BMW 6 Series (E24)
The BMW E24 is the first generation of BMW 6 Series grand tourer coupés, produced from January 1976 to April 1989. It replaced the E9 coupés and was, after a 16-year hiatus, succeeded by the E63 6 Series in 2004; the E24 was produced in a 2-door coupe body style. Aside from the M635CSi/M6 models, the E24 was powered by a range of BMW M30 six-cylinder engines; the M635CSi is the second BMW M car. It is powered by the M88/3 six-cylinder engine. In North America, the vehicle uses the less powerful BMW S38 engine. Although the BMW 8 Series was released as production of the E24 was ending, the 8 Series is considered a separate model line and therefore not a successor to the E24; the initial proposal for the E24 was a based on a BMW E9 3.0 CS with an increased height, in order to make it easier for customers to get into the car. However, Bob Lutz rejected the proposal leading to the shape of the E24 in its production form; the E24 was designed by Paul Bracq. Production started in January 1976 with the 630CS and 633CSi in February 1976.
86,216 built Originally the bodies were manufactured by Karmann, but production was taken in-house to BMW. The E24 was based on the E12 5 Series platform. Front suspension consists of MacPherson struts and the rear suspension is independent semi-trailing arms. In 1982, the front suspension was upgraded to include twin-pivot lower control arms and the geometry of the rear suspension was revised; the steering uses a recirculating ball system with power assistance. The E24 was available with a 4-speed manual transmission, a 5-speed manual transmission, or a 3-speed automatic transmission. In 1983 the automatic transmission was upgraded to a 4-speed ZF 4HP22. Figures are for European specification models. * U. S. only The E24 M635CSi, introduced at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1983, is the first in the line of M6 models. In 1987, the equivalent model for the North American market was introduced and badged M6; the M635CSi is powered by a 210 kW version of the M88/3 engine. The North American M6 vehicle is powered by the detuned 191 kW version of the S38 engine, which has a lower compression ratio and uses a catalytic converter.
Over its production run from 1983 through 1989, 4,088 M635CSi cars were built, 1,767 of which were for the North American market. In July 1978, the more powerful 635CSi variant was introduced; the 635CSi featured a single piece black rear spoiler. The M90 engine's bigger bore and shorter stroke resulted in 160 kW and increased torque in models without a catalytic converter; the aerodynamic changes reduced uplift at high speeds by 15% over the other E24 models. In 1979 the carburetted 630CS was replaced with the 628CSi. An anti-lock braking system became available as an option. In 1980, the fuel-injection systems changed from Bosch L-jetronic to Bosch Motronic; the 635CSi central locking system could now be operated from trunk. In 1982, the E24 platform changed from the E12 5 Series to the E28 5 Series, resulting changes to exterior styling, chassis, suspension and the interior; the struts in the new front suspension were double-linked ones, making the car less to dip under hard braking. The new rear axle was nearly identical to the trailing arm layout of the E28 528i, with the addition of an extra top-mounted link.
Meanwhile, the ventilated rear discs had proven a needless complication and were replaced with solid ones. The 635 CSi engine was updated to the 3,430 cc M30B34, which used a smaller bore and longer stroke than the previous 3,453 cc M90 engine; the 635CSi became available with a 4-speed automatic transmission. E24s produced after June 1987 were fitted with ellipsoid headlamps, as per the introduced E32 7 Series; the front and rear bumpers and spoilers were redesigned to use a single design worldwide. The 635CSi engine was updated to the higher compression M30B35, which resulted in a power increase of 19 kW for engines with catalytic converters. Although other markets offered multiple E24 models, in North America only one model was available at any given time. In 1977, the 6 series was released in the US as the 630CSi; the 630CSi is powered by a fuel-injected version of the 630CS engine. This 3.0 litre engine produces 251 N ⋅ m. The 630CSi was replaced in September 1977 by the 633CSi. In United States/Japan specification, the 633CSi was powered by a 135 kW version of the M30B32 engine.
