Brooks Brothers is the oldest men's clothier in the United States and is headquartered on Madison Avenue in Manhattan, New York City. Founded in 1818 as a family business, the owned company is owned by the Italian billionaire Claudio Del Vecchio; the brand produces clothing for women, Zac Posen has been its creative director since June 2014. On April 7, 1818, at the age of 45, Henry Sands Brooks opened H. & D. H. Brooks & Co. on the northeast corner of Catherine and Cherry streets in Manhattan. He proclaimed that his guiding principle was, "To make and deal only in merchandise of the finest body, to sell it at a fair profit, to deal with people who seek and appreciate such merchandise." In 1833, his four sons, Daniel and John, inherited the family business and in 1850 renamed the company "Brooks Brothers." In its early history, Brooks Brothers was known for introducing the ready-to-wear suit to American customers. In the mid-nineteenth century, Brooks Brothers outfitted United States President Abraham Lincoln and considered him a loyal customer.
At his second inauguration, Abraham Lincoln wore a coat specially crafted for him by Brooks Brothers. Hand-stitched into the coat's lining was a design featuring an eagle and the inscription, "One Country, One Destiny." He was wearing a Brooks Brothers suit when he was assassinated. Brooks Brothers profited from slavery by manufacturing and selling clothes made for slaves to wear; as a supplier of soldiers' uniforms during the Civil War, Brooks Brothers became a target of outrage for its shoddy production. With a contract from New York state to supply uniforms for the New York Volunteers, Brooks Brothers took shredded and sometimes decaying rags, glued them together and stitched them into uniforms, they were the subject of ridicule from other regiments. Brooks Brothers has outfitted 41 of the 45 American Presidents. United States President Ulysses S. Grant began his association with Brooks Brothers during the Civil War, when he ordered tailored uniforms for the Union officers in the American Civil War.
President Theodore Roosevelt was fond of Brooks Brothers' clothes. Many more presidents, including Herbert Hoover, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Barack Obama were known to wear Brooks Brothers clothing lines. Franklin Roosevelt wore a Brooks Brothers collared cape and fedora at the Yalta Conference in 1945. In the late nineteenth century, Brooks Brothers tailored many distinctive uniforms for elite regiments of the New York National Guard, as well as uniforms for New York state troops and Union officers during the Civil War. At that time, contracts for uniforms were notorious as an example of corruption in how they were obtained and the poor quality of the clothing delivered, the uniforms having been made of pressed rag so that they fell apart in the first rains; the Golden Fleece symbol was adopted as the company's trademark in 1850. A sheep suspended in a ribbon had long been a symbol of British woolen merchants.
Dating from the fifteenth century, the image had been the emblem of the Knights of the Golden Fleece, founded by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. In classical Greek mythology, a magical flying ram, or Golden Fleece, was sought by Jason and the Argonauts; the last member of the Brooks family to head the company was Winthrop Holly Brooks, who ran the company from 1935 until its sale in 1946, when the company was acquired by Julius Garfinckel & Co. Although Winthrop Brooks remained with the company as a figurehead, after the acquisition, John C. Wood became the director of Brooks Brothers. Just prior to that, Wood had been the carrier of the papers for the Dumbarton Oaks Conference. Under the leadership of Wood, Brooks Brothers became more traditional. By 1971, eleven Brooks Brothers stores were in operation and located in Manhattan, Boston, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Washington, D. C. and St. Louis as an integral part of the retail conglomerate Garfinckel, Brooks Brothers, Miller & Rhoads, Inc. that held the company until 1981 when it was acquired by Allied Stores.
