Trinidad is a town in the province of Sancti Spíritus, central Cuba. Together with the nearby Valle de los Ingenios, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1988, Trinidad was founded on December 23,1514 by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar under the name Villa de la Santísima Trinidad. Hernán Cortés recruited men for his expedition from Juan de Grijalvas home in Trinidads and this included Pedro de Alvarado and his five brothers. After ten days, Cortes sailed, the alcayde Francisco Verdugo failing to prevent Cortes from leaving, Francisco Iznaga, a Basque landowner in the southern portion of Cuba during the first 30 years of the colonization of Cuba, was elected Mayor of Bayamo in 1540. Iznaga was the originator of a lineage which finally settled in Trinidad where the Torre Iznaga is. His descendants fought for the independence of Cuba and for annexation to the U. S. from 1820 to 1900, Trinidad is one of the best-preserved cities in the Caribbean from the time when the sugar trade was the main industry in the region.
The town proper is divided into the barrios of Primero, the whole municipality counts the consejos populares of Aguacate, Cabagán, Casilda, Guaniquical, Río de Ay, San Francisco, San Pedro, and Táyaba. Nowadays, Trinidads main industry is tobacco processing, the older parts of town are well preserved, as the Cuban tourism industry sees benefit from tour groups. In contrast, some parts of town outside the tourist areas are run down and in disrepair. Tourism from Western nations is major source of income in the city, the city is located on the Caribbean coast near the Escambray Mountains. Plaza Mayor The Plaza Mayor of Trinidad is a plaza and a museum of Spanish Colonial architecture. The Municipal History Museum is in town also, music There are several casas de musica, including one next to the cathedral in Plaza Major. There are discothèques, including one in the ruins of a church, Sugar mills The Valley of the Sugar Mills—Valle de los Ingenios, a World Heritage Site, has around 70 historic sugar cane mills.
They represent the importance of sugar to the Cuban economy since the 18th century, the valley has la Torre Iznaga, a 45 metres tower built by Alejo Iznaga Borrell in 1816. Coasts and beaches 20 kilometres from the city is Topes de Collantes, another attraction is the Casilda Bay, which attracts both snorkelers and divers. A nearby islet has pristine beaches, Ancón Beach—Playa Ancón, is a white sand beach and was one of the first new resorts to be developed in Cuba following the 1959 revolution. Along the Ancón Peninsula are three hotels, Hotel Costa Sur, Hotel Ancón, and Brisas Trinidad del Mar, in 2004, the municipality of Trinidad had a population of 73,466. With a total area of 1,155 km2, it has a density of 63. 6/km2
Isla de la Juventud
Isla de la Juventud is the second-largest Cuban island and the seventh-largest island in the West Indies. The island was called the Isle of Pines until 1978 and it has an area 2,200 km2 and is 50 km south of the island of Cuba, across the Gulf of Batabanó. The island lies almost directly south of Havana and Pinar del Río and is a Special Municipality, the island has only one municipality, named Isla de la Juventud. The largest of the 350 islands in the Canarreos Archipelago, the island has an population of 100,000. The capital and largest city is Nueva Gerona in the north, other communities include Columbia, La Demajagua, Mac Kinley, Cuchilla Alta, Punta del Este, Sierra de Caballos and Sierra de Casas. Little is known of the history of the island, though a cave complex near the Punta del Este beach preserves 235 ancient drawings made by the native population. The island first became known to Europeans in 1494 during Christopher Columbuss second voyage to the New World, columbus named the island La Evangelista and claimed it for Spain.
The island was known as Isla de Cotorras and Isla de Tesoros at various points in its history. Pirate activity in and around the left its trace in English literature. Following its defeat in the Spanish–American War and the Cuban War of Independence, the Platt Amendment of 1901, which defined Cubas boundaries for the purposes of U. S. authorities, left the ownership of Isla de la Juventud undetermined. This led to competing claims to the island by the United States, in 1907, the U. S. Supreme Court decided, in Pearcy v. Stranahan, that control of the island was a political decision, not a judicial one. In 1916, a pamphlet titled Isle of Pines, American or What, called for the U. S. to annex or purchase the island to settle the issue. In 1904, Cuba and the United States negotiated and signed the Hay-Quesada Treaty, which recognized Cubas ownership of the island. The U. S. Senate ratified this agreement on March 13,1925, over the objections of some four hundred United States citizens and companies, prior to 1976, the island was part of La Habana Province.