Output dropped to 130 kW. In September 1980, the manual transmission for US cars was upgraded from a 4-speed to a 5-speed. A 3-speed automatic transmission was optional. In September 1982, the major facelift resulted in the North American and Japanese models being based on the E28 5 Series platform. In 1985, the 633CSi was replaced by the 635CSi for the North American Market; this model uses the M30B34 engine. An L6 "luxury edition" version of the 635CSi was available in North America for the 1987 model year; the L6 featured an automatic gearbox. In 1988, the engine was upgraded to the M30B35; this engine has a capacity of 3.4 Litres (despite the model code and the "3.5" inscribed on the intake manifo
Alfa Romeo 33
The Alfa Romeo 33 is a small family car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo between 1983 and 1995. From a mechanical standpoint it was an evolution of its predecessor, the Alfasud, whose floorpan and drivetrain were carried over—albeit with modifications to the suspension and braking system; the Nissan-based Alfa Romeo Arna was launched shortly after, offering a sized but lower priced car. The 33 has a unique place in the Alfa Romeo history, as nearly 1 million of these cars were produced. During its 11-year lifespan the 33 saw a light facelift in 1986 and a significant restyle in 1989; the 33 was discontinued in 1994 and replaced by the Alfa Romeo 145 and 146, which used the same boxer engines but built around an new platform based on the Fiat Tipo. Known as the Alfa 33, the 5-door hatchback was launched in 1983 and a station wagon version was introduced the following year at the same time as a four-wheel drive version of the hatchback; the hatchback was styled by Ermanno Cressoni at the Centro Stile Alfa Romeo, while the station wagon was designed by Pininfarina.
The 33 became renowned for its nimble handling and powerful boxer engines, but became well known for its unreliable electronics and tendencies to rust. Another issue was its braking and increased unsprung weight—the Alfasud's inboard front disc brakes had been moved to the more common outboard discs; the rear discs of the Sud's four-wheel disc arrangement had been replaced with drums. The car featured numerous innovations for the company, including an instrument binnacle that moved up and down with the adjustable steering wheel; the UK launch promoted the sleek design, the Daily Mail noted its low drag coefficient of 0.36, impressive in 1983 with only bigger cars such as the Ford Sierra and Audi 100 able to better it. At launch two models were available, 33 33 1.5 Quadrifoglio Oro. Both engines were SOHC boxers fed by a twin-choke carburettor, carried over from the Alfasud along with its 5-speed gearbox: a 1,350 cc developing 76 PS at 6,000 rpm, a 1,490 cc developing 85 PS at 5,800 rpm. Unlike on the Alfasud, fifth gear acted like an overdrive gear and top speed was reached in fourth.
The luxurious 1.5 Quadrifoglio Oro was distinguished by a silver grille, two-tone paintwork and clear front turn indicator lenses outside. Standard equipment included bronze tinted glass, headlight wipers, passenger side wing mirror and a trip computer. A four-wheel-drive variant, the 33 1.5 4x4, was introduced in at the 1983 Frankfurt Motor Show and put on sale in December. It was assembled by Pininfarina in Turin. Front-wheel drive, the four-wheel drive system could be engaged manually by the driver at any speed, via a handle in front of the gear lever. Like the Quadrifoglio Oro the 4x4 was characterised by two-tone paint, either metallic red or silver separated from a black lower body by a double white pinstripe. Equipment level was the same as on the richer Quadrifoglio Oro; the 33 1.5 Giardinetta, a 5-door estate designed and—like the 4x4 hatchback—assembled by Pininfarina, made its début at the March 1984 Geneva Motor Show. The Giardinetta went on sale in 4x4 guise in June and was joined in the year by a front-wheel drive model, shown at the Turin Motor Show in November.
