The M4 Sherman Medium Tank, M4, was the most used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II. The M4 Sherman proved to be reliable cheap to produce, available in great numbers. Thousands were distributed through the Lend-Lease program to the British Commonwealth and Soviet Union; the tank was named by the British for the American Civil War general William Tecumseh Sherman. The M4 Sherman evolved from the M3 Medium Tank, which had its main armament in a side sponson mount; the M4 retained much of the previous mechanical design, but put the main 75 mm gun in a traversing turret. One feature, a one-axis gyrostabilizer, was not precise enough to allow firing when moving but did help keep the reticle on target, so that when the tank did stop to fire, the gun would be aimed in the right direction; the designers stressed mechanical reliability, ease of production and maintenance, standardization of parts and ammunition in a limited number of variants, moderate size and weight.
These factors, combined with the Sherman's then-superior armor and armament, outclassed German light and medium tanks fielded in 1939–42. The M4 went on to be produced in large numbers, it spearheaded many offensives by the Western Allies after 1942. When the M4 tank went into combat in North Africa with the British Army at El Alamein in late 1942, it increased the advantage of Allied armor over Axis armor and was superior to the lighter German and Italian tank designs. For this reason, the US Army believed that the M4 would be adequate to win the war, little pressure was exerted for further tank development. Logistical and transport restrictions, such as limitations imposed by roads and bridges complicated the introduction of a more capable but heavier tank. Tank destroyer battalions using vehicles built on the M4 hull and chassis, but with open-topped turrets and more potent high-velocity guns entered widespread use in the Allied armies. By 1944, most M4 Shermans kept their dual-purpose 75 mm gun.
By the M4 was inferior in firepower and armor to increasing numbers of German heavy tanks, but was able to fight on with the help of considerable numerical superiority, greater mechanical reliability, better logistical support, support from growing numbers of fighter-bombers and artillery pieces. Some Shermans were produced with a more capable gun, the 76 mm gun M1, or refitted with an Ordnance QF 17-pounder by the British; the relative ease of production allowed large numbers of the M4 to be manufactured, significant investment in tank recovery and repair units allowed disabled vehicles to be repaired and returned to service quickly. These factors combined to give the Allies numerical superiority in most battles, many infantry divisions were provided with M4s and tank destroyers. After World War II, the Sherman the many improved and upgraded versions, continued to see combat service in many conflicts around the world, including the UN forces in the Korean War, with Israel in the Arab–Israeli wars with South Vietnam in the Vietnam War, on both sides of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
The U. S. Army Ordnance Department designed the M4 medium tank as a replacement for the M3 medium tank; the M3 was an up-gunned development of the M2 Medium Tank of 1939, in turn derived from the M2 light tank of 1935. The M3 was developed as a stopgap measure. While it was a big improvement when tried by the British in Africa against early German tanks, the placement of a 37 mm gun turret on top gave it a high profile, the unusual side-sponson mounted main gun, with limited traverse, could not be aimed across the other side of the tank. Though reluctant to adopt British weapons into their arsenal, the American designers were prepared to accept proven British ideas. British ideas, as embodied in a tank designed by the Canadian General Staff influenced the development of the American Sherman tank. Before long American military agencies and designers had accumulated sufficient experience to forge ahead on several points. In the field of tank armament the American 75 mm and 76 mm dual-purpose tank guns won the acknowledgement of British tank experts.
Detailed design characteristics for the M4 were submitted by the Ordnance Department on 31 August 1940, but development of a prototype was delayed while the final production designs of the M3 were finished and the M3 entered full-scale production. On 18 April 1941, the U. S. Armored Force Board chose the simplest of five designs. Known as the T6, the design was a modified M3 hull and chassis, carrying a newly designed turret mounting the M3's 75 mm gun; this would become the Sherman. The Sherman's reliability resulted from many features developed for U. S. light tanks during the 1930s, including vertical volute spring suspension, rubber-bushed tracks, a rear-mounted radial engine with drive sprockets in front. The goals were to produce a fast, dependable medium tank able to support infantry, provide breakthrough striking capacity, defeat any tank in use by the Axis nations; the T6 prototype was completed on 2 September 1941. The upper hull of the T6 was a single large casting, it featured a single overhead hatch for the driver, a hatch in the side of the hull.