Brooks Brothers was acquired by the British firm, Marks & Spencer, in 1988. In 2001, Marks & Spencer sold Brooks Brothers to Retail Brand Alliance, now known as The Brooks Brothers Group, a company owned by Italian billionaire Claudio del Vecchio. Along with Brooks Brothers, RBA comprises Carolee, a designer of jewelry for department stores and specialty stores. In 2007, RBA sold its high end women's brand Adrienne Vittadini; as of 2015, there were 210 Brooks Brothers stores in the United States and 70 in other countries, including Australia, Taiwan, Japan, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, Italy, the Philippines, Mexico, UAE, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. In 1998, Brooks Brothers launched its official website. Headquartered on New York's Madison Avenue, United States flagship stores are in Manhattan, San Francisco, Chicago and Beverly Hills. Most of its clothing is now imported, but some suits, sport coats and accessories are manufactured in the United States. Many of its mid-range "1818" line of suits are manufactured at Brooks Brothers' Southwick plant in Haverhill, Massachusetts.
All Brooks Brothers necktie silk is woven in England or Italy, the ties still are "cut and piled" at the Brooks Brothers' tie factory in Long Island City, New York. Brooks has a series of books on
Scarborough Town Centre
The Scarborough Town Centre is a shopping mall in Toronto, Canada. Central to the Scarborough City Centre in the former city of Scarborough, it is adjacent to the Scarborough Centre station and Scarborough Centre Bus Terminal, it was constructed by Oxford Properties and opened in 1973 to become the sixth largest shopping mall in Canada, fourth largest in Ontario and third in Toronto by retail space. The mall is located on the north side of Albert Campbell Square, across from the Scarborough Civic Centre; the mall is served by Highway 401 and can be reached through a turnaround ramp on McCowan Road, Progress Avenue, Brimley Road. The TTC's Line 3 Scarborough has a station adjacent to the mall, Scarborough Centre, opened in 1985 with service running southwest to Kennedy station on the Bloor–Danforth line and east to McCowan Station. Scarborough Town Centre includes Hudson's Bay and Cineplex Cinemas as its anchors, it has more than 121,000 m2 and about 250 plus stores, making it the fourth-largest shopping centre in Greater Toronto, after Square One Shopping Centre, Yorkdale Shopping Centre, Toronto Eaton Centre.
Scarborough Town Centre is Toronto's east end. In addition to the RT, Scarborough Town Centre is a busy terminal for a number of TTC bus routes, as well as GO Transit; the mall itself and most of the land surrounding it are owned by OMERS pension fund under their Oxford Properties division. In 2006, ten prominent members of Scarborough's community were inducted into the Scarborough Walk of Fame, this was the first annual ceremony; the stars of the Walk of Fame are located behind the main atrium, in front of H&M. Formerly, they were located on a walkway between the food courts of the mall, on the upper level; the first inductees were burn-unit founder Dr. Lloyd N. Carlsen, educator Dr. R. H. King, NBA player Jamaal Magloire, pulmonary scientist Dr. Charles C. Macklin, artist Doris McCarthy, Lieutenant Governor of Ontario and former television personality, The Honourable David Onley, Olympic hockey player Vicky Sunohara, pioneer David Thomson, hip-hop artist Wes Williams, geriatric care entrepreneur Dr. Joseph Yu Kai Wong.
The mall was constructed in 1972 and was opened on May 2, 1973. At that time it included Simpson's and Eaton's. Miracle Food Mart, a supermarket was located in the mall. Scarborough Town Centre opened with 130 stores adjacent to the borough's administration buildings, it provided a central landmark in an otherwise newer suburban area of Toronto. Y-shaped, with its stem towards the Civic Centre, a second phase of construction added the northern department store and two wings; the construction added 22,000 m2 of retail space, was opened on August 8, 1979. In 1998-1999, the mall was expanded once again to allow retail space; the mall's latest renovation in 2010, branded "Lighten Up," gave retailers such as Victoria's Secret interests in retail space. Victoria's Secret have opened one of Canada's first Pink stores in the former Disney Store in July 2010. Other major retailers, Forever 21 and Aritzia, have replaced Birk's; the mall has the largest Zara store in the east GTA at 2,200 m2. On August 4, 2016, the new food court opened below the existing food court and was branded as TASTE MRKT.