Another Quadrifoglio top of the range model, this time the sporting 1.5 Quadrifoglio Verde, was put on sale in June 1984. It was powered by a 105 PS version of the 1,490 cc boxer, equipped with double twin-choke carburettors like on the Sprint 1.5 QV coupé. The Quadrifoglio Verde could be recognized from its specific grille, additional plastic spoilers under both body-colour bumpers, side skirts, grey 8-hole alloy wheels with low profile 185/60 HR14 tyres. In the cabin there were sport seats in black and grey cloth, a leather covered steering wheel and additional gauges for voltmeter and oil pressure. October 1984 saw the introduction of the updated model year 1985 range displayed at the 60th Turin Motor Show. All models save for the base 1.3 were upgraded to one-choke-per-cylinder twin carburettor setups—as on the Quadrifoglio Verde. This gave birth to a sportier 1.3-litre model, the 33 1.3 S, which put out 86 PS at 5,500 rpm, or 10 PS more than the standard. Minor changes were made to the equipment of most models but the introduced 1.5 QV, such as the adoption of side skirts and a black grille on the Quadrifoglio Oro.
With the arrival of the 1.3 S and front-wheel-drive Giardinetta, for 1985 the lineup included seven models: 1.3, 1.3 S, 1.5 Quadrifoglio Oro, 1.5 Quadrifoglio Verde, 1.5 4x4, 1.5 Giardinetta and 1.5 Giardinetta 4x4. All flat-4 petrol engines: In autumn 1986 a mild facelift resulted in a revised range. Exterior alterations were limited to clear instead of amber-coloured indicator lenses, new wheel covers and alloy wheels, the adoption of side skirts by all models, a redesigned front grille.
The Jaguar E-Type, or the Jaguar XK-E for the North American market, is a British sports car, manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975. Its combination of beauty, high performance, competitive pricing established the model as an icon of the motoring world; the E-Type's 150 mph top speed, sub-7-second 0 to 60 mph acceleration, monocoque construction, disc brakes, rack-and-pinion steering, independent front and rear suspension distinguished the car and spurred industry-wide changes. The E-Type was based on Jaguar's D-Type racing car, which had won the 24 Hours of Le Mans three consecutive years beginning 1955, employed what was, for the early 1960s, a novel racing design principle, with a front subframe carrying the engine, front suspension and front bodywork bolted directly to the body tub. No ladder frame chassis, as was common at the time, was needed and as such the first cars weighed only 1315kg. On its release in March 1961 Enzo Ferrari called it "the most beautiful car made".
In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s. In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in The Daily Telegraph online list of the world's "100 most beautiful cars" of all time. Outside automotive circles, the E-type received prominent placement in Diabolik comic series, Austin Powers films and the television series Mad Men; the E-Type was designed and shown to the public as a rear-wheel drive grand tourer in two-seater coupé form and as a two-seater convertible "roadster". A "2+2" four-seater version of the coupé, with a lengthened wheelbase, was released several years later. Model updates of the E-Type were designated "Series 2" and "Series 3", over time the earlier cars have come to be referred to as "Series 1." As with other hand made cars of the time, changes were incremental and ongoing, which has led to confusion over what a Series 1 car is. This is of more than academic interest, as Series 1 E-Types—and Series 1 roadsters have values far in excess of Series 2 and 3 models.
Some transitional examples exist. For example, while Jaguar itself never recognised a "Series 1½" or "Series 1.5," over time, this sub-category has been recognised by the Jaguar Owners Club of Great Britain and other leading authorities. The "pure" 4.2-litre Series 1 was made in model years 1965–1967. The 4.2-litre Series 1 has serial or VIN numbers 1E10001 - 1E15888, 1E30001 - 1E34249. The Series 1.5 left hand drive roadster has serial numbers 1E15889 - 1E18368, with the hardtop version of the Series 1.5 having VIN numbers 1E34250 - 1E35815. Series 1.5 cars were made in model year 1968. The Series 1 cars, which are by far the most valuable fall into two categories: Those made between 1961 and 1964, which had 3.8-litre engines and partial synchromesh transmissions, those made between 1965-1967, which increased engine size and torque by around 10%, added a synchronised transmission, provided new reclining seats, an alternator in place of the prior dynamo, an electrical system switched to negative earth, other modern amenities, all while keeping the same classic Series 1 styling.