With the political and administrative reorganization of Cuban provinces in 1976, the island was given the status of special municipality. Fidel Castro presided at a changing the name of the island from Isla de Pinos to Isla de la Juventud on 3 August 1978. ”Much of the island is covered in pine forests. The northern region of the island has low ridges from which marble is quarried and fishing are the islands main industries, with citrus fruit and vegetables being grown. A black sand beach was formed by volcanic activity, the island has a mild climate, but is known for frequent hurricanes
The new provinces were enforced on January 1,2011. Mayabeque is made up of the 11 eastern municipalities of the former La Habana province, Mayabeque Province is named after the Mayabeque River as well as the south shore of Mayabeque beach, the place believed to be the original location of Havana village that was founded in 1514. Thus, the new province became the smallest and least populated province in the country, the new provinces were enforced in January 1,2011. Mayabeques economy is based on agriculture and livestock farming, particularly milk production and it has a relevant industry sector located mainly in San José de las Lajas and Santa Cruz del Norte. Products include building materials, electrical cables, rubber industry, glass vessels, food processing, paper processing, bio-pharmaceuticals, fishing products, and oil and gas extraction. The province has two large Havana Club rum factories, power plants, and sugar mills, as well as important scientific institutions and an agricultural science university
Oriente was one of six provinces of Cuba until 1976. It was known as Santiago de Cuba Province before 1905, the name is still used to refer to the eastern part of the country. The provincial capital was Santiago de Cuba, Fidel and Raúl Castro were born there. The province was split up in 1976, with the administrative re-adjustment proclaimed by Cuban Law Number 1304 of July 3,1976, the province comprises 22 municipalities and is Cuba’s largest province containing about one third of the country’s population. Oriente Province is in the most eastern region of Cuba with a population of 1,797,606 and it stretches across 14,641 square miles and consists of various mountain ranges with the Sierra Maestra region having Cuba’s highest mountain peak and elevation in Pico Turquino. Oriente Province is the cradle of much of Cuba’s history being the place of Fidel, José Martí was killed in battle in Dos Ríos and many guerrllla wars have taken place in Oriente. Cuba’s first guerilla-style war was in 1523, against the advancing Spaniards in the Sierra Maestra Mountains.
Some of Cuba’s oldest cities are in Oriente Province and carry a rich history of Cuba’s struggle for independence, open warfare broke out after an independence movement and lasted from 1867 to 1878. Slavery was finally abolished in 1886, but life for many Afro-Cubans remains a struggle, after the occupation of the Spanish ended in 1899, Oriente Province became a refuge for Afro-Cubans. Oriente had the highest number of land owners and renters with 96% of the population being native-born. Afro-Cubans constituted as many as 26% of the land workers, of the total land owned by Afro-Cubans, 75% were in Oriente Province. Even though Afro-Cubans fared better in Oriente, poverty was rampant in the province and they remained oppressed by wealthy Cubans. Sugar and coffee were the agricultural products produced. And at the highest there were forty-one sugar mills throughout the region. Foreign investors saw opportunity within the province and began to buy as much land as possible to increase sugar production, as investors bought land, local farmers were pushed out and frustration increased.
Poverty grew and by May 1912 Cubans in Oriente Province had reached a boiling point, massive demonstrations erupted and Afro-Cubans began to loot and burn businesses and property owned by foreign investors. In response, the Cuban government sent in the army to burn the property of the Afro-Cubans, within two years, half of the sugar mills in Oriente were owned by U. S. investors. Cuba´s national hero, José Martí called for a multiracial republic, timeline of Santiago de Cuba El Oriente de Cuba Baracoa Guantanamo Santiago de Cuba Holguin
Pedro Felipe Figueredo, mostly known as Perucho was a Cuban poet and freedom fighter of the 19th century. In the 1860s, he was active in the planning of the Cuban uprising against the Spanish known as the Ten Years War and he wrote the Cuban national anthem, El Himno de Bayamo, in 1867. He was captured during the war and executed on 17 August 1870 and his daughter Candelaria Figueredo became a hero of the uprising by carrying the new independent Cuban flag into battle at Bayamo in 1868. Perucho site Learn about his life and the lives of his family. Himno Bayamés Coleccion arreglada para canto y piano, por el maestro J. Marin Varona. From Sibley Music Library Digital Scores Collection
City farms are agricultural plots in urban areas, which involve people working with animals and plants to produce food. City farms are usually community-run gardens which aim to improve community relationships and offer an awareness of agriculture, City farms are important sources of food security for many communities around the globe. City farms vary in size from small plots in private yards to larger farms that occupy a number of acres, in 1996, a United Nations report estimated there are over 800 million people worldview who grow food and raise livestock in cities. Today, it is estimated more than three million people visit city farms each year and around half a million people work on them as volunteers. Although some city farms have paid employees, most rely heavily on volunteer labour, other city farms operate as partnerships with local authorities. City farms allow urban dwellers to produce food from animals and plants, at the intersection of production and awareness, city farms are often the focus for educational and conservation outreach and activities.
