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Languages Bikol, Ilocano, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Visayan, other Philippine languages
Time period
c. 13th century–18th century[1][2]
Parent systems
Sister systems

Directly related modern alphabets:
Other family relationships unclear. Sister alphabets on hypothesis of common Kawi origin:

Direction Left-to-right
ISO 15924 Tglg, 370
Unicode alias

Baybayin (Tagalog pronunciation: [baɪˈbaɪjɪn]; Pre-kudlit: ᜊᜊᜌᜒ, Post-kudlit: ᜊᜌ᜔ᜊᜌᜒᜈ᜔; known in Visayan as badlit (ᜊᜇ᜔ᜎᜒᜆ᜔), known in Ilocano as kur-itan/kurditan, and known in Kapampangan as kudlitan, is an ancient Philippine script derived from Brahmic scripts of India and first recorded in the 16th century.[3] It continued to be used during the early part of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines until largely being supplanted by usage of the Latin alphabet. The alphabet is well known because it was carefully documented by Catholic clergy living in the Philippines during the colonial era.

The term baybay literally means "to spell" in Tagalog. Baybayin was extensively documented by the Spanish,[4] some have incorrectly attributed the name Alibata to it,[5][6] but that term was coined by Paul Rodríguez Verzosa[3] after the arrangement of letters of the Arabic alphabet (alif, ba, ta (alibata), "f" having been eliminated for euphony's sake).[7]

Other Brahmic scripts used currently among different ethnic groups in the Philippines are Buhid, Hanunó'o, Kulitan and Tagbanwa.

Baybayin is one of a number of individual writing systems used in Southeast Asia, nearly all of which are abugidas where any consonant is pronounced with the inherent vowel a following it—diacritics being used to express other vowels (this vowel occurs with greatest frequency in Sanskrit, and also probably in all Philippine languages). Many of these writing systems descended from ancient alphabets used in India over 2000 years ago, although Baybayin does share some similarities with these ancient alphabets,[clarification needed] there are evidence to suggest that it is older than pre-Spanish rule.[3]

The Archives of the University of Santo Tomas in Manila, one of the largest archives in the Philippines, currently possesses the biggest collection of extant ancient Baybayin alphabets in the world.[8][9][10] The chambers which house the scripts is part of a tentative nomination to UNESCO World Heritage List that is still being deliberated on, along with the entire campus of the University of Santo Tomas.



Baybayin was noted by the Spanish priest Pedro Chirino in 1604 and Antonio de Morga in 1609 to be known by most Filipinos, and was generally used for personal writings, poetry, etc. However, according to William Henry Scott, there were some datus from the 1590s who could not sign affidavits or oaths, and witnesses who could not sign land deeds in the 1620s.[11] There is no data on when this level of literacy was first achieved, and no history of the writing system itself due to Spanish destroying the history of Philippines and stamped their religion, on thing is for certain, the language was there pre-Spanish rule. There are at least six theories about the origins of Baybayin.


The Kawi script originated in Java, and was used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia.

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines

It is a legal document with the inscribed date of Saka era 822, corresponding to April 21, 900 AD Laguna Copperplate Inscription, it was written in the Kawi script in a variety of Old Malay containing numerous loanwords from Sanskrit and a few non-Malay vocabulary elements whose origin is ambiguous between Old Javanese and Old Tagalog. One hypothesis therefore reasons that, since Kawi is the earliest attestation of writing on the Philippines, then Baybayin may be descended from Kawi.

A second example of Kawi script can be seen on the Butuan Ivory Seal, though it has not been dated.

An earthenware burial jar, called the "Calatagan Pot," found in Batangas is inscribed with characters strikingly similar to Baybayin, and is claimed to have been inscribed ca. 1300 AD. However, its authenticity has not yet been proven.

Many of the writing systems of Southeast Asia descended from ancient scripts used in India over 2000 years ago, although Baybayin shares some important features with these scripts, such as all the consonants being pronounced with the vowel a and the use of special marks to change this sound, there is no evidence that it is so old.

The shapes of the baybayin characters bear a slight resemblance to the ancient Kavi script of Java, Indonesia, which fell into disuse in the 15th century. However, as mentioned earlier in the Spanish accounts, the advent of the Baybayin in the Philippines was considered a fairly recent event in the 16th century and the Filipinos at that time believed that their Baybayin came from Borneo.

This theory is supported by the fact that the Baybayin script could not show syllable final consonants, which are very common in most Philippine languages. (See Final Consonants) This indicates that the script was recently acquired and had not yet been modified to suit the needs of its new users. Also, this same shortcoming in the Baybayin was a normal trait of the script and language of the Bugis people of Sulawesi, which is directly south of the Philippines and directly east of Borneo, thus most scholars believe that the Baybayin may have descended from the Buginese script or, more likely, a related lost script from the island of Sulawesi.

Although one of Ferdinand Magellan's shipmates, Antonio Pigafetta, wrote that the people of the Visayas were not literate in 1521, the Baybayin had already arrived there by 1567 when Miguel López de Legazpi reported that, “They [the Visayans] have their letters and characters like those of the Malays, from whom they learned them.” B1 Then, a century later Francisco Alcina wrote about:

The characters of these natives, or, better said, those that have been in use for a few years in these parts, an art which was communicated to them from the Tagalogs, and the latter learned it from the Borneans who came from the great island of Borneo to Manila, with whom they have considerable traffic... From these Borneans the Tagalogs learned their characters, and from them the Visayans, so they call them Moro characters or letters because the Moros taught them... [the Visayans] learned [the Moros'] letters, which many use today, and the women much more than the men, which they write and read more readily than the latter.[12]

But other sources say that the Visayans derived their writing system from those of Toba, Borneo, Celebes, Ancient Java, and from the Edicts of the ancient Indian emperor Ashoka.[13]

Old Sumatran "Malay" scripts[edit]

Another hypothesis states that a script or script used to write one of the Malay languages was adopted and became Baybayin; in particular, the Pallava script from Sumatra is attested to the 7th century.[14]

Old Assamese[edit]

The eastern nāgarī script was a precursor to devanāgarī. This hypothesis states that a version of this script was introduced to the Philippines via Bengal, before ultimately evolving into baybayin.


Finally, an early Cham script from Champa — in what is now southern Vietnam and southeastern Cambodia — could have been introduced or borrowed and adapted into Baybayin.[citation needed]


A Filipino dha sword inscribed with Baybayin characters.

The writing system is an abugida system using consonant-vowel combinations, each character, written in its basic form, is a consonant ending with the vowel "A". To produce consonants ending with the other vowel sounds, a mark is placed either above the consonant (to produce an "E" or "I" sound) or below the consonant (to produce an "O" or "U" sound), the mark is called a kudlit. The kudlit does not apply to stand-alone vowels. Vowels themselves have their own glyphs. There is only one symbol for D or R as they were allophones in most languages of the Philippines, where R occurred in intervocalic positions and D occurred elsewhere. The grammatical rule has survived in modern Filipino, so that when a d is between two vowels, it becomes an r, as in the words dangál (honour) and marangál (honourable), or dunong (knowledge) and marunong (knowledgeable), and even raw for daw (he said, she said, they said, it was said, allegedly, reportedly, supposedly) and rin for din (also, too) after vowels.[3] This variant of the script is not used for Ilokano, Pangasinan, Bikolano, and other Philippine languages to name a few, as these languages have separate symbols for D and R.

Writing materials[edit]

Traditionally, baybayin was written upon palm leaves with styli or upon bamboo with knives,[15] the curved shape of the letterforms of baybayin is a direct result of this heritage: straight lines would have torn the leaves.[16] During the era of Spanish colonization, most baybayin began being written with ink on paper, but in some parts of the country the traditional art form has been retained.[17]

Significant examples[edit]

The Monreal stone, which is the centerpiece at the Baybayin section of the National Museum of Anthropology.

The Ticao Stone Inscription , also known as the Monreal stone or Rizal stone, is a limestone tablet that contains Baybayin characters. Found by pupils of Rizal Elementary School on Ticao Island in Monreal town, Masbate, which had scraped the mud off their shoes and slippers on two irregular shaped limestone tablets before entering their classroom, they are now housed at a section of the National Museum, which weighs 30 kilos, is 11 centimeters thick, 54 cm long and 44 cm wide while the other is 6 cm thick, 20 cm long and 18 cm wide.[18][19]

Two styles of writing[edit]

Pages of the Doctrina Christiana, an early Christian book in Spanish and Tagalog (1593)

Virama Kudlit "style"[edit]

The original writing method was particularly difficult for the Spanish priests who were translating books into the vernaculars, because of this, Francisco López introduced his own kudlit in 1620, called a sabat, that cancelled the implicit a vowel sound. The kudlit was in the form of a "+" sign,[20] in reference to Christianity, this cross-shaped kudlit functions exactly the same as the virama in the Devanagari script of India. In fact, Unicode calls this kudlit the Tagalog Sign Virama. See sample above in Characteristics Section.

"Nga" character[edit]

A single character represented "nga", the current version of the Filipino alphabet still retains "ng" as a digraph.


Words written in baybayin were written in a continuous flow, and the only form of punctuation was a single vertical line, or more often, a pair of vertical lines (||), these vertical lines fulfill the function of a comma, period, or unpredictably separate sets of words.[3]

Pre-colonial and colonial usage[edit]

Baybayin historically was used in Tagalog and to a lesser extent Kapampangan speaking areas, its use spread to Ilokanos when the Spanish promoted its use with the printing of Bibles. Related scripts, such as Hanunóo, Buhid, and Tagbanwa are still used today, along with Kapampangan script.

Among the earliest literature on the orthography of Visayan languages were those of Jesuit priest Ezguerra with his Arte de la lengua bisaya in 1747[21] and of Mentrida with his Arte de la lengua bisaya: Iliguaina de la isla de Panay in 1818 which primarily discussed grammatical structure.[22] Based on the differing sources spanning centuries, the documented syllabaries also differed in form.

Modern usage[edit]

The insignia of the Order of Lakandula contains an inscription with Baybayin characters represents the name Lakandula.

Baybayin script, while recognizable, is generally not understood in the Philippines, though the practice is still used to date by certain autonomous tribes in the country in Northern Luzon and South Eastern Visayas.[citation needed] The characters are still used artistically and as a symbol of Filipino heritage, some cultural and activist groups use Baybayin versions of their acronyms alongside the use of Latin script, which is also sometimes given a baybayin-esque style. Baybayin tattoos and brush calligraphy are also popular.

It is used in the most current New Generation Currency series of the Philippine peso issued in the last quarter of 2010. The word used in the bills was "Pilipino" (ᜉᜒᜎᜒᜉᜒᜈᜓ).

It is also used in Philippine passports, the odd pages of pages 3-43 have "Ang katuwiran ay nagpapadakila sa isang bansa"/"Righteousness exalts a nation" in reference to Proverbs 14:34 (ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜃᜆᜓᜏᜒᜍᜈ᜔ ᜀᜏ᜔ ᜈᜄ᜔ᜉᜉᜇᜃᜒᜎ ᜐ ᜁᜐᜅ᜔ ᜊᜌᜈ᜔).

Baybayin influence may also explain the preference for making acronyms from initial consonant-vowel pairs of the component words, rather than the more common use of just the first letter.

A number of legislative bills have been proposed periodically aiming to promote the writing system, none of which have yet been passed into law.






b ᜊ᜔


k ᜃ᜔


d/r ᜇ᜔


g ᜄ᜔


h ᜑ᜔


l ᜎ᜔


m ᜋ᜔


n ᜈ᜔


ng ᜅ᜔


p ᜉ᜔


s ᜐ᜔


t ᜆ᜔


w ᜏ᜔


y ᜌ᜔

Punctuation and Spelling[edit]

The words and sentences of Old Tagalog are the roots of the Modern Tagalog language, some of the words and sentences have evolved over time (like the word Babuy or Pig, which became Baboy in modern Tagalog), but some of the words in Old Tagalog (like Budhi and Hari or King), have survived and are in common use in Modern Tagalog.

Baybayin writing makes use of only one punctuation mark, the Philippine double punctuation ().[23]

Baybayin characters IPA / Pronunciation Transcription in Latin / Translation to Modern Tagalog
ᜀᜍᜂ *arãɜ (arao) Araw (Sun/Days)
ᜀᜐᜓ *ǎĵû (Asu) Aso (Dog)
ᜀᜄ᜔ᜑᜋ᜔᜵ᜆᜎ *áRĥAm tAĵá (Aghamtala) (Kalendaryo, Calendar)
ᜀᜄ᜔ᜑᜋ᜔ *áRĥAm Agham' (Syensya, Science)
ᜀᜐᜓᜏᜅ᜔ *aʂũɐ̯n̩ Aswang (Ghoul/Monster)
ᜊᜓᜎᜏᜈ᜔ *bUlɐ̯ɜn̩ (Bulawan) Ginto (Gold)
ᜊᜓᜇ᜔ᜑᜒ *bɘɖjɞ̯ (Budhi) Bodhi (Konsensya) Conscience)
ᜊᜓᜎᜅᜌ᜔ *bɒlɐ̯ɲAj (Balangay) Barangay
ᜊᜓᜈ᜔ᜏ *bɐ̃n̪wɛ (Banua) Pook/Vanua (Village)
ᜊᜆ᜔ᜑᜎ *bɐtʜãʟ̩a Bathala (God/Deity)
ᜊᜊᜌ᜔ᜎᜈ᜔ *bãɓɜjaɲ̩ Babaylan (Priestess)
ᜊᜌᜒ *bãjɜ̯ (Bayi) Babae (Woman/Girl/Lady)
ᜊᜎᜌ᜔ *ba̯Lãj (Balay) Bahay (House/Structure/Buildings)
ᜊᜊᜓᜌ᜔ *babə̃j (Babuy) Baboy (Pig)
ᜊᜃ *bàKa (Baka)* Cow, Cattle. Ox, Bull
ᜇᜆᜓ * dàTǒ (Datu)* (Lordships)
ᜇᜌᜅ᜔ *dãjãɳ (Dayang) Reyna (Queen) or Prinsesa (Princess)
ᜇᜒᜃᜒ *dəkət Dikit (adhesive/stick)
ᜇᜓᜍᜓ / ᜇᜓᜄᜓ *zuRuʔ Dugo (Blood)
ᜇᜇ᜔ᜌ *rɑːdʒɑ Radya / Raha (Raja)*
ᜄᜓᜎᜓᜆ᜔ *ɠUlu̯t (golot') Kabundukan (Mountain Ranges)
ᜁᜎᜓᜄ᜔ *ĔlÓg Ilog (River)
ᜄᜍᜓᜇ *gAŕUda Garuda
ᜎᜅᜒᜆ *jəŋ̍eʃ Langit (Sky, Heaven, Nirvana)
ᜑᜍᜒ *ʜãRi (Hari) Hari (King, Emperor)
ᜑᜎᜒᜃ᜔ *hajək Halik (Kiss)
ᜎᜃᜈ᜔ *lákáN Lakan (King, Emperor)
ᜎᜓᜈᜆᜒᜀᜈ᜔ *jɜnTiãn (luntian) Luntian (Lush)/ Berde (Green)
ᜃᜒᜈᜍ *kěnÀřá Kinara (Kinnara) (Celestial beings)
ᜃᜎᜊᜒᜃ *kɘjaɓiká Kalabika, Kalavinka (Celestial beings)
ᜃᜏᜎ᜔ *kão̯ɐL (Kaual) Kawal (Knight)
ᜋᜓᜆᜒᜌ *ɱuʈɪa (mutiya) Mutya or Perlas (Pearl)
ᜋᜅ᜔ᜋᜅ᜔ *Mɐnɠ-Mɑŋɠ Mang mang (Fool) / Bobo (Stupid)
ᜉᜈ᜔ᜆᜐ᜔ *pãɳ̩ta̯ʂ Pantas (Genius/Wise/Gifted)
ᜉᜓᜂᜇ᜔ *pũɜd (Puod) Bayan (Town)
ᜉᜉᜄᜌᜓ *papɐgAyɔ (Papagayo) Karpintero (Carpenter)
ᜅᜎᜒᜈ᜔ *ŋɡajan (Ngalan) Pangalan (Name)
ᜐᜈ᜔ᜇᜒᜄ᜔ *sɑ̃n̩dĩg (Sandig) Sundalo (Soldier)
ᜐᜓᜏᜀᜍ᜔ᜈ *jəɜrnā (Suwarna) Ginto (Gold)
ᜆᜎ *táĹa Tala (Star / Tara (deity))
ᜆᜓᜊᜒᜍ᜔ *tubiR Tubig (Water)
ᜆᜍᜅ᜔ᜃᜑᜈ᜔ *taRãŋkaħɐ̃ɳ Tarangkahan (Gate)
ᜆᜒᜋᜋᜈᜓᜃ *TěGmāmənùKən Tigmamanukan (Eagle, Bird, Omen)
ᜌᜌ *ĵáĴá Yaya (Nurse/ Care giver)
ᜌᜈ᜔ᜆᜓᜃ᜔ *yÁńTók Yantok (Stick / Pole / Rod /Batog)
ᜌᜓᜆ *yəʃa Yuta (Cloth)

Example sentences[edit]

"ᜌᜋᜅ᜔ ᜇᜒ ᜈᜄ᜔ᜃᜃᜂᜈᜏᜀᜈ᜔᜵ ᜀᜌ᜔ ᜋᜄ᜔ ᜉᜃᜑᜒᜈᜑᜓᜈ᜔᜶"

Yamáng 'di nagkaka-unawaan, ay mag paká-hinahon".

(They that have misunderstanding should stay calm.)

"ᜋᜄ᜔ᜆᜈᜒᜋ᜔ ᜀᜌ᜔ ᜇᜒ ᜊᜒᜍᜓ"

Magtanim ay 'di birò.

(Farming is not a joke.)

"ᜋᜋᜑᜎᜒᜈ᜔ ᜃᜒᜆ ᜑᜅ᜔ᜄᜅ᜔ ᜐ ᜉᜓᜋᜓᜆᜒ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜊᜓᜑᜓᜃ᜔ ᜃᜓ"

Mámahalin kita hanggang sa pumutí ang buhok ko.

(I will love you until my hair turns white.)


In the Doctrina Cristiana, the letters of Baybayin were collated as A O/U E/I H P K S L T N B M G D/R Y NG W.[24]

In Unicode the letters are collated as A I U Ka Ga Nga Ta Da Na Pa Ba Ma Ya La Wa Sa Ha.[25]


The Lord's Prayer (Ama Namin)[edit]

Baybayin script Latin script English translation

ᜀᜋ ᜈᜋᜒᜈ᜔ ᜐᜓᜋᜐᜎᜅᜒᜆ᜔ ᜃ,

ᜐᜋ᜔ᜊᜑᜒᜈ᜔ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜅᜎᜈ᜔ ᜋᜓ;

ᜋᜉᜐᜀᜋᜒᜈ᜔ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜃᜑᜇᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜋᜓ;

ᜐᜓᜈ᜔ᜇᜒᜈ᜔ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜎᜓᜂᜊ᜔ ᜋᜓ

ᜇᜒᜆᜓ ᜐ ᜎᜓᜉ, ᜉᜇ ᜈᜅ᜔ ᜐ ᜎᜅᜒᜆ᜔.

ᜊᜒᜄ᜔ᜌᜈ᜔ ᜋᜓ ᜃᜋᜒ ᜅᜌᜓᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜀᜋᜒᜅ᜔ ᜃᜃᜈᜒᜈ᜔ ᜐ ᜀᜇᜂ ᜀᜇᜂ;

ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜉᜆᜏᜍᜒᜈ᜔ ᜋᜓ ᜃᜋᜒ ᜐ ᜀᜋᜒᜅ᜔ ᜋᜅ ᜐᜎ

ᜉᜍ ᜈᜅ᜔ ᜉᜄ᜔ᜉᜉᜆᜏᜇ᜔ ᜈᜋᜒᜈ᜔ ᜐ ᜋᜅ ᜈᜄ᜔ᜃᜃᜐᜎ ᜐ ᜀᜋᜒᜈ᜔;

ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜑᜓᜏᜄ᜔ ᜋᜓ ᜃᜋᜒ ᜁᜉᜑᜒᜈ᜔ᜆᜓᜎᜓᜆ᜔ ᜐ ᜆᜓᜃ᜔ᜐᜓ,

ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜁᜀᜇ᜔ᜌ ᜋᜓ ᜃᜋᜒ ᜐ ᜎᜑᜆ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜋᜐᜋ.

ᜐᜉᜄ᜔ᜃᜆ᜔ ᜁᜌᜓ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔, ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜃᜉᜅ᜔ᜌᜍᜒᜑᜈ᜔, ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜃᜇᜃᜒᜎᜀᜈ᜔, ᜋᜄ᜔ᜉᜃᜌ᜔ᜎᜈ᜔ᜋᜈ᜔.

ᜀᜋᜒᜈ᜔/ᜐᜒᜌ ᜈᜏ.

Ama namin, sumasalangit ka,
Sambahin ang ngalan mo.
Mapasaamin ang kaharian mo,
Sundin ang loob mo,
Dito sa lupa para nang sa langit.
Bigyan mo kami ngayon ng aming kakanin sa araw-araw.
At patawarin mo kami sa aming mga utang,
Para nang pagpapatawad namin sa mga nagkakautang sa amin.
At huwag mo kaming ipahintulot sa tukso
Bagkus iadya mo kami sa masama. Siya nawa.

Our Father who art in heaven,
Hallowed be Thy name.
Thy kingdom come,
They will be come,
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread;
And forgive us our debts,
As we also have forgiven our debtors;
And lead us not into temptation,
But deliver us from evil. Amen.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights[edit]

Baybayin script Latin script English translation

{{Script|Tglg|ᜐᜎᜋᜆ᜔ ᜋᜑᜎ᜔ ᜃᜓ

Ang lahat ng tao'y Isi nilang na malaya at pantay-pantay sa karangalan at mga karapatan.
Sila'y pinagkalooban ng katwiran at budhi at dapat magpalagayan,
ang isa't isa sa diwa ng pagkakapatiran.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act,
towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Motto of the Philippines[edit]

Baybayin script Latin script English translation


Makakalikasan, at

For God,
For People,
For Nature, and
For Country

Baybayin script Latin script English translation
ᜁᜐᜅ᜔ ᜊᜈ᜔ᜐ᜵
ᜁᜐᜅ᜔ ᜇᜒᜏ

Isang Bansa,
Isang Diwa

One Country,
One Spirit


Baybayin was added to the Unicode Standard in March, 2002 with the release of version 3.2.


The Unicode block for Baybayin, called Tagalog, is U+1700–U+171F:

Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Representation of the character "Ra"[edit]

Although it violates the Unicode Standard,[26] U+170D is becoming the de facto standard for representing the character Ra (), due to its use as such in commonly available Baybayin fonts.[27]

Philippines National Keyboard Layout with Baybayin[edit]

It is now possible to type Baybayin directly from the keyboard, without the need to use online typepads, the Philippines National Keyboard Layout[28] includes different sets of Baybayin layout for different keyboard users. QWERTY, Capewell-Dvorak, Capewell-QWERF 2006, Colemak, and Dvorak, all available in Microsoft Windows and GNU/Linux 32-bit and 64-bit installations.

The keyboard layout with Baybayin can be downloaded at this page.

Baybayin in Philippine politics and legislation[edit]

Baybayin bills, House Bill no.4395 of Pampanga 2nd district representative Leopoldo N. Bataoil and Senate Bill 1899 of by Senator Loren Legarda, which are also known as the National Script Act of 2011, has been filed in the 15th Congress since 2011. However, it did not pass in the 15th Congress due to the focus of government during that time on other legislation and national scandals such as the impeachment against the Chief Justice.

They were refiled again in the 16th Congress, however, failed to pass again due to the focus of the government on the Bangsamoro Basic Law, which eventually failed due to another conflict which caused the deaths of Filipino soldiers.

It was refiled in the 17th Congress of the Philippines through Senate Bill 433 by Senator Loren Legarda and House Bill 1018 by Pampanga 2nd district representative Leopoldo N. Bataoil in 2016, it aims to declare Baybayin as the national script of the Philippines. The bill mandates to put a Baybayin translation under all business and government logos, it also mandates all primary and secondary schools to teach Baybayin to their students, a move that would save the ancient script from pure extinction and revitalize the indigenous writing roots of Filipinos. The writing system being pursued by the bills is a modernized version of the Baybayin which incorporates the common segments of numerous indigenous writing forms throughout the country, the system is a more nationalistic approach due to its comprehensive range, contrary to reports saying the bill will create further enhance regional or cultural disintegration.[29][30][31]

The House of Representative version of the bill has been pending with the Committee on Civil Service and Professional Regulation (chaired by Batangas 5th district representative Mario Vittorio "Marvey" A. Mariño) since August 1, 2016, the Senate version of the bill has been pending with the Committee on Cultural Communities (chared by Sen. Maria Lourdes Nancy S. Binay) and the Committee on Education, Arts and Culture (chaired by Sen. Francis "Chiz" G. Escudero) since August 8, 2016, it has not moved from those committees for more than a year.[32]

There is also a proposal, wherein should the baybayin bill be passed into law and that the education system of the Philippines mandates the teaching of baybayin in all school levels, another bill shall be filed, where all indigenous ethnic writing systems and scripts shall be taught in specific schools as well, the new bill shall save the dying writing system of indigenous communities and will establish a tri-writing system in those communities, where the community will know their own indigenous writing system, the baybayin writing system, and the Roman writing system. Examples of such ethnic-based writing systems are the Kudlit of the Kapampangans and the Hanunuo of the Hanunuo Mangyans.[33]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Tagalog (Baybayin)". SIL International. Retrieved October 10, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Tagalog". Retrieved October 10, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Morrow, Paul. "Baybayin, the Ancient Philippine script". MTS. Archived from the original on August 8, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2008. .
  4. ^ Scott 1984, pp. 57–58.
  5. ^ Halili, Mc (2004). Philippine history. Rex. p. 47. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9. 
  6. ^ Duka, C (2008). Struggle for Freedom' 2008 Ed. Rex. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-971-23-5045-0. 
  7. ^ Baybayin History, Baybayin, archived from the original on June 11, 2010, retrieved May 23, 2010 .
  8. ^ Archives, University of Santo Tomas, archived from the original on May 24, 2013, retrieved June 17, 2012 .
  9. ^ "UST collection of ancient scripts in 'baybayin' syllabary shown to public", Inquirer, retrieved June 17, 2012 .
  10. ^ UST Baybayin collection shown to public, Baybayin, retrieved June 18, 2012 [permanent dead link].
  11. ^ Scott 1984, p. 210
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Baybayin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Isabelo de los Reyes y Florentino, Las Islas Visayas en la Época de la Conquista (Segunda edición), Manila: 1889, Tipo-Litografía de Chofké y C.a, p. 82.
  14. ^ "Bahasa Melayu Kuno". Bahasa Malaysia Online Learning Resource. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  15. ^ Filipinas. Filipinas Pub. 1995-01-01. p. 60. 
  16. ^ "Cochin Palm Leaf Fiscals". Princely States Report > Archived Features. 2001-04-01. Retrieved 2017-01-25. 
  17. ^ Lazaro, David (2009-10-23). "The Fundamentals of Baybayin". BakitWhy. Retrieved 2017-01-25 – via The Bathala Project. 
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ Tagalog script Archived August 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed September 2, 2008.
  21. ^ P. Domingo Ezguerra (1601–1670) (1747) [c. 1663]. Arte de la lengua bisaya de la provincia de Leyte. apendice por el P. Constantino Bayle. Imp. de la Compañía de Jesús. 
  22. ^ Trinidad Hermenegildo Pardo de Tavera (1884). Contribución para el estudio de los antiguos alfabetos filipinos. Losana. 
  23. ^ "Chapter 17: Indonesia and Oceania". The Unicode Standard, Version 10.0 (PDF). Mountain View, CA: Unicode, Inc. June 2016. p. 662. ISBN 978-1-936213-16-0. 
  24. ^ "Doctrina Cristiana". Project Gutenberg. 
  25. ^
  26. ^ The Unicode Standard, Version 6.2.0 (PDF). Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium. September 2012. p. 69. 
  27. ^ "Modern Alphabet and Baybayin -Final Version | Flickr - Photo Sharing". Flickr. 
  28. ^ "Philippines National Keyboard Layout". The Hæven of John™. 
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^

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