In the M4A1 production model, this large casting was maintained, although the side hatch was eliminated and a second overhead hatch was added for the assistant driver. The modified T6 was standardized as the M4, production began in February 1942; the cast hull models would be re-standardized as M4A1, with the first welded hull models receiving the designation M4. In August, 1942, a variant of the M4 was put forth by the Detroit Arsenal to ha
Algeciras is a port city in the south of Spain, is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar. The Port of Algeciras is one of the largest ports in Europe and the world in three categories: container and transhipment, it is located 20 km north-east of Tarifa on the Río de la Miel, the southernmost river of the Iberian peninsula and continental Europe. In 2015, it had a population of 118,920, it is the biggest city among those of its metropolitan area that includes the municipalities of Los Barrios, La Línea de la Concepción, Castellar de la Frontera, Jimena de la Frontera, San Roque and Tarifa, with a population of 263,739. The site of Roman cities called Portus Albus and Iuliua Tracta, the current name of Algeciras comes from the Arab period of the Iberian Peninsula: Al-Jazīra Al-Khadrā' Arabic الجزيرة الخضراء or Green Island. However, in modern dialectical Arabic it is referred to as Al Khuzurat in neighboring Morocco; the area of the city has been populated since prehistory, the earliest remains belong to Neanderthal populations from the Paleolithic era.
Due to its strategic position it was an important port under the Phoenicians, was the site of the relevant Roman port of Portus Albus, with two nearby cities called Caetaria and Iulia Transducta, founded by the Romans. It has been proposed that the site of Iulia Transducta was the Villa Vieja of Algeciras. After being destroyed by the Goths and their Vandal allies, the city was founded again in April 711 by the invading Moors, as the first city created by the Amazigh on the occupied Spanish soil. In the year 859 AD Viking troops on board 62 drekars and commanded by the leaders Hastein and Björn Ironside besieged the city for three days and subsequently laid waste to much of it. After looting the houses of the rich, they burnt the Banderas mosque. Reorganized near the medina, the inhabitants managed to recover the city and make the invaders run away, capturing two boats, it enjoyed a brief period of independence as a taifa state from 1035 to 1058. It was named al-Jazirah al-Khadra' after the offshore Isla Verde.
In 1055 Emir Al-Mutadid of Seville drove the Berbers from Algeciras. In 1278, Algeciras was besieged by the forces of the Kingdom of Castile under the command of Alfonso X of Castile and his son, Sancho IV; this siege was the first of a series of attempts to take the city and ended in failure for the Castilian forces. An armada sent by Castile was annihilated whilst trying to blockade the city's harbor. After many centuries of Muslim rule, the tide of the reconquista arrived at Algeciras. In July 1309 Ferdinand IV of Castile laid siege to Algeciras as well as Gibraltar; the latter fell into Christian hands, but Muslim Algeciras held on for the following three decades, until Alfonso XI of Castile resumed its siege. Juan Nunez de Lara, Juan Manuel, Pedro Fernández de Castro, Juan Alfonso de la Cerda, lord of Gibraleón all participated in the siege, as did knights from France and Germany, King Philip III of Navarre, king consort of Navarra, who came accompanied by 100 horsemen and 300 infantry. In March 1344, after several years of siege, Algeciras surrendered.
On winning the city, Alfonso XI made it the seat of a new diocese, established by Pope Clement VI's bull Gaudemus et exultamus of 30 April 1344, entrusted to the governance of the bishop of Cadiz. The bishops of Cadiz continued to hold the title of Aliezira, as it called, until 1851, when in accordance with a concordat between Spain and the Holy See its territory was incorporated into the diocese of Cadiz. No longer a residential bishopric, Aliezira is today listed by the Catholic Church; the city was retaken by the Moors in 1368. It was destroyed on the orders of Muhammed V of Granada; the site was subsequently abandoned, but was refounded in 1704 by refugees from Gibraltar following the territory's capture by Anglo-Dutch forces in the War of the Spanish Succession. It was fortified to guard against British raids with installations such as the Fuerte de Isla Verde built to guard key points; the city was rebuilt on its present rectangular plan by Charles III of Spain in 1760. In July 1801, the French and Spanish navies fought the British Royal Navy offshore in the Battle of Algeciras, which ended in a British victory.