The 4.2-litre Series 1 E-Types replaced the brake servo of the 3.8-litre with a more reliable unit. "The 4.2 became the most desirable version of the famous E-Type due to their increased power and usability while retaining the same outward appearance as the earlier cars."As of the end of 2014, the most expensive regular production Jaguar E-Types sold at auction included a 4.2-litre Series 1 roadster, with matching numbers, original paint and interior, under 80,000 original miles, a history of being in the original buyer's family for 45 years and a 1961 "flat floor" Series 1, selling for $528,000 in 2014. Special run racing lightweights go for far more still. For example, a 1963 E-type Lightweight Competition advertised as original and with lots of patina, one of just twelve that were built, sold for $7,370,000 at the 2017 Scottsdale, Arizona auctions. Being a British-made car of the 1960s, there are some rather rare sub-types of Series 1 E-Types at the beginning and end of the Series 1 production.
For example, the first 500 Series 1 cars had flat floors and external bonnet latches. At the close of the Series 1 production run, there were a small number of cars produced that are identical in every respect to other Series 1 units, except that the headlight covers were removed for better illumination, it is not known how many of these Series 1 cars were produced, but given that 1,508 Series 1 roadsters were produced worldwide for 1967, combined with the fact that these examples were made in just the last several months of Series 1 production, means that these, like the flat floor examples that began the Series 1 production run, are the lowest volume Series 1 variant, save of course for the special lightweights. Worldwide, including both left and right hand drive examples, a total of 7,828 3.8-litre Series 1 roadsters were built, with 6,749 of the 4.2-litre Series 1 roadsters having been manufactured. While the 1968 Series 1.5 cars maintained the essential design of th
Alfa Romeo Alfetta
The Alfa Romeo Alfetta is a front-engine, five-passenger sedan and fastback coupé manufactured and marketed by Alfa Romeo from 1972-1987 with a production total over 400,000. The Alfetta was noted for the rear position of its transaxle and its De Dion tube rear suspension — an arrangement designed to optimize handling by balancing front/rear weight distribution, as well as maintaining a low polar moment of inertia and low center of gravity; the interior of Coupé models featured a unusual central tachometer placement — by itself, directly in front of the driver. The Alfetta name, which means "little Alfa" in Italian, derived from the nickname of the Alfa Romeo Tipo 159 Alfetta, a successful Formula One car which in its last iteration paired a transaxle layout to De Dion tube rear suspension — like its modern namesake; the Alfetta introduced a new drivetrain layout to the marque. Clutch and transmission were housed at the rear of the car, together with the differential for a more balanced weight distribution, as used on the Alfetta 158/159 Grand Prix cars.
The suspension relied on double wishbones and torsion bars at the front and a De Dion tube at the rear. When leaving the factory all Alfettas fitted Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres; the rear de Dion transaxle found on the Alfetta and derivatives- GTV, 90 and 75- provided these cars with excellent weight distribution. The handling advantages were noted in contemporary reviews; the transaxle design, in combination with a Watt's parallelogram linkage, inboard rear brakes and a well-located de Dion rear suspension, resulted in balanced traction and handling. The front suspension design was unusual in that it incorporated independent longitudinal torsion bar springs acting directly onto the lower wishbones and with separate dampers; the Alfetta saloon was launched in 1972, with a 1.8-litre four-cylinder as a three-box, four-door, five-passenger notchback saloon designed in-house by Centro Stile Alfa Romeo. The front end was characterised by twin, equal-sized headlamps visually connected to a central narrow Alfa Romeo shield by three chrome bars, while the tail lights featured three square elements.