During the 1960s a number of community gardens were established in the United Kingdom, the first city farm was set up in 1972 in Kentish Town, London. It combined farm animals with gardening space, an inspired by childrens farms in the Netherlands. Other city farms followed across London and there are now over sixty city farms in the United Kingdom, in Australia, several city farms exist in various capital cities. In Melbourne in 1979 the Collingwood Childrens Farm was established on the Abbotsford Precinct Heritage Farmlands, in London, the city farms now have a show at an agricultural college called Capel Manor every September. There are around a thousand community gardens and seventy-five school farms in the UK, together with city farms they are represented by The Federation of City Farms and Community Gardens. The Access to Farms scheme is a project to enable access to working farms. Allotments provide space for individuals and groups within urban areas. City farm refers to City Farm, a three quarter acre bio-intensive farm on the Southside of Providence, Rhode Island and this is one element of the Southside Community Land Trust.
At the City Farm, crops are both for donation to local charities and for selling at local farmers markets. The City Farm is a site where childrens groups from the Greater Providence area come for education on local farming. Alternative urban futures, planning for development in cities throughout the world. ISBN 0-7425-2366-7 Federation of City Farms & Community Gardens European Federation of City Farms
Provinces of Cuba
Administratively, Cuba is divided into 15 provinces and a special municipality thats not included in any province. The last modification was approved in August 2010, splitting Havana province into two new provinces and Mayabeque, the new provinces started functioning from January 1,2011. Havana City Province recovered its original name, La Habana, Isla de la Juventud was known until the 1970s as the Isla de Pinos. The provinces were created in 1879 by the Spanish colonial government, from 1879 to 1976, Cuba was divided into 6 provinces, which maintained with little changes the same boundaries and capital cities, although with modifications in official names. These historical provinces are the following, Pinar del Río La Habana, included the city of Havana, current Mayabeque, some municipalities of current Artemisa Province, contained the present-day provinces of Las Tunas, Holguín, Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo Pop. Source, Cuba census 2002 Presidents of the Provincial Assemblies of Peoples Power in each province in the country
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Cienfuegos is one of the provinces of Cuba. The capital city of the province is called Cienfuegos and was founded by French settlers in 1819, until 2011 Cienfuegos was the smallest province in Cuba with an economy almost entirely dedicated to the growing and processing of sugar. Sugar mills and sugarcane plantations dot the landscape, there are waterfalls in the sierra of the province. Scuba diving off Cienfuegos province is popular both with tourists and locals. There are numerous caves, and well over 50 dive sites in the province. The provinces of Cienfuegos, Sancti Spíritus, and Villa Clara were once all part of the now defunct province of Santa Clara, in 2004, the province of Cienfuegos had a population of 398,647. With a total area of 4,180 km2, the province had a density of 95. 37/km2
Havana is the capital city, largest city, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet, the sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592, walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city. The sinking of the U. S. battleship Maine in Havanas harbor in 1898 was the cause of the Spanish–American War. Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one, Old Havana and the suburban districts. The city is the center of the Cuban government, and home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses, the current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba. In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country, the city attracts over a million tourists annually, the Official Census for Havana reports that in 2010 the city was visited by 1,176,627 international tourists, a 20% increase from 2005.
Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982, the city is noted for its history, culture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana features a tropical climate, in May 2015, Havana was officially recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Vigan, Doha, La Paz, Durban and Kuala Lumpur. Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names, an alternate theory is that Habana is derived from the Middle Dutch word havene, referring to a harbour, etymologically related to the English word haven. All attempts to found a city on Cubas south coast failed, however, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river. The town that became Havana finally originated adjacent to what was called Puerto de Carenas, the quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havanas harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name, the name combines San Cristóbal, patron saint of Havana.
Shortly after the founding of Cubas first cities, the served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a port, and suffered regular attacks by buccaneers, pirates. The first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555, ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the bay fueled Havanas agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food, water. On December 20,1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City, on, the city would be officially designated as Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies by the Spanish Crown
The Cauto River or Río Cauto, located in southeast Cuba, is the longest river of Cuba. It flows on a length of 370 km from the Sierra Maestra to the west and north-west. However, it provides only 110 km of transport waterway and it flows through the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Granma, and the communities of Palma Soriano, Cauto Cristo and Rio Cauto are located along the river. It is one of the two rivers in Cuba. The other, Río Sagua la Grande, is the 2nd longest river in Cuba and is not drinkable like the Río Cauto. Media related to Cauto River at Wikimedia Commons