The city became the scene for settling a major international crisis as it hosted the Algeciras Conference in 1906. The international forum to discuss the future of Morocco, held in the Casa Consistorial, it confirmed the independence of Morocco against threats from Germany, gave France control of banking and police interests. In July 1942 Italian frogmen set up in a secret base in the Italian tanker Olterra, interned in Algeciras, in order to attack shipping in Gibraltar. During the Franco era, Algeciras underwent substantial industrial development, creating many new jobs for the local workers made unemployed when the border between Gibraltar and Spain was sealed by Franco between 1969 and 1982. In 1982 there was a failed plan codenamed Operation Algeciras conceived by the Argentinian military to sabotage the British military facilities in Gibraltar during the Falklands War; the Spanish authorities intervened just before the attack, deported the two Argentine Montoneros and military liaison officer involved.
Algeciras is principally industrial city. Its main activities are connected with the port, which serves as the main embarkation point between Spain and Tangier and other
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus, independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater. Scuba divers carry their own source of breathing gas compressed air, allowing them greater independence and freedom of movement than surface-supplied divers, longer underwater endurance than breath-hold divers. Although the use of compressed air is common, a new mixture called enriched air has been gaining popularity due to its benefit of reduced nitrogen intake during repetitive dives. Open circuit scuba systems discharge the breathing gas into the environment as it is exhaled, consist of one or more diving cylinders containing breathing gas at high pressure, supplied to the diver through a regulator, they may include additional cylinders for range extension, decompression gas or emergency breathing gas. Closed-circuit or semi-closed circuit rebreather scuba systems allow recycling of exhaled gases; the volume of gas used is reduced compared to that of open circuit, so a smaller cylinder or cylinders may be used for an equivalent dive duration.
Rebreathers extend. Scuba diving may be done recreationally or professionally in a number of applications, including scientific and public safety roles, but most commercial diving uses surface-supplied diving equipment when this is practicable. Scuba divers engaged in armed forces covert operations may be referred to as frogmen, combat divers or attack swimmers. A scuba diver moves underwater by using fins attached to the feet, but external propulsion can be provided by a diver propulsion vehicle, or a sled pulled from the surface. Other equipment includes a mask to improve underwater vision, exposure protection, equipment to control buoyancy, equipment related to the specific circumstances and purpose of the dive; some scuba divers use a snorkel. Scuba divers are trained in the procedures and skills appropriate to their level of certification by instructors affiliated to the diver certification organisations which issue these certifications; these include standard operating procedures for using the equipment and dealing with the general hazards of the underwater environment, emergency procedures for self-help and assistance of a equipped diver experiencing problems.
A minimum level of fitness and health is required by most training organisations, but a higher level of fitness may be appropriate for some applications. The history of scuba diving is linked with the history of scuba equipment. By the turn of the twentieth century, two basic architectures for underwater breathing apparatus had been pioneered. Closed circuit equipment was more adapted to scuba in the absence of reliable and economical high pressure gas storage vessels. By the mid twentieth century, high pressure cylinders were available and two systems for scuba had emerged: open-circuit scuba where the diver's exhaled breath is vented directly into the water, closed-circuit scuba where the carbon dioxide is removed from the diver's exhaled breath which has oxygen added and is recirculated. Oxygen rebreathers are depth-limited due to oxygen toxicity risk, which increases with depth, the available systems for mixed gas rebreathers were bulky and designed for use with diving helmets; the first commercially practical scuba rebreather was designed and built by the diving engineer Henry Fleuss in 1878, while working for Siebe Gorman in London.
His self contained breathing apparatus consisted of a rubber mask connected to a breathing bag, with an estimated 50–60% oxygen supplied from a copper tank and carbon dioxide scrubbed by passing it through a bundle of rope yarn soaked in a solution of caustic potash, the system giving a dive duration of up to about three hours. This apparatus had no way of measuring the gas composition during use. During the 1930s and all through World War II, the British and Germans developed and extensively used oxygen rebreathers to equip the first frogmen; the British adapted the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus and the Germans adapted the Dräger submarine escape rebreathers, for their frogmen during the war. In the U. S. Major Christian J. Lambertsen invented an underwater free-swimming oxygen rebreather in 1939, accepted by the Office of Strategic Services. In 1952 he patented a modification of his apparatus, this time named SCUBA, which became the generic English word for autonomous breathing equipment for diving, for the activity using the equipment.