At the 1975 Brussels Motor Show Alfa Romeo introduced the 1,594 cc, 108 PS Alfetta 1.6 base model, distinguished by its single, larger round front headlights. Meanwhile, the 1.8-litre Alfetta was rebadged Alfetta 1.8 and a few months mildly restyled, further set apart from the 1.6 by a new grille with a wider central shield and horizontal chrome bars. Engines in both models were Alfa Romeo Twin Cams, with two overhead camshafts, 8-valves and two double-barrel carburettors. Two years the 1.6 was upgraded to the exterior and interior features of the 1.8. In 1977 a 2.0-litre model was added. Launched at the March Geneva Motor Show, the Alfetta 2000 replaced the outgoing Alfa Romeo 2000; this range-topping Alfetta was 10.5 cm longer than the others, owing to a redesigned front end with square headlights and to larger bumpers with polyurethane inserts. Just a year in July 1978, the two-litre model was updated becoming the Alfetta 2000 L. Engine output rose from 122 PS to 130 PS; the Alfetta 2000 was marketed as the Alfa Romeo Sport Sedan in the United States, where "Alfetta" had less recognition than Europe.
The 2000 received fuel injection in 1979. A turbodiesel version was introduced in late 1979, the Alfetta Turbo D, whose engine was supplied by VM Motori. Apart from a boot lid badge, the Turbo D was equipped and finished like the top-of-the-line 2000 L both outside and inside. Therefore, it received a tachometer, but no standard power steering, despite additional 100 kg carried by the front axle; the turbodiesel, a first on an Alfa Romeo's passenger car, was of 2.0 litres and produced 82 PS. The Alfetta Turbo D was marketed in Italy and in France, as well as a few other continental European markets with a favorable tax structure. In 1981 Alfa Romeo developed in collaboration with the University of Genoa a semi-experimental Alfetta version, fitted with a modular variable displacement engine and an electronic engine control unit. Called Alfetta CEM, it was shown at the Frankfurt Motor Show; the 130 PS 2.0-litre modular engine featured fuel injection and ignition systems governed by an engine control unit, which could shut off two of four cylinders as needed in order to reduce fuel consumption.
An initial batch of ten examples were assigned to taxi drivers in Milan, to verify operation and performance in real-world situations. According to Alfa Romeo during these tests cylinder deactivation was found to reduce fuel consumption by 12% in comparison to a CEM fuel-injected engine without variable displacement, by 25% in comparison to the regular production carburetted 2.0-litre. After the first trial, in 1983 a small series of 1000 examples was put on sale, offered to selected clients. Despite this second experimental phase, the project development ended. Fuel injected, US-specification versions of the Alfetta were sold as limited editions in some European countries. In November 1981 the updated "Alfetta'82" range was launched, comprising 1.6, 1.8, 2.0 and 2.0 Turbo Diesel models. All variants adopted the interior of the 2.0-litre models. All Alfettas had black plastic rubbing strips, side sill mouldings
Alfa Romeo Giulia (952)
The Alfa Romeo Giulia is a compact executive car produced by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. It was unveiled in June 2015, with market launch scheduled for February 2016, it is the first saloon offered by Alfa Romeo after the production of the 159 ended in 2011; the Giulia is the first mass-market Alfa Romeo vehicle in over two decades to use a longitudinal rear-wheel drive platform, since the 75, discontinued in 1992. The Giulia was second in 2017 European Car of the Year voting and was named Motor Trend Car of the Year for 2018; the car was designed at the Centro Stile Alfa Romeo, by a team headed by Marco Tencone and including Senior Exterior Designer, Andrea Loi. along with Interior Chief Designer, Inna Kondakova and Senior Interior Designer, Manuele Amprimo. The Giulia has been the subject of a long gestation and delayed launch dates due to the design being sent back to the drawing board by Sergio Marchionne, CEO of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the parent company of Alfa Romeo at the time.
