Bayonne is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. It is located at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers in the northern part of the cultural region of the Basque Country, as well as the southern part of Gascony where the Aquitaine basin joins the beginning of the Pre-Pyrenees. Together with nearby Anglet, Saint-Jean-de-Luz, several smaller communes, Bayonne forms an urban area with 288,359 inhabitants at the 2012 census, 45,855 of whom lived in the city of Bayonne proper; the site on the left bank of the Nive and the Adour was occupied before ancient times as a fortified enclosure was attested in the 1st century at the time when the Tarbelli occupied the territory. Archaeological studies have confirmed the presence of a Roman castrum, a stronghold in Novempopulania at the end of the 4th century before the city was populated by the Vascones. In 1023 Bayonne was the capital of Labourd and, in the 12th century, extended to and beyond the Nive.

At that time the first bridge was built over the Adour. The city came under the domination of the English in 1152 through the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine: it became militarily and, above all, commercially important thanks to maritime trade, it was separated from the Viscount of Labourd in 1177 by Richard the Lion Heart. In 1451 the city was taken by the Crown of France after the Hundred Years' War; the loss of trade with the English and the silting up of the river as well as the movement of the city towards the north weakened it. The district of Saint-Esprit developed anyway thanks to the arrival of a Jewish population fleeing the Spanish expulsions dictated by the Alhambra Decree. From this community Bayonne gained its reputation for chocolate; the course of the Adour was changed in 1578 under the direction of Louis de Foix and the river returned to its former mouth, returning business lost to Bayonne for over a hundred years. In the 17th century the city was fortified by Vauban. In 1814 Bayonne and its surroundings were the scene of fighting between the Napoleonic troops and the Spanish-Anglo-Portuguese coalition led by the Duke of Wellington: the city underwent its final siege.

In 1951 the Lacq gas field was discovered whose extracted sulphur and associated oil are shipped from the port of Bayonne. During the second half of the 20th century many housing estates were built forming new districts on the periphery and the city was extended to form a conurbation with Anglet and Biarritz: this agglomeration became the heart of a vast Basque-Landes urban area. Bayonne was, in 2014, a commune with over 45,000 inhabitants, the heart of the urban area of Bayonne and of the Agglomeration Côte Basque-Adour which includes Anglet and Biarritz, it is an important part of the Basque Bayonne-San Sebastián Eurocity and it plays the role of economic capital of the Adour basin. Modern industry—metallurgy and chemicals—are established to take advantage of procurement opportunities and sea shipments through the harbour. Business services today represent the largest source of employment. Bayonne is a cultural capital, a city with strong Basque and Gascon influences and a rich historical past.

Its heritage lies in its architecture, the diversity of collections in museums, its gastronomic specialties, traditional events such as the famous Fêtes de Bayonne. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bayonnaises. Bayonne is located in the south-west of France on the western border between Basque Country and Gascony, it developed at the confluence of the Adour and tributary on the left bank, the Nive, 6 km from the Atlantic coast. The commune was part of the Basque province of Labourd. Bayonne occupies a territory characterized by a flat relief to the west and to the north towards the Landes forest, tending to raise towards the south and east; the city has developed at the confluence of the Nive 6 kilometres from the ocean. The meeting point of the two rivers coincides with a narrowing of the Adour valley. Above this the alluvial plain extends for nearly thirty kilometres towards both Tercis-les-Bains and Peyrehorade, is characterized by swampy meadows called barthes which are influenced by floods and high tides.

Downstream from this point the river has shaped a large bed in the sand dunes creating a significant bottleneck at the confluence. The occupation of the hill that dominates this narrowing of the valley developed through a gradual spread across the lowlands by building embankments and the aggradation from flood soil; the Nive has played a leading role in the development of the Bayonne river system in recent geological time by the formation of alluvial terraces that form the sub-soil of Bayonne beneath the surface accumulations of silt and aeolian sands. The drainage network of the western Pre-Pyrenees evolved from the Quaternary from south-east to northwest oriented east-west; the Adour was captured by the gaves and this system, together with the Nive, led to the emergence of a new alignment of the lower Adour and the Adour-Nive confluence. This capture has been dated to the early Quaternary. Before this capture the Nive had deposited pebbles from the Mindel glaciation of medium to large sizes that slowed erosion of the hills causing the bottleneck at Bayonne.

After the deposit of the lowest alluvial terrace, the course of the Adour became fixed in its lower reaches. Subsequent to these deposits there was a rise in sea level in the Holocene period which explains the invasion of the lower valleys with fine sand and mud with a thickne

History of Malappuram

Malappuram District has a long history starting from the pre-historic times. The district was ruled by the Tamils and the British. After 1947, Malappuram became part of the Indian republic. Malappuram became a separate district in 1969. Caves found in Oorakam and Vengara show human settlements in pre-historic times. Ernad was ruled by the Tamil during the Sangam period; the king Zamorin of Calicut ruled Malappuram for some time. The chieftain of Zamorin Para Nambi ruled Malappuram with headquarters at Malappuram; the 800 year old rule of the Zamorin came to an end with the arrival of Hyder Ali from Mysore. His successor Tippu Sultan handed over the area to the British government, thus Malappuram became part of the British Malabar. The headquarters of the British garrison became the headquarters of the Malabar Special Police; the Moplas of Malappuram fought courageously against the British and their uprising is memorized in the Malappuram Nercha festival celebrated in every summer. The British built the first school of Malappuram and it was called Anglo Indian Vernacular School.

After India achieved Independence in 1947, Malappuram became part of the newly formed Kerala state. Malappuram became a separate district in 1969; the people of Malappuram conducted a heroic agitation to protect the river Chaliyar from pollution. The source of the pollution was the liquid waste coming from Gwalior Rayons factory at Mavoor; the leader of the agitation was K. A. Rahman and the the factory closed down and the river regained its vitality

Haskins Rifle

The Haskins Rifle known as the RAI 300 or Haskins M500 rifle was a bolt-action weapon designed by Jerry Haskins between 1981 and 1982 for snipers in the US Military. Unlike most military sniper rifles, the Haskins was purpose-built for the military, not reworked from an existing civilian firearm - another such sniper rifle was the Soviet SVD; the Haskins was developed from a US Army requirement for an antimaterial capability. Standard 7.62×51mm sniper rifles were unable to meet the penetration requirements. Several experimental cartridges were produced, culminating in a convertible lightweight bolt-action rifle able to use.50 caliber machine-gun cartridges, or a lighter, then-wildcat cartridge optimized for antipersonnel use, with some antimaterial ability. The US Army declined to purchase the lighter rifle, but purchased a small number of the.50 caliber rifles. They are now used by some United States Army Special Forces snipers; the Haskins m500 sniper rifle fires a.50 caliber round as far as 2 km and can still hit a target the size of a garbage bin.

Although not adopted in large numbers by the US, the weapon served as a testbed for new sniper ammunition. The cartridge used, the 8.58×71mm, was developed by the Lapua-Nammo Oy company in Finland into the.338 Lapua Magnum. The Haskins was a magazine-fed weapon, featuring a steel receiver with a rotating bolt; the bolt had 3 long lugs. The weapon could use one of two cartridges: the 7.62×51mm NATO and the 8.58×71 mm. Switching between calibers was simple, requiring that only the barrel and bolt head be replaced. William Brophy, an American Army Ordnance officer when discussing comparable weapons stated:The Haskins.50 caliber is a single shot rifle requiring the shooter to remove the bolt after each round is fired. The shooter places the rim of the cartridge into a slot on the bolt inserts this combination into the receiver; the Haskins is an accurate system. I have fired this weapon out to 1800 meters and acquired about an 80% first round hit probability; the weapon uses a removable muzzle brake, which at one time allowed the shooter to choose between several types of brakes.

A note of caution here to anyone encountering this system. It is possible to install the muzzle brake on backwards which will send the after shock directly onto the shooter and spotter; the Haskins featured a detachable scope mount, heavy precision barrel, a folding bipod, a adjustable trigger and could be disassembled for ease of carry and storage. The Haskins was used by the Provisional Irish Republican Army to fire upon British troops in Northern Ireland, it became feared. Research Armament Model 300 rifle at Research Armament Model 500 rifle at