; the crushed, young leaves are put into the jar under a layer of paper. The vapors they release kill insects but and keep the specimens relaxed and easy to mount; the leaves discourage the growth of molds. They are not effective for killing large beetles and similar specimens, but insects that have been killed in a cyanide killing jar can be transferred to a laurel jar to await mounting. There is confusion in the literature about whether Laurus nobilis is a source of cyanide to any practical extent, but there is no evidence that cyanide is relevant to its value in killing jars, it is rich in various essential oil components that could incapacitate insects in high concentrations. It is unclear to what extent the alleged effect of cyanide released by the crushed leaves has been mis-attributed to Laurus nobilis in confusion with the unrelated Prunus laurocerasus, the so-called cherry laurel, which does contain dangerous concentrations of cyanogenic glycocides together with the enzymes to generate the hydrogen cyanide from the glycocides if the leaf is physically damaged.

Some members of the laurel family, as well as the unrelated but visually similar mountain laurel and cherry laurel, have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous; this is not true. However, they remain unpleasantly stiff after thorough cooking, if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a

Jerry Johnston

Jerome Richard "Jerry" Johnston is an American evangelical Christian pastor and docu-filmmaker. Johnston is vice president for Innovation and Strategic marketing at Houston Baptist University in Houston and director of Christian Thinkers Society. Johnston and his wife Cristie Jo Huf Johnston are professors of theology and co-producers of a documentary in production about the "Nones" phenomenon. Johnston was born in Oklahoma City and moved with his family when he was in the third grade to Overland Park in suburban Johnson County, Kansas; as a struggling boy, he contemplated suicide by taking valium but was converted to Jesus Christ in the summer of 1973 at the age of fourteen at a Baptist camp in Roach in Camden County in central Missouri. Within two months, he accepted the call to Christian ministry and was thereafter speaking some twenty-five times weekly to organizations while he was still in high school. Concurrent to Johnston’s senior year in high school, he took courses and graduated from Youth for Christ’s Christ Unlimited Bible Institute, he received a General Equivalency Diploma.

He was accepted on a scholarship to named Liberty Baptist College in Lynchburg, Virginia. While at Liberty, Johnston became an "associate evangelist" for the college. Jerry received his B. A. from Midwestern Baptist College in Kansas City and his Master of Divinity from Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary. In May 2012, Johnston and his wife each earned Doctor of Ministry degrees from Acadia Divinity College in Wolfville, Nova Scotia, an entity affiliated with the Convention of Atlantic Baptist Churches. Johnston's doctoral thesis is entitled An Exploration of Rates and Causes of Attrition among Protestant Evangelical Clergy in the United States. In 1998, Johnston delivered Liberty University's baccalaureate speech, Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary awarded Johnston an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree. Johnston controversially used the title "Doctor" based on this honorary degree before earning his undergraduate degree. Through his Jerry Johnston Ministries, a nonprofit organization, Johnston traveled from 1978 to 1996 across the United States and Canada.

His evangelistic crusades were focused on struggling teen issues, including problems with narcotics and Satanism. During his full-time evangelism years, Jerry prepared various videos and wrote eight books on these issues. Among those converted in the Johnston crusade was the Texas evangelist Jay L. Lowder Jr. of Wichita Falls. In 1984, JJM had assets totaling $206,000. During these eighteen years, Johnston spoke worldwide to five million people at more than three thousand colleges and universities, he preached revivals in many churches. By 1993, according to his biography, more than 500,000 copies of Johnston's books, 62,000 videos, a million cassettes of his sermons were in circulation, his sermons have been broadcast worldwide via web video streaming. Launched in 1996, First Family Church saw exponential growth, the church broke ground in 1999; the sanctuary was completed at a cost of $10.1 million. Another $8.5 million was spent in 2006 on expanded facilities. The congregation peaked at four thousand members and was described as among the fastest growing churches in America.

