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A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term originates from the Persian word bāzār; the term bazaar is sometimes used to refer to the "network of merchants and craftsmen" who work in that area. Although the current meaning of the word is believed to have originated in Persia, its use has spread and now has been accepted into the vernacular in countries around the world. In Bahasa Indonesia, the word pasar means "market." The capital of Bali province, in Indonesia, is Denpasar, which means "north market." Souq is another word used in West Asia and North Africa for an open-air marketplace or commercial quarter. Evidence for the existence of bazaars dates to around 3,000 BCE. Although the lack of archaeological evidence has limited detailed studies of the evolution of bazaars, indications suggest that they developed outside city walls where they were associated with servicing the needs of caravanserai; as towns and cities became more populous, these bazaars moved into the city center and developed in a linear pattern along streets stretching from one city gate to another gate on the opposite side of the city.

Over time, these bazaars formed a network of trading centres which allowed for the exchange of produce and information. The rise of large bazaars and stock trading centres in the Muslim world allowed the creation of new capitals and new empires. New and wealthy cities such as Isfahan, Samarkand, Cairo and Timbuktu were founded along trade routes and bazaars. Street markets are the North American equivalents. Shopping at a bazaar or market-place remains a central feature of daily life in many Middle-Eastern and South Asian cities and towns and the bazaar remains the "beating heart" of West Asian cities and South Asian life. A number of bazaar districts have been listed as World Heritage sites due to their historical and/or architectural significance. Visiting a bazaar or souq has become a popular tourist pastime; the origin of the word bazaar comes from Persian bāzār. from Middle Persian wāzār, from Old Persian vāčar, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *wahā-čarana. The term, spread from Persia into Arabia and throughout the Middle East.

In North America, the United Kingdom and some other European countries, the term charity bazaar can be used as a synonym for a "rummage sale", to describe charity fundraising events held by churches or other community organisations in which either donated used goods or new and handcrafted goods are sold for low prices, as at a church or other organisation's Christmas bazaar, for example. Although Turkey offers many famous markets known as "bazaars" in English, the Turkish word "pazar" refers to an outdoor market held at regular intervals, not a permanent structure containing shops. English place names translate "çarşı" as "bazaar" when they refer to an area with covered streets or passages. For example, the Turkish name for the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is "Kapalıçarşı", while the Spice Bazaar is the "Mısır Çarşısı"; the Arabic term, souk is a synonym for bazaar in Arab-speaking countries. Bazaars originated in the Middle East in Persia. Pourjafara et al. point to historical records documenting the concept of a bazaar as early as 3000 BC.

By the 4th century, a network of bazaars had sprung up alongside ancient caravan trade routes. Bazaars were situated in close proximity to ruling palaces, citadels or mosques, not only because the city afforded traders some protection, but because palaces and cities generated substantial demand for goods and services. Bazaars located along these trade routes, formed networks, linking major cities with each other and in which goods, culture and information could be exchanged; the Greek historian, noted that in Egypt, roles were reversed compared with other cultures and Egyptian women frequented the market and carried on trade, while the men remain at home weaving cloth. He described The Babylonian Marriage Market. Prior to the 10th century, bazaars were situated on the perimeter of the city or just outside the city walls. Along the major trade routes, bazaars were associated with the caravanserai. From around the 10th century and market places were integrated within the city limits; the typical bazaar was a covered area where traders could buy and sell with some protection from the elements.

Over the centuries, the buildings that housed bazaars became more elaborate. The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is cited as the world's oldest continuously-operating, purpose-built market. City bazaars occupied a series of alleys along the length of the city stretching from one city gate to a different gate on the other side of the city; the Bazaar of Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1.5 kilometres of street and is the longest vaulted bazaar in the world. Moosavi argues that the Middle-Eastern bazaar evolved in a linear pattern, whereas the market places of the West were more centralised. In pre-Islamic Arabia, two types of bazaar existed: permanent urban markets and temporary seasonal markets; the temporary seasonal markets were held at specific times of the year and became associated with particular types of produce. Suq Hijr in Bahrain was noted for its dates while Suq ` Adan was known for its perfumes. In spite of the centrality of the Middle East in the history of bazaars little is known due to the lack of archaeological evidence.

However, documentary sources point to permanent marketplaces in cities from as early as 550 BCE. Nejad has made a detailed study of early bazaars in Iran

Melastoma septemnervium

Melastoma septemnervium are erect shrubs or small slender trees with 5 petal, medium-sized, pink flowers that have made them attractive for cultivation. The leaves have the 5 distinctive longitudinal veins typical of plants in the family Melastomataceae. Melastoma septemnervium are small trees up to 5 m tall. Leaves are elliptical with short stiff hairs or scales on the upper surface and finer dense hairs on the lower surface but with a mixture of scales on the nerves. Native to Vietnam, southern China, the Philippines, Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan. Cultivated and naturalized in Hawaii but reported to be abundant and invasive on Kauai and Hawaii Island from sea level up to 900 m elevation. Melastoma septemnervium grows in light forests and grass lands, or on rocky slopes, but prefers mesic to wet areas and bog margin habitats in Hawaii. Hawaiian populations of M. septemnervium were assigned to Melastoma malabathricum non L. but were identified as M. candidum D. Don by Wagner et al. 1999 due to a number of different traits, including a higher chromosome number.

M. Septemnervium was first described by Loureiro in 1790. M. septemnervium is the accepted name by some sources with M. candidum as a junior synonym, but both names are used widely

James L. Jamerson

James L. Jamerson is a retired United States Air Force General, his last assignment before retirement was as the Deputy Commander in Chief, United States European Command from 1995 to 1998. The general was born and raised in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, entered the Air Force in 1963 following graduation from the United States Air Force Academy. Beginning in May 1963 and going to August 1964, he was a student in pilot training at Webb Air Force Base, Texas, he was an instructor in the T-38 Talon at Webb until December, 1967. From December until May, 1968, he was a student of A-1E Skyraider training at Hurlburt Field, Florida. From May until June 1969, he was an A-1E close air support and search and rescue pilot, 602nd Air Commando Squadron, Udorn Royal Thai Air Force Base and Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand, he was an AT-33 Shooting Star fighter lead-in instructor pilot A-7D Corsair II pilot, 354th Tactical Fighter Wing, Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina from June 1969 to August 1971.

From August 1971 and going for the next year, he was a student at the Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. For the next four years, he was a staff officer, Operational Requirements and Contingency Plans Division, Headquarters Pacific Air Forces, Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. Starting in August 1976 and going to June 1981, he was an A-7D Corsair II aircraft commander. Jim became a student at the Air Force Institute of Technology, Georgetown University, Washington D. C. from June 1981 to August 1982. Right after graduation, he was assigned as Chief of Pacific, Middle East and Africa Policy Division, Directorate of International Programs, Headquarters United States Air Force, Washington D. C. until July 1984. His following assignment was as Vice Commander, 354th Tactical Fighter Wing at Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina until May 1985. From May 1985 to February 1987, he was the Commander of the 23rd Tactical Fighter Wing at England Air Force Base, Louisiana, he became the commander of the 56th Tactical Training Wing at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida until January 1989.

From January 1989 to November 1991, he served as the assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, Headquarters United States Air Forces in Europe, Ramstein Air Base, Germany. Following those positions, General Jamerson was assigned as the Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in Mons, Belgium from November 1991 to August 1992. Beginning in August 1992 and going until July 1993, he was the Vice Commander in Chief, Headquarters United States Air Forces in Europe, back at Ramstein AB. For the next year, he was the Commander of the 12th Air Force and United States Southern Command Air Forces at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona. For the year after that, he became the Commander of the United States Air Forces in Europe, Allied Forces Central Europe at Ramstein, his final military assignment was as the Deputy Commander in Chief, United States European Command, Stuttgart-Vaihingen, Germany from July 1995 until his retirement on 1 September 1998.

Jamerson is a member of the U. S. Global Leadership Coalition National Security Advisory Council. Awards earned over his career: Defense Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster Air Force Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster Silver Star Legion of Merit with an oak leaf cluster Distinguished Flying Cross with two oak leaf clusters Meritorious Service Medal with an oak leaf cluster Air Medal with eleven oak leaf clusters Vietnam Service Medal with four bronze service stars Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal Order of the Sword Command pilot with more than 5,000 flying hours Parachutist Dates at which he was promoted: Second Lieutenant: June 5, 1963 First Lieutenant: December 5, 1964 Captain: March 10, 1967 Major: January 1, 1972 Lieutenant Colonel: November 1, 1977 Colonel: June 1, 1981 Brigadier General: February 1, 1988 Major General: August 1, 1990 Lieutenant General: August 1, 1992 General: September 1, 1994 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website

List of commanders of USAFE Valor Awards for James L. Jamerson

Apoquindo Avenue

Apoquindo Avenue is a major thoroughfare in Santiago, Chile. It extends 6.17 km through the district of Las Condes. Apoquindo Avenue originates east of Tobalaba Avenue; the main stretch of this street runs eastward from the eastern end of Providencia Avenue at Canal San Carlos to Américo Vespucio Avenue, passing on the way through El Golf neighborhood. Glass fronted, it has wide sidewalks. West of Manquehue Avenue, Las Condes Avenue branches off from Apoquindo; the Church of San Vicente Ferrer marks the terminus of the avenue. The eastern portion of the Line 1 of the Santiago Metro runs under Apoquindo Avenue, stopping at El Golf, Alcántara, Escuela Militar, Hernando de Magallanes and Los Dominicos stations. Apoquindo Apoquindo massacre

Tagore (film)