The upper level of the food court is now closed and has reopened as a mall space with unique dining atmosphere for shoppers by offering more upscale, interior-patio style seating underneath the existing skylight. The Sears store closed in late 2017 as part of the liquidation of Sears Canadian operations; the Sears store is expected to be redeveloped by the mall in the future, though they have not yet said what is planned. The 1st floor has been remodeled into Urban Behavior. In 2018, the mall opened a Muji store near the Centre Court; the store is the 5th in the GTA. A Miniso opened outside of Walmart, in the former Roots Canada, which has relocated next to Aritzia. List of shopping malls in Canada List of shopping malls in Toronto List of largest enclosed shopping malls in Canada Oxford Properties Group
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct, distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and are in open air. Shopping malls in 2017 accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, numerous arcades in Paris are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or "malls" accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added.
As a single built structure, early shopping centers were architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used in Europe and South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are used. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, India, the term shopping mall is applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are referred to as shopping centres. Mall refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. In North America, mall is used to refer to a large shopping area composed of a single building which contains multiple shops "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more used in the United Kingdom, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street covered or between spaced buildings.
The majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.
There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, in forums where shopping markets were located. One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajan's Market in Rome located in Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market was built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, it is thought to be the world's oldest shopping center – a forerunner of today's shopping mall; the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, might be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, covered, dates from the 10th century; the 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history.
The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation for traders on various levels. Different rows specialized in different goods, such as'Bakers Row' or'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg, which opened in 1785, may be regarded as one of the first purposely-built mall-type shopping complexes, as it consisted of more than 100 shops covering an area of over 53,000 m2; the Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris still runs today. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England still runs today; the Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819; the Arcade
A big-box store is a physically large retail establishment part of a chain of stores. The term sometimes refers, by extension, to the company that operates the store; the store may sell general dry goods, in which case it is a department store, or may be limited to a particular specialty or may sell groceries, in which case some countries use the term hypermarket. Typical architectural characteristics include the following: Large, free-standing, cuboid single-floor structure built on a concrete slab; the flat roof and ceiling trusses are made of steel, the walls are concrete block clad in metal or masonry siding. The structure sits in the middle of a large, paved parking lot, it is meant to be accessed by vehicle, rather than by pedestrians. Floor space several times greater than traditional retailers in the sector, providing for a large amount of merchandise. In countries where space is at a premium, such as the United Kingdom, the relevant numbers are smaller and stores are more to have two or more floors.
Commercially, big-box stores can be broken down into two categories: general merchandise, specialty stores which specialize in goods within a specific range, such as hardware, books, or consumer electronics respectively. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, many traditional retailers—such as Tesco and Praktiker opened stores in the big-box-store format in an effort to compete with big-box chains, which are expanding internationally as their home markets reach maturity. Big-box development has at times been opposed by labor unions because the employees of such stores are not unionized. Unions such as the United Food and Commercial Workers Local 770 and the Joint Labor Management Committee of the Retail Food Industry have expressed concern about the grocery market because stores such as Kmart and Walmart now sell groceries. Unions and cities are attempting to use land-use ordinances to restrict these businesses; because it is inaccessible to pedestrians and can only be reached by motor vehicles, the big-box store has been criticized as unsustainable and a failure of urban planning.
The first company in Australia to use the big-box model was IKEA beginning operation in Australia in 1975. Bunnings Warehouse followed in 1995 and Mitre 10 Australia adopted the model with the "Mitre 10 Mega" stores first opening at Beenleigh, Queensland in 2004. Costco has since expanded across Australia since opening its first store in 2009. Apart from major American big-box stores such as Walmart Canada and now-defunct Target Canada, there are many retail chains operating in Canada; these include stores such as Hudson's Bay/Home Outfitters, Loblaws/Real Canadian Superstore, Winners/HomeSense, Canadian Tire/Mark's/Sport Chek, Shoppers Drug Mart, Chapters/Indigo Books and Music and many others. The indigenous Loblaw Companies Limited has expanded and multiplied its Real Canadian Superstore branded outlets to try to fill any genuine big-box market and fend off the damaging competition that a large Walmart penetration would inflict on Canadian-based retailers. In the early 21st century, commercial developers in Canada such as RioCan chose to build big-box stores in lieu of traditional shopping malls.
Examples include Deerfoot Meadows, Stonegate Shopping Centre and Preston Crossing, South Edmonton Common, Heartland Town Centre. There are more than 300 power centers, which contain multiple big-box stores, located throughout Canada. Most large grocery stores in China are of the big box variety, selling big screen TVs, mobile phones and clothing. Many foreign names appear, such as Carrefour, Tesco, Lotte Mart, Walmart, as well as dozens of Chinese chains. Most stores are three stories with moving sidewalk-style escalators; some stores are so large as to have 60 checkout terminals and their own fleet of buses to bring customers to the store at no charge. To contend against Carrefour, PARKnSHOP opened the first superstore in 1996 based on the concept of a wet market. Most superstores in Hong Kong emphasizes one-stop shopping, such as providing car park services. Today, PARKnSHOP has more than 50 superstores and megastores, making it the largest superstore network in Hong Kong; the first Wellcome superstore opened in 2000 and it has only 17 superstores.
In addition, CRC has four superstores in Hong Kong. However, because Hong Kong is a densely populated city, the sizes of superstores are smaller than those in other countries; some superstores are running at deficit, such as Chelsea Heights which therefore has stopped selling fresh fish. Furthermore, some PARKnSHOP superstores and megastores, such as Fortress World, belong to the same corporation, Hutchison Whampoa. Many configurations exist: the hypermarket that sells many kinds of goods under one roof, most of which are integrated within a shopping mall.
The National Post is a Canadian English-language newspaper. The paper is the flagship publication of Postmedia Network, is published Tuesdays through Saturdays, it was founded in 1998 by Conrad Black. Once distributed nationally, it began publishing a daily edition in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia, with only its weekend edition available in Manitoba and Saskatchewan; as of 2006, the Post is no longer distributed in the territories. Conrad Black built the National Post around the Financial Post, a financial newspaper in Toronto which Hollinger Inc. purchased from Sun Media in 1997. Financial Post was retained as the name of the new newspaper's business section. Outside Toronto, the Post was built on the printing and distribution infrastructure of Hollinger's national newspaper chain called Southam Newspapers, that included the newspapers Ottawa Citizen, Montreal Gazette, Edmonton Journal, Calgary Herald, Vancouver Sun; the Post became Black's national flagship title, Ken Whyte was appointed editor.
Beyond his political vision, Black attempted to compete directly with Kenneth Thomson's media empire led in Canada by The Globe and Mail, which Black and many others perceived as the platform of the Liberal establishment. When the Post launched, its editorial stance was conservative, it advocated a "unite-the-right" movement to create a viable alternative to the Liberal government of Jean Chrétien, supported the Canadian Alliance. The Post's op-ed page has included dissenting columns by ideological liberals such as Linda McQuaig, as well as conservatives including Mark Steyn and Diane Francis, David Frum. Original members of the Post editorial board included Ezra Levant, Neil Seeman, Jonathan Kay, Conservative Member of Parliament John Williamson and the author/historian Alexander Rose; the Post's magazine-style graphic and layout design has won awards. The original design of the Post was created by a design consultant based in Montreal; the Post now bears the motto "World's Best-Designed Newspaper" on its front page.