In 2007, the Kansas City Star reported issues relating to financial accountability within First Family Church. In his doctoral dissertation, Johnston attributed the negative media attention to his political conservatism, such as his pro-life convictions and his support for the Kansas constitutional amendment prohibiting same-sex marriage. In 2004, Johnston hosted Jerry Falwell, founder of Liberty University, at First Family Church to rally Christian support in the general election in which U. S. President George W. Bush narrowly defeated John Kerry. At the gathering, Falwell encouraged pastors to be politically involved in their communities. After the constitutional amendment to ban gay marriage in Kansas passed in 2005, Johnston was highlighted as a proponent of the amendment and voiced his opposition to abortion. Journalist Jack Cashill, executive editor of Ingram’s Magazine, agreed with Johnston’s assertions that the pastor was a political media target because of his position as an influential conservative.

Tax liens filed by the Internal Revenue Service were resolved in 2008. The Attorney General of Kansas investigated complaints but no violation of the Kansas Consumer Protection Act was found. A blog reported. In September 2011, the church creditor, Regions Financial Corporation, foreclosed on the property; the bank pressed for payment of more than $14 million in outstanding mortgage payments. The elders of the church stated that while the church was current in its monthly payments, Regions Bank accelerated the mortgage maturity from 30 to five years due to the 2008 banking crisis and demanded the full payment of the loan; the elder board said that AG Financial made a cash offer to Regions Bank to finance First Family Church's mortgage, but Regions Bank rejected the offer. The Blue Valley School District, with plans to use the structure as an early childhood facility, paid $9 million for the 51-acre church complex located at U. S. Highway 69 and 143rd Street in Overland Park. Regions Financial Bank had not yet repaid the 2008 TARP loan from the federal government when it sold First Family Church’s loan to Blue Valley School District.

The bank paid back its $3.5 billion in the spring of 2012. 2011 marked a dramatic increase of church property foreclosures. Some of Johnston's relat


Solvalla is a horse racing track located in Bromma, Sweden. It is the largest harness racing venue in the Nordic countries; the last Sunday in May, Solvalla annually hosts Elitloppet, one of the most prestigious international trotting events in the world. International Group I race. Setup: Sixteen invited horses are divided into two elimination heats. Four horses from each heat progress to the final, raced the same day. All races are of 1,609 meters, i.e. one mile. Date: Is always raced on the last Sunday of May. Purse: ≈US$803,000. Elitloppet is always in the last Sunday. During the same weekend there are the Group II races Sweden Cup and the stayer race Harper Hanovers Race, as well as Elitkampen for coldblood trotters. National Group I stakes race for Swedish three-year-olds. Setup: Six elimination races from which the first two horses progressed to the final eleven days later. All races 2,640 meters long. Date: 5 October. Purse: ≈US$458,000. National Group I stakes race for Swedish three-year-old fillies.

Setup: Six elimination races from which the first two horses progressed to the final eleven days later. All races 2,140 meters long. Date: 5 October. Purse: ≈US$286,000. International Group I race. Setup: 2,140 meters. Ten horses competed in the event; some were invited, some qualified through qualification races. Date: 9 August. Purse: ≈US$281,000. Since 2012 the venue has been used as a motor racing venue and hosts a round of the Scandinavian Touring Car Championship. Since the track's opening in 1927, there have been only 14 different driver champions at Solvalla. From 1934 until 1976, one of the three Nordin brothers won every year, with the exception of 1949 and 1975. Oldest brother Gösta won ten times. Youngest brother Sören Nordin was track champion 21 times, their father Ernst J. Nordin was champion 1928 and 1929. After the dominance of the Nordins, Stig H. Johansson took over and claimed the champion title no less than 29 times between 1975 and 2005, his last year as a driver. 27 these titles were consecutive, from 1979 to 2005.

Jorma Kontio is the reigning driver champion. Stig H. Johansson - 194 Official website Venue information