Tagore is a 2003 Indian Telugu-language action film directed by V. V. Vinayak, cinematography by Chota K. Naidu. Chiranjeevi and Shriya Saran play the lead roles; the film was a remake of the 2002 Tamil film Ramanaa directed by A. R. Murugadoss with Vijayakanth in the lead, it was screened at the International Indian Film Academy Awards, along with Pokiri. The film is about a common man who decides to abolish corruption altogether in the society at various levels. 15 Tahsildars are found missing, the police find that 14 of them have been released after three days, but one of them has been killed. They find a tape along with the body of the dead Tahsildar; these files carry details of why the kidnapping of the Tahsildars had been done and the reason for the murder of one of them, have the words ACF written on it. It is understood by the police that these men were the Tahsildars who had indulged themselves in bribery and that they were the top 15 of the list of the corrupt Tahsildars; the ACF sends the tape, with the message that they shall continue the kidnap of the corrupt officers in all the departments and that the No. 1 corrupt shall be sentenced to death according to the law of the Anti Corruption Force.

The ACF kidnaps officials from PWD and police department and kills the top corrupt official. There is fear among the corrupt officials, they come forward to file their returns. For a while there are no illegal transactions done, but the corruption soon continues in the society due to the threatening of the local mob to sign illegal documents and accept bribes. Meanwhile, the ACF finds that it is Badrinarayana, the real reason behind this corruption scenario; the kidnapping continues. The case is investigated by group of several old-aged senior level officials who are slow-moving in their progress. However, Suryam, an IPS-passed guy, working as a constable, takes up the case in order to get promotion in the department and moves ahead of those officials in a short time, he investigates the case starting with finding of the non-corrupt official in every government office, assuming that official would have collected the information of other corrupt officers and passed it to ACF. He tries to figure out.

He finds out that they are alumni of National College and working for the ACF under their professor and the leader of the ACF, Professor Tagore. Tagore is a simple man who leads a simple life during the daytime along with his adopted kids from different cultures, he looks like a timid character, but brave in terms of his actions and he loved by all his peers. Tagore once takes one of his kids to the hospital for treating an injury and finds that the hospital is a place full of corruption who play with the lives of people for the sake of money. Tagore catches them red-handed by faking a dead body as a patient; the hospital, unaware of his plans, continue their treatment though they know that the person is dead and demand lakhs of money for treatment. Tagore produces the documents and receipts related to their fake treatment and gets the hospital sealed by the government; the hospital dean is arrested. Badrinarayana, the dean's father, is enraged by attempts to take revenge on Tagore, he is shocked as according to him he was dead several years ago.

Tagore is a happy professor who lives with his wife Nandini, expecting a second child and daughter. On a Deepavali day, when the whole apartment is celebrating the festival, the entire building collapses due to some fault in the construction of a nearby highway, many of the residents lose their lives. Tagore rushes to the government officials, he comes to know that all this was due to one person, namely Badrinarayana, the owner of a construction company and builder of that highway. Tagore finds that the highway was constructed on loose soil by which the contractions caused to collapse was well known to him. Badrinarayana and his men thrash Tagore and beat him to death. However, Tagore escapes from them; the incidents that he faced at the office and seeing corrupt puppets in the hands of Badrinarayana, he gets frustrated and he forms the ACF to fight against corruption. He kidnaps Badrinarayana and kills him like he killed other corrupted officials; the constable finds out the people working for ACF are the ex-students, the police force captures all of them.

Police men torture them to open the identity of their leader. Tagore, on seeing his students suffer, surrenders to the police and requests the Indian Police to release his students; the rising support for Tagore makes the Chief Minister to meet him for higher appeal. Tagore refuses to appeal as he wants to stress the concept in the minds of everyone that if we make mistakes, we will be punished, he himself doesn't want to violate it as he did a crime of killing four people. Tagore gives a speech in the court explaining what a student power the country has, but corruption is what is letting it down. In the end, Tagore is to be released by then; the film opened in 605 screens and collected a distributors' share of Rs. 95 million in its opening week. It collected Rs 25.35 crores in its full run. The film had a 50-day run in a 100-day run in 191 centres. All music is composed by Mani Sharma; the DVD of Tagore was released by KAD Entertainment

Return of the SP1200

Return of the SP1200 is the fourth instrumental hip hop album by hip hop producer Pete Rock. The album was released on April 13, 2019 on vinyl on Rock's imprint, Tru Soul Records; the physical release of the album was on April 26. The album contains fifteen tracks that are instrumentals that were produced between the years 1990-98, it includes additional scratches by J. Rocc of the Beat Junkies; the album cover was created by Sanford Greene to illustrate the events of 2016-2019 in the United States. This was the first time in Rock's career. From the CD: David KutchMastering Pete Rock – Producer, Sampler, E-mu Systems SP-1200 Jamie Staub – mixing Marek Stycos – Recording J. Rocc – Turntables Return of the SP1200 at Discogs