The new Giulia was unveiled to the press at the Museo Storico Alfa Romeo in Arese, on 24 June 2015, at an event which involved only the top-of-the-range Quadrifoglio variant and a rendition of "Nessun dorma" by Italian tenor Andrea Bocelli. The occasion coincided with the company's 105th anniversary, saw the company debut a restyled logo for all future Alfa Romeo models; the Giulia was presented under the new La meccanica delle emozioni slogan. The Giulia is the first model in the company's relaunch plan, which involves a €5 billion investment for an eight car line-up and a worldwide sales target of 400,000 by 2018—up from 74,000 in 2013, it is underpinned by an all-new, longitudinal-engine, rear-wheel drive platform developed for Alfa Romeo—codenamed "Giorgio". Development of the Giulia, along with development of the entire "Giorgio" project, has been overseen by the technical director of Ferrari, Philippe Krief; the Giulia uses a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, featuring an 50% front and 50% rear weight distribution.
Suspension is independent all-around, of the double wishbone type at the front and multilink at the rear. All Giulia models employ a carbon-fibre drive shaft made by Hitachi Automotive Systems, as well as aluminium alloy shock towers, suspension components, front wings and doors. Four-wheel drive models will be offered. Depending on trim level it has a 6.5-inch or 8.8-inch colour display, optional Sport and Luxury Packs are available. The sport package includes sports steering wheel with added grip, aluminium inserts on the dashboard, centre console and door panels, Xenon headlights; the luxury package offers premium leather wood trim. The performance package includes mechanical limited-slip differential along with electronic suspension and paddle shifters on the steering column in the cars equipped with an automatic transmission; the base model Giulia, mid-level Super, loaded Speciale are powered by a 200 PS gasoline engine, or the choice of 150 PS or 180 PS turbo diesel engine. The base model comes with 16 inch alloys, the Super can be distinguished with 17 inch alloys and dual chrome exhaust tip for the diesel model.
The Speciale has 18 inch alloys, black brake calipers, leather sports seats from the Veloce. The Giulia Veloce was presented at the 2016 Paris International Motor Show held in October; the Veloce offers the choice of two engines: the 2.0-litre turbo petrol and the 2.2-litre diesel inline-4 engines, both equipped with an 8-speed automatic transmission and Alfa Q4 all-wheel drive system. The Veloce has a glossy black door trim. On the interior, it has black, red or tan leather sport seats and a sports steering wheel with a suede grip, aluminium inserts on the dashboard, central tunnel, door panels and Xenon headlights; the new petrol straight-4 engine produces a maximum power output of 280 PS at 5,250 rpm and a maximum torque of 400 N⋅m at 2,250 rpm. It has MultiAir electro-hydraulic valve activation system along with "2-in-1" " turbocharger system and direct injection with a 200-bar high pressure system; the 210 PS diesel all aluminum straight-4 engine comes with MultiJet II technology and electrically operated variable geometry turbocharger.
The Alfa Q4 all wheel drive system behaves like a rear-wheel drive vehicle: 100% of torque is distributed to the rear axle. As it reaches the wheel adherence limit, the system transfers up to 60% of the torque to the front axle. To ensure maximum speed of response in re-distributing torque, the system exploits a high mechanical over slippage between the two axles, which translates into segment-beating vehicle control in terms of traction and directional stability on bends; the new trim level between Veloce and Quadrifoglio was introduced at the 2018 Goodwood Festival of Speed, sitting between the standard Veloce and the high-powered Quadrifoglio models. Its exterior design is inspired by the Quadrifoglio with an optional carbon fibre pack; the high-performance Giulia Quadrifoglio was the first model in the new Giulia range. It was unveiled at Italy in June 2015, it made its official international debut at the 2015 Frankfurt Motorshow. The Quadrifoglio's main competitors are cars such as the Mercedes-AMG C63, BMW M3 and Cