Eilean Chaluim Chille
Eilean Chaluim Chille is an unpopulated island in the Outer Hebrides. It lies off the east coast of Lewis at the mouth of Loch Erisort. At low tide Eilean Chaluim Chille is connected by a causeway to the mainland of Lewis at Crobeag. At the southern end of the island lie the ruins of St Columba's Church; this was once an important centre of religion, being cited in a report of 1549 as the main place of worship for the parish of Lochs. There was a church there from about 800 AD, built by St Columba's followers. St Columba died on Iona in 597 AD; the cemetery was in use until 1878. Eilean Chaluim Chille is protected by Historic Scotland as an ancient monument
Great Bernera known just as Bernera, is an island and community in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. With an area of just over 21 km2, it is the thirty-fourth largest Scottish island. Great Bernera lies in Loch Roag on the north-west coast of Lewis and is linked to it by a road bridge. Built in 1953, the bridge was the first pre-stressed concrete bridge in Europe; the main settlement on the island is Breaclete. The island, under the name of "Borva", was the setting for A Princess of Thule by the Scottish novelist William Black; the novel is notable for its descriptions of the local scenery. The island's name is Norse in origin and is derived in honour of Bjarnar, father of the Norse Chieftain of Lewis Ketil Bjarnarson; the vast majority of placenames in the district are Norse, implying extensive Viking settlement. The most common name on Great Bernera is MacDonald, these are said to be descended from a watchman of the Macaulays of Uig, who gave him the island in return for his services. Since 1962, the island has been owned by Robin de la Lanne-Mirrlees, a former Queen's Herald, recognised as Laird of Bernera.
He inherited the title Prince of Coronata and died in 2012. His home Bernera Lodge was at Kirkibost. In the south east of the island is the first planned crofting township in the Outer Hebrides, it was created in 1805 by the regular allotting of individual crofts by the Earl of Seaforth's land surveyor, James Chapman. The tenants of this planned village were all evicted in 1823 and the publication of the first edition of the Ordnance Survey rather poignantly showed the deserted village and the original parallel croft boundaries; the village was re-settled in 1878 and the original boundaries are still in use today. Callanish VIII is a unique standing stone arrangement near the bridge between Lewis and Bernera, set out in a semicircle, it is known locally as Tursachan, which means "Standing Stones". The ruins of Dun Barraglom broch are nearby. Bernera is known for its Iron Age settlement at Bostadh, discovered in 1992 and now covered by sand so that it is preserved. A replica Iron Age house matching those now buried is sited nearby.
Bostadh Beach is the location of a Time and Tide Bell, one of a series of installations by Marcus Vergette. The island was the location of the Bernera Riot of 1874, when crofters resisted the Highland clearances; this was a peasant revolt and subsequent legal case which resulted in a victory for oppressed small-tenants against the heavy-handed evictions and treatment by Donald Munro, the factor of Sir James Matheson. The islanders refused to agree to an ever-increasing diminishing grazings allowance in favour of expanding sporting estates, were in turn threatened with a military visit; this did not occur, but more eviction notices were handed out, the visitors were pelted with clods of earth. The legal case was the first recorded victory for small-tenants at will and the evidence, heard at the eleven-hour trial paved the way for land reform in Scotland; the island is 8 kilometres long by 3 kilometres wide, the length being oriented from north west to south east. The coast is much indented and there are numerous fresh water bodies such as Loch Barabhat, Loch Breacleit and Loch Niocsabhat.
The highest point is the eminence of Sealabhal Bhiorach south of Bostadh and north of Tobson that reaches 87 metres. There are deposits of tremolite asbestos. An example of a rock of tremolite on muscovite from Great Bernera is shown in the photograph to the right; the western side of the island is included in the South Lewis and North Uist National Scenic Area. There are many islands in Loch Roag. To the west, from north to south are Pabaigh Mòr, Fuaigh Mòr, Fuaigh Beag. To the north, the island of Bearnaraigh Beag, a number of islets. To the east, there are not so many islands. Sea life is rich where there is tidal run between the Caolas Bhalasaigh and the inner sea-loch of Tòb Bhalasaigh. There are numerous molluscs, sponges and sea stars, the latter growing noticeably larger in size than normal. Cup coral, snakelocks anemone and dead man's fingers coral, may be found here. Common fish include shanny and butterfish and Atlantic and common seals are regular off-shore visitors. Great Bernera hosts numerous seabird species, including gulls and ducks such as goldeneye.
More unusually, a jack snipe was observed on the island in 2007. Great Bernera's population is dependent on lobster fishing and tourism. There is a Primary school located in Breacleit. Fertile machair pasture permits sheep and cattle grazing. A processing plant was built at Kirkibost in 1972. There are still some weavers but this is no longer one of the main industries. Breacleit is home to a small museum, mini-mart & off licence, school, a post office, community centre with café, petrol station, fire station and doctor's surgery. Communications were much improved during the 20th century; the first telephone was installed on Lewis in 1897 and outlying villages were connected. Great Bernera was the last exchange to link to Lewis with an earth return; the bridge to the island from Lewis was built in 1953. It is said to be the first one of pre-stressed concrete in Europe, it was constructed after the islanders threatened to dynamite the hillside to create a causeway of their own making.. The bridge is sometimes referred to
A burn is a watercourse. The term burn is used in Scotland and England and in parts of Ulster and New Zealand; the cognate of burn in standard English is "bourn", "bourne", "borne", "born", retained in placenames like Bournemouth, King's Somborne, Melbourne. A cognate in German is Born, meaning "well", "spring" or "source", retained in placenames like Paderborn in Germany. Both the English and German words derive from the same Proto-Germanic root. Scots Gaelic has the word bùrn cognate, but which means "fresh water".
Scottish Fire and Rescue Service
The Scottish Fire and Rescue Service is the national fire and rescue service of Scotland. It was formed by the merger of eight regional fire services in the country on 1 April 2013, it thus became the largest fire brigade in the United Kingdom, surpassing the London Fire Brigade After a consultation, the Scottish Government confirmed on 8 September 2011 that a single fire and rescue service would be created in Scotland to replace the eight existing services. Following further consultation on the detailed operation of the service, the Police and Fire Reform Bill was published on 17 January 2012. After scrutiny and debate by the Scottish Parliament, the legislation was approved on 27 June 2012; the Bill duly received royal assent as the Police and Fire Reform Act 2012. This Act created Police Scotland in place of the previous eight regional police forces; the mergers were effective from 1 April 2013. Eight months after the consolidation, an internal report said the reorganisation had not negatively affected operational response.
The service is headquartered in Cambuslang, South Lanarkshire, which houses a national training centre opened in January 2013. There are a further three service delivery centres in the east and north of the country. On 16 August 2012 the Scottish Government confirmed the first chief fire officer of the new service would be Alasdair Hay acting chief fire officer of Tayside Fire and Rescue Service, following an open recruitment exercise. Pat Watters, former president of the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities, was announced as chair of the service, an appointment to run for three years from September 2012. Members of the SFRS Board appointed in October 2012 were Watters, Bob Benson, James Campbell, Kirsty Darwent, Marieke Dwarshuis, Michael Foxley, Robin Iffla, Bill McQueen, Sid Patten, Neil Pirie, Martin Togneri and Grant Thoms; the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service attended 25,002 fires in 2014/15. The service delivers a preventative programme, with 65,343 free home fire safety visits conducted in 2015/16.
As well as fighting fires, the service attends tens of thousands of specialist services such as road traffic collisions, water rescues and flooding incidents. In 2014/15 it attended 10,740 non-fire incidents; the service works alongside other emergency services during flooding events to ensure the safety of communities and rescue people in difficulty, with specialist swift water rescue teams positioned on major waterways and areas of activity. Firefighters are called out to water and boat rescues. For example, during Storm Frank in December 2015 the SFRS received 350 flood related calls in the space of six days. In 2015 the SFRS were called out to 78 wildfire incidents in total, with over half of those taking place in the north of Scotland. In 2015 a national trial was launched, in partnership with the Scottish Ambulance Service, which has seen firefighters at certain stations receive enhanced CPR training aimed at increasing survival rates for people who suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.
As of March 2016, the SFRS operates 356 stations throughout Scotland. Stations are split into three categories: Wholetime: A station with full-time firefighters. Retained: Part-time, on a call-out basis and predominantly based in some of the more rural areas of Scotland. Volunteer: On a call-out basis and predominantly based in some of the more remote villages and islands; the most northerly station is Baltasound on the Shetland Islands. The most southerly is a volunteer station in the village of Drummore in Galloway; the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service National Training Centre opened in January 2013. The facility in Cambuslang features a mock town with realistic motorways, railway tracks and buildings, including a multi-storey tenement structure; the following services were merged to create the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service: Central Scotland Fire and Rescue Service and Galloway Fire and Rescue Service, Fife Fire and Rescue Service, Grampian Fire and Rescue Service and Islands Fire and Rescue Service and Borders Fire and Rescue Service, Strathclyde Fire and Rescue, Tayside Fire and Rescue Service.
The number of control rooms handling 999 calls was reduced from eight to three. The consolidation of regional call centres has resulted in a number of dispatching errors. For example, in December 2016 a crew from Raasay was mobilised to an incident on Skye – a journey that would have required taking their fire engine on a ferry – despite an alternative crew being able to reach Skye directly via a road bridge. On another occasion, a crew from Beauly was sent to a blaze 10 miles away in Dingwall as the dispatcher was unaware Dingwall had its own fire station, her Majesty's Fire Service Inspectorate for Scotland Mountain Rescue Committee of Scotland List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Official website BBC news report, 29 March 2013: Why Grampian is losing its unusual white fire engines, other questions... Consultation document: Keeping Scotland Safe and Strong: A Consultation on Reforming Police and Fire and Rescue Services in Scotland Police and Fire Reform Bill
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Harris, Outer Hebrides
Harris is the southern and more mountainous part of Lewis and Harris, the largest island in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland. Although not an island itself, Harris is referred to as the Isle of Harris, the former postal county and the current post town for Royal Mail postcodes starting HS3 or HS5. St Kilda, an uninhabited small archipelago, located 40 miles west-northwest of North Uist is considered part of the civil parish of Harris; the same is true for the remote uninhabited rock islet Rockall, 230 miles west of North Uist. According to the 2011 Census, there are 1,212 Gaelic speakers in Harris. Harris is most to be the island referred to as Adru on Ptolemy's map of the British Isles. In Old Norse, a Hérað was a type of administrative district, the name may derive from that. An alternative origin is the Norse Hærri, meaning "higher" - a reference to the high hills in comparison with the much flatter Lewis lying to the north. Most of the place names on Harris are Gaelicized Old Norse; the Gaelic name "Na Hearadh" was an earlier term for the Rinns of Islay.
Harris divides into northern and southern parts which are separated by West and East Loch Tarbert. These halves are joined by a narrow isthmus at the main settlement of Tarbert; the bedrock of Harris is Lewisian gneisses, which were laid down in the Precambrian period, interspersed with igneous intrusions. One of these intrusions forms the summit plateau of the mountain Roinebhal; the rock here is anorthosite, is similar in composition to rocks found in the mountains of the Moon. Harris is a part of historic Inverness-shire, was administered as such under older administrative divisions. In the 2001 census, Harris had a resident population of 1,916, it is part of the South Lewis and North Uist National Scenic Area, one of 40 in Scotland. North Harris, adjoining Lewis, contains Clisham, the highest mountain in the Outer Hebrides at 799 metres; the area is sparsely populated. Beyond Tarbert, the furthest settlement is Hushinish on the west coast. A bridge from the east coast links Harris to the island of Scalpay.
In March 2003 the 25,300-hectare North Harris Estate was purchased by the North Harris Trust, a development trust, on behalf of the local community. In April 2006 the Trust hosted the Highlands and Islands Community Energy Company conference "Community Energy: Leading from the Edge" in Tarbert. In early 2008 the Trust received planning consent for three 86 metre wind turbines to be located at Monan. In 2008 Mike Russell, the Scottish environment minister announced that the North Harris Trust had begun canvassing local opinion about a proposal to create Scotland's third national park in the area; the southern part of Harris is less mountainous, with numerous unspoilt, white sandy beaches on the west coast. Its main settlements are Rodel, known for its medieval kirk of St. Clement, the most elaborate surviving medieval church in the Hebrides after Iona Abbey, Leverburgh. A ferry sails from the latter to Berneray, an island off the coast of North Uist, to which it is joined by a causeway; the east coast of south Harris is known as the Bays.
The best known section called the "Golden Road" as it cost so much money to build, when it was built in 1897. It runs from Miavaig via Drinishader, Grosebay and Cluer to Stockinish. From Stockinish the road is the Bays and meanders through the coastal townships of Lickisto, Manish, Ardvay and Lingerbay; the beaches of Luskentyre and Scarista are amongst the most spectacular. From the former the island of Taransay, where the BBC Television series Castaway 2000 was recorded, is seen most from Harris. At Scarista the beach is a venue for kite buggying. Nearby the Harris Golf Club offers well kept greens and views of the hills, but there is no play on Sundays. Scarista is the birthplace of the author Finlay J. MacDonald, who wrote about growing up on Harris in the 1930s, his books: Crowdie and Cream and White and The Corncrake and the Lysander paint a vivid and humorous picture of Hebridean life. Tarbert is the main port and main settlement of Harris, with a population of about 550; the name Tarbert comes from the Norse tairbeart meaning "portage" or "isthmus".
It is located on an isthmus between West Loch Tarbert. The village has a ferry terminal, local tourist information and some small shops, including a Harris Tweed shop overlooking the main access road to the CalMac ferry terminal and a general grocery store; the island of Scalpay is located at the mouth of East Loch Tarbert. It was known for its fishing industry, though little of that remains; the island was linked to Harris when the Scalpay Bridge was opened in 1997, connecting Scalpay to the settlement of Kyles on Harris. Media attention has been drawn to angling on Harris, Tarbert in particular. Local fishermen have been targeting large Common Skate in the area and have had prolific catches from West Loch Tarbert, in autumn and winter. There is an application for the Scottish shore record of 183 pounds although a fish estimated at 204 pounds was landed; these catches have attracted the attention of the local and national press and sea angling's leading magazines. In common with many parts of the Highlands and Islands, Harris has numerous single-track roa
Stornoway is the main town of the Western Isles and the capital of Lewis and Harris in Scotland. The town's population is around 8,000, making it by far the largest town in the Hebrides, as well as the second largest island town in Scotland after Kirkwall in Orkney; the traditional civil parish of Stornoway, which includes various nearby villages, has a combined population of just over 10,000. Stornoway is administrative centre of the Outer Hebrides, it is home to Comhairle nan Eilean Siar and a variety of educational and media establishments. Observance of the Christian Sabbath has long been an aspect of the island's culture. Recent changes mean that Sunday on Lewis now more resembles Sunday on the other Western Isles or the mainland of Scotland; the town was founded by Vikings with the Old Norse name Stjórnavágr. The settlement grew up around a sheltered natural harbour near the centre of the island. At some point in the mid 1500s, the ancient MacLeod castle in Stornoway'fell victim to the cannons of the Duke of Argyle'.
By the early 1600s rumbling trade wars came to a head, all further government attempts to curtail traditional shipping rights were resisted by the islanders, as was an attempt by James VI, King of Scotland, to establish on the island the Scottish trading company known as the Fife Adventurers around 1598. As a result, James VI transferred Lewis to the MacKenzies of Seaforth in 1610. In 1844, the MacKenzies sold Stornoway, the Isle of Lewis as a whole, to Sir James Matheson who built the present Lews Castle on a hill overlooking the bay of Stornoway. Fragmentary ruins of the old Stornoway Castle had survived in the bay until that time, can be seen in Victorian photographs, but Matheson destroyed them in 1882, in order to expand the harbour. In 1918, Matheson sold the island to 1st Viscount Leverhulme. Lord Leverhulme held the island for a short time, his economic plans for the island overstretched his finances. Faced with failure in Lewis, he gave; the Stornoway Trust continues to administer the parish for the people.
Today the harbour hosts a fishing fleet somewhat reduced from its heyday, a small marina and moorings for pleasure craft, a small shipyard and slipway, three larger piers for commercial traffic and Stornoway Lifeboat Station, run by the RNLI and home to a Severn-class lifeboat, Tom Sanderson. Her Majesty's Coastguard operates a Maritime Rescue Sub Centre from a building near the harbour. A lighthouse, seaweed processing plant and a renewable energy manufacturing yard are situated on Arnish Point at the mouth of the harbour and visually dominate the approaches. Arnish Point is earmarked by AMEC as the landfall for its proposed private sub-sea cable which would export the electricity generated from the Lewis Windpower wind farm with a planning application for 181 turbines submitted to the Scottish Executive. In 2008 the Scottish Government rejected the plans - the company responsible is planning their next move; the Arnish area was surveyed by SSE for a second sub-sea cable but lost out in favour of Gravir to the south as the preferred site.
SSE prefers Arnish Point as of 2016. The manufacturing yard was established in the 1970s as a fabrication plant for the oil industry but suffered regular boom and bust cycles; the downturn in business from the North Sea oil industry in recent years led to a move away from serving this market. The yard is now earmarked as a key business in the development of the whole Arnish Point industrial estate and has received large amounts of funding in recent years. In 2007 the Arnish yard was taken over by its third tenant in as many years. Cambrian Engineering fell into liquidation as did Aberdeen-owned Camcal Ltd with large-scale redundancies. Both firms were affected by the absence of a regular stream of orders and left a chain of large debts impacting upon local suppliers. Altissimo Ltd is a new firm backed by a group of Swiss and Dutch investors, has purchased the Camcal name from the previous operator. In December 2007, the yard won a contract to construct 49 towers for wind turbines in Turkey; this will ensure employment for around 70 employees for over six months.
On 1 January 1919, the Iolaire sank at the entrance of the harbour, one of the worst maritime disasters in Scottish or UK waters, with a death toll of 205 men, who were returning home from World War I. Like much of the British Isles, Stornoway has an oceanic climate, with little variation of temperature and damp conditions throughout the year.. Winters are exceptionally mild for such a northerly location. Summers are cool. Precipitation falls as rain, October through January are the wettest months due to frequent, sometimes intense storms from the North Atlantic, which can bring heavy rain and high winds. April through July represents a markedly drier season, when storm frequency and intensity diminish markedly. Ju