The Post was unable to maintain momentum in the market without continuing to operate with annual budgetary deficits. At the same time, Conrad Black was becoming preoccupied by his debt-heavy media empire, Hollinger International. Black divested his Canadian media holdings, sold the Post to CanWest Global Communications Corp, controlled by Israel "Izzy" Asper, in two stages – 50% in 2000, along with the entire Southam newspaper chain, the remaining 50% in 2001. CanWest Global owned the Global Television Network. Izzy Asper died in October 2003, his sons Leonard and David Asper assumed control of CanWest, the latter serving as chairman of the Post. Editor-in-chief Matthew Fraser departed in 2005 after the arrival of a new publisher, Les Pyette – the paper's seventh publisher in seven years. Fraser's deputy editor, Doug Kelly succeeded him as editor. Pyette departed seven months after his arrival, replaced by Gordon Fisher; the Post limited print distribution in Atlantic Canada in 2006, part of a trend to which The Globe and Mail and the Toronto Star, Canada's other two papers with inter-regional distribution, have all resorted.
Print editions were removed from all Atlantic Canadian newsstands except in Halifax as of 2007. Focussing further on its online publishing, in 2008, the paper suspended weekday editions and home delivery in Manitoba and Saskatchewan; the reorientation towards digital continued into its next decade. Politically, the Post has retained a conservative editorial stance although the Asper family has long been a strong supporter of the Liberal Party of Canada. Izzy Asper was once leader of the Liberal Party in his home province of Manitoba; the Aspers had controversially fired the publisher of the Ottawa Citizen, Russell Mills, for calling for the resignation of Liberal prime minister Jean Chrétien. However, the Post endorsed the Conservative Party of Canada in the 2004 election when Fraser was editor; the Conservatives narrowly lost that election to the Liberals. After the election, the Post surprised many of its conservative readers by shifting its support to the victorious Liberal government of prime minister Paul Martin, was critical of the Conservatives and their leader, Stephen Harper.
The paper switched camps again in the runup to the 2006 election. During the election campaign, David Asper appeared publicly several times to endorse the Conservatives. Like its competitor The Globe and Mail, the Post publishes a separate edition in Toronto, Canada's largest city and the fourth largest English-language media centre in North America after New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago; the Toronto edition includes additional local content not published in the edition distributed to the rest of Canada, is printed at the Toronto Star Press Centre in Vaughan. On September 27, 2007, the Post unveiled a major redesign of its appearance. Guided by Gayle Grin, the Post's managing editor of design and graphics, the redesign features a standardization in the size of typeface and the number of typefaces used, cleaner font for charts and graphs, the move of the nameplate banner from the top to the left side of Page 1 as well as each section's front page. In 2009, the paper announced that as a temporary cost-cutting measure, it would not print a Monday edition from July to September 2009.
On October 29, 2009, Canwest Global announced that due to a lack of funding, the National Post might close down as of October 30, 2009, subject to moving the paper to a new holding company. Late on October 29, 2009, Ontario Superior Court Justice Sarah Pepall ruled in Canwest's favour and allowed the paper to move into a holding company. Investment bankers hired by Canwest received no
Bridle Path, Toronto
The Bridle Path is an upscale residential neighbourhood in North York, Ontario, characterized by large multimillion-dollar mansions and two to four acre lot sizes. It is referred to as "Millionaires' Row", it is the most affluent neighbourhood in Canada with an average household income of $936,137, as well as by property values with an average dwelling value of $2.24M. Although "The Bridle Path" is in fact the name of a road in the area, the term applies to the neighbourhood as a whole, it is bounded by The Bridle Path on the north, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre on the south, Bayview Avenue on the west and Wilket Creek on the east. Few roads pass through the area. House prices in the Bridle Path are varied, it is a secluded neighbourhood, surrounded by lush parklands. The Bridle Path was little more than farmland until 1929, when the Bayview Bridge was constructed across the steep Don River Valley, it was at that point. Forsey Page, a Toronto-based land developer, envisioned the Bridle Path as an "exclusive enclave of estate homes" and he built the neighbourhood's first home, a Cape Cod Colonial style home at 2 The Bridle Path.
This house is credited as the catalyst for the development of the neighbourhood. In 1937, developer E. P. Taylor, who designed the Don Mills community, purchased a large plot of land north of the Bridle Path; the estate, named Windfields by his wife, is occupied today by the Canadian Film Centre. The park through which Wilket Creek flows behind this parcel of land is known as Windfields Park. In the late forties, Taylor's business partner George Montegu Black, Jr moved into the area and built a large mansion on Park Lane Circle. In an effort to control who his future neighbours would be, Black took over the company that owned the rolling farmland, to become the Bridle Path, set restrictions in place through the North York zoning by-law; the area was subdivided into about 50 lots, each selling for $25,000 at the time, through the Fifties it began to take shape. In July 1948, Sunnybrook Military Hospital was opened to the south of the neighbourhood; the hospital was since reorganized into Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, has expanded to encompass much of Bridle Path's southern boundary.
The Bridle Path has been home to prominent Toronto business people, celebrities and engineers. Media mogul Moses Znaimer used to call the Bridle Path home, as did computer businessman Robert Herjavec. Former newspaper baron and convicted felon, businessman Conrad Black was owner of a familial residence until 2016 when he sold the 26 Park Lane Circle, North York for $16.5 million. Prince purchased a home in the Bridle Path for $5.5 million. "Casino King of Macau" Stanley Ho owns a High Point Road home purchased in 1987 for a record $5.5 million and worth C$27 million. A location in this area was used in the movie Mean Girls as Regina George's house and another house was used for the movie It Takes Two. Two public school boards operate elementary schools in Bridle Path, the separate Toronto Catholic District School Board, the secular Toronto District School Board. TCDSB operates St. Bonaventure Catholic School. Neither school board operates a secondary school in the neighbourhood, with TCDSB and TDSB secondary school attending schools in adjacent neighbourhoods.
Two French first language public school board provides schooling for applicable residents of Bridle Path, the secular Conseil scolaire Viamonde, the separate Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir. Neither school board operates a school in the neighbourhood, with CSV and CSCM students attending schools in other neighbourhoods in Toronto. In addition to elementary and secondary schools, the neighbourhood is home to one public post-secondary institution, Glendon College; the college is a federated campus of York University, operating as a bilingual liberal arts college. In addition to public institutions, the neighbourhood is home to several private schools, including Crescent School, a elementary and secondary private school; the neighbourhood is home to several municipal parks and green spaces, including Edwards Gardens, Sunnybrook Park, Windfields Park. Edwards Gardens is a botanical garden located in the east of the neighbourhood. Many of these parks are situated near the Don Valley, which forms a part of the larger Toronto ravine system.
Municipal parks in Bridle Path are managed by the Toronto Parks and Recreation Division. Several major roadways pass through the neighbourhood, including Bayview Avenue, a north–south thoroughfare, Lawrence Avenue, an east–west thoroughfare; the neighbourhood's namesake comes from The Bridal Path. The actual "Bridle Path" name came about as early plans for the neighbourhood included an elaborate system of equestrian bridle paths, as most of the estate owners in the area preceding its development were horse-owners. While the paths have since been paved over, their legacy remains in the Bridle Path's wide streets and in the name of this elite community. Public transit is provided by Toronto Transit Commission, operating bus routes around the neighbourhood. Map of the Rich Area history, by Mike Filey
The Gap, Inc. known as Gap Inc. or Gap, is an American worldwide clothing and accessories retailer. Gap was founded in 1969 by Donald Fisher and Doris F. Fisher and is headquartered in San Francisco, California; the company operates six primary divisions: Gap, Banana Republic, Old Navy, Hill City, Athleta. Gap Inc. is the largest specialty retailer in the United States, is 3rd in total international locations, behind Inditex Group and H&M. As of September 2008, the company has 135,000 employees and operates 3,727 stores worldwide, of which 2,406 are located in the U. S; the Fisher family remains involved in the company, collectively owning much of its stock. Donald Fisher served as Chairman of the Board until 2004, playing a role in the ouster of then-CEO Millard Drexler in 2002, remained on the board until his death on September 27, 2009. Fisher's wife and their son, Robert J. Fisher serve on Gap's board of directors. Robert succeeded his father as chairman in 2004 and served as CEO on an interim basis following the resignation of Paul Pressler in 2007, before being succeeded by Glenn K. Murphy up until 2014.