After World War II, military frogmen continued to use rebreathers since they do not make bubbles which would give away the presence of the divers. The high percentage of oxygen used by these early rebreather systems limited the depth at which they could be used due to the risk of convulsions caused by acute oxygen toxicity. Although a working demand regulator system had been invented in 1864 by Auguste Denayrouze and Benoît Rouquayrol, the first open-circuit scuba system developed in 1925 by Yves Le Prieur in France was a manually adjusted free-flow system with a low endurance, which limited its practical usefulness. In 1942, during th
In metallurgy, stainless steel known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable, is a steel alloy, with highest percentage contents of iron and nickel, with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass and a maximum of 1.2% carbon by mass. Stainless steels are most notable for their corrosion resistance, which increases with increasing chromium content. Additions of molybdenum increase corrosion resistance in reducing acids and against pitting attack in chloride solutions. Thus, there are numerous grades of stainless steel with varying chromium and molybdenum contents to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Stainless steel's resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, familiar luster make it an ideal material for many applications where both the strength of steel and corrosion resistance are required. Stainless steels are rolled into sheets, bars and tubing to be used in: cookware, surgical instruments, major appliances. Stainless steel's corrosion resistance, the ease with which it can be steam cleaned and sterilized, no need for surface coatings has influenced its use in commercial kitchens and food processing plants.
Stainless steels do not suffer uniform corrosion, like carbon steel, when exposed to wet environments. Unprotected carbon steel rusts when exposed to the combination of air and moisture; the resulting iron oxide surface layer is fragile. Since iron oxide occupies a larger volume than the original steel this layer expands and tends to flake and fall away exposing the underlying steel to further attack. In comparison, stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to undergo passivation, spontaneously forming a microscopically thin inert surface film of chromium oxide by reaction with the oxygen in air and the small amount of dissolved oxygen in water; this passive film prevents further corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and thus prevents corrosion from spreading into the bulk of the metal. This film is self-repairing if it is scratched or temporarily disturbed by an upset condition in the environment that exceeds the inherent corrosion resistance of that grade; the resistance of this film to corrosion depends upon the chemical composition of the stainless steel, chiefly the chromium content.
Corrosion of stainless steels can occur. It is customary to distinguish between 4 forms of corrosion: uniform, galvanic and SCC. Uniform corrosion takes place in aggressive environments chemical production or use and paper industries, etc; the whole surface of the steel is attacked and the corrosion is expressed as corrosion rate in mm/year Corrosion tables provide guidelines This is the case when stainless steels are exposed to acidic or basic solutions. Whether a stainless steel corrodes depends on the kind and concentration of acid or base, the solution temperature. Uniform corrosion is easy to avoid because of extensive published corrosion data or easy to perform laboratory corrosion testing. However, stainless steels are susceptible to localized corrosion under certain conditions, which need to be recognized and avoided; such localized corrosion is problematic for stainless steels because it is unexpected and difficult to predict. Acidic solutions can be categorized into two general categories, reducing acids such as hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid, oxidizing acids such as nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid.
Increasing chromium and molybdenum contents provide increasing resistance to reducing acids, while increasing chromium and silicon contents provide increasing resistance to oxidizing acids. Sulfuric acid is one of the largest tonnage industrial chemical manufactured. At room temperature Type 304 is only resistant to 3% acid while Type 316 is resistant to 3% acid up to 50 °C and 20% acid at room temperature, thus Type 304 is used in contact with sulfuric acid. Type 904L and Alloy 20 are resistant to sulfuric acid at higher concentrations above room temperature. Concentrated sulfuric acid possesses oxidizing characteristics like nitric acid and thus silicon bearing stainless steels find application. Hydrochloric acid will damage any kind of stainless steel, should be avoided. All types of stainless steel resist attack from phosphoric acid and nitric acid at room temperature. At high concentration and elevated temperature attack will occur and higher alloy stainless steels are required. In general, organic acids are less corrosive than mineral acids such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acid.
As the molecular weight of organic acids increase their corrosivity decreases. Formic acid is a strong acid. Type 304 can be used with formic acid. Acetic acid is the most commercially important of the organic acids and Type 316 is used for storing and handling acetic acid. Stainless steels Type 304 and 316 are unaffected by any of the weak bases such as ammonium hydroxide in high concentrations and at high temperatures; the same grades of stainless exposed to stronger bases such as sodium hydroxide at high concentrations and high temperatures will experience some etching and cracking. Increasing chromium and nickel contents provide increasing resistance. All grades resist damage from aldehydes and amines, though in the latter
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Dolphin is a common name of aquatic mammals within the order Cetacea, arbitrarily excluding whales and porpoises. The term dolphin refers to the extant families Delphinidae, Platanistidae and Pontoporiidae, the extinct Lipotidae. There are 40 extant species named as dolphins. Dolphins range in size from the 1.7 m long and 50 kg Maui's dolphin to the 9.5 m and 10 t killer whale. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, they have two limbs that are modified into flippers. Though not quite as flexible as seals, some dolphins can travel at 55.5 km/h. Dolphins use their conical shaped teeth to capture fast moving prey, they have well-developed hearing, adapted for both air and water and is so well developed that some can survive if they are blind. Some species are well adapted for diving to great depths, they have a layer of blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water. Although dolphins are widespread, most species prefer the warmer waters of the tropic zones, but some, like the right whale dolphin, prefer colder climates.
Dolphins feed on fish and squid, but a few, like the killer whale, feed on large mammals, like seals. Male dolphins mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a long period of time. Dolphins produce a variety of vocalizations in the form of clicks and whistles. Dolphins are sometimes hunted in places such as Japan, in an activity known as dolphin drive hunting. Besides drive hunting, they face threats from bycatch, habitat loss, marine pollution. Dolphins have been depicted in various cultures worldwide. Dolphins feature in literature and film, as in the film series Free Willy. Dolphins are sometimes trained to perform tricks; the most common dolphin species in captivity is the bottlenose dolphin, while there are around 60 captive killer whales. The name is from Greek δελφίς, "dolphin", related to the Greek δελφύς, "womb".
The animal's name can therefore be interpreted as meaning "a'fish' with a womb". The name was transmitted via the Latin delphinus, which in Medieval Latin became dolfinus and in Old French daulphin, which reintroduced the ph into the word; the term mereswine has historically been used. The term'dolphin' can be used to refer to, under the parvorder Odontoceti, all the species in the family Delphinidae and the river dolphin families Iniidae, Pontoporiidae and Platanistidae; this term has been misused in the US in the fishing industry, where all small cetaceans are considered porpoises, while the fish dorado is called dolphin fish. In common usage the term'whale' is used only for the larger cetacean species, while the smaller ones with a beaked or longer nose are considered'dolphins'; the name'dolphin' is used casually as a synonym for bottlenose dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin. There are six species of dolphins thought of as whales, collectively known as blackfish: the killer whale, the melon-headed whale, the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale, the two species of pilot whales, all of which are classified under the family Delphinidae and qualify as dolphins.
Though the terms'dolphin' and'porpoise' are sometimes used interchangeably, porpoises are not considered dolphins and have different physical features such as a shorter beak and spade-shaped teeth. Porpoises share a common ancestry with the Delphinidae. A group of dolphins is called a "school" or a "pod". Male dolphins are called "bulls", females "cows" and young dolphins are called "calves". Parvorder Odontoceti, toothed whales Family Platanistidae Ganges and Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica with two subspecies Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor Family Iniidae Amazon river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis Orinoco river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis humboldtiana Araguaian river dolphin, Inia Araguaiaensis Bolivian river dolphin, Inia boliviensis Family Lipotidae Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer Family Pontoporiidae La Plata dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei Family Delphinidae, oceanic dolphins Genus Delphinus Long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis Genus Tursiops Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus Burrunan dolphin, Tursiops australis, a newly discovered species from the sea around Melbourne in September 2011.
Genus Lissodelphis Northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis Southern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis peronii Genus Sotalia Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis Costero, Sotalia guianensis Genus Sousa Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis Chinese white dolphin, Sousa chinensis chinensis Atlantic humpback dolphin, Sousa teuszii Genus Stenella Atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis Clymene dolphin, Stenella clymene Pantropical