On February 1, 2015, Art Peck took over as CEO of Gap Inc. In 1959, Don Fisher, a California commercial real estate broker specializing in retail store location, was a social friend of Walter "Wally" Haas Jr, President of Levi Strauss & Co. Fisher was inspired by the sudden success of'The Tower of Shoes' in an old Quonset Hut in a non-retail industrial area of Sacramento, California; that drew crowds by advertising that no matter what brand, style or size of shoes a woman could want it was at The Tower of Shoes. And knowing that Macy's, the biggest Levi's customer, was running out of the best selling Levi's sizes, colors, Fisher asked Haas to let him copy The Tower of Shoes' business model and apply it to Levi's products. Haas referred Fisher to Bud Robinson, his Director of Advertising, for what Haas assumed would be a quick refusal. Fisher agreed to stock only Levi's apparel in every style and size, all grouped by size, Levi's guaranteed The Gap to be never out of stock by overnight replenishment from Levi's San Jose, California warehouse.
And Robinson offered to pay 50% of The Gap's radio advertising upfront and avoided antitrust laws by offering the same marketing package to any store that agreed to sell nothing but Levi's products. Fisher opened the first Gap store on Ocean Avenue in San Francisco on August 21, 1969. In 1970, Gap opened its second store in San Jose. In 1971, Gap established its corporate headquarters in California with four employees. By 1973, the company had over 25 locations and had expanded into the East Coast market with a store in the Echelon Mall in Voorhees, New Jersey. In 1974, Gap began to sell private-label merchandise. In the 1990s, Gap assumed an upscale identity and revamped its inventory under the direction of Millard Drexler. However, Drexler was removed from his position after 19 years of service in 2002 after over-expansion, a 29-month slump in sales, tensions with the Fisher family. Drexler refused to sign a non-compete agreement and became CEO of J. Crew. One month after his departure, merchandise that he had ordered was responsible for a strong rebound in sales.
Robert J. Fisher recruited Paul Pressler as the new CEO. However, his focus groups failed to recover the company's leadership in its market. In 2007, Gap announced that it would "focus efforts on recruiting a chief executive officer who has deep retailing and merchandising experience ideally in apparel, understands the creative process and can execute strategies in large, complex environments while maintaining strong financial discipline"; that January, Pressler resigned after two disappointing holiday sales seasons and was succeeded by Robert J. Fisher on an interim basis, he began working with the company in 1980 and joined the board in 1990, would assume several senior executive positions, including president of Banana Republic and the Gap units. The board's search committee was led by Adrian Bellamy, chairman of The Body Shop International and included founder Donald Fisher. On February 2, Marka Hansen, the former head of the Banana Republic division, replaced Cynthia Harriss as the leader of the Gap division.
The executive president for marketing and merchandising Jack Calhoun became interim president of Banana Republic. In May, Old Navy laid off 300 managers in lower volume locations to help streamline costs; that July, Glenn Murphy CEO of Shoppers Drug Mart in Canada, was announced as the new CEO of Gap, Inc. New lead designers were brought on board to help define a fashionable image, including Patrick Robinson for Gap Adult, Simon Kneen for Banana Republic, Todd Oldham for Old Navy. Robinson was hired as chief designer in 2007, but was dismissed in May 2011 after sales failed to increase. However, he enjoyed commercial success in international markets. In 2007, Ethisphere Magazine chose Gap from among thousands of companies evaluated as one of 100 "World's Most Ethical Companies."In October 2011, Gap Inc. announced plans to close 189 US stores, nearly 21 percent, by the end of 2013. The company announced it would open its first stores in Brazil in the Fall of 2013. In January 2015, Gap Inc announced plans to close their subsidiary Piperlime in order to focus on their core brands.
The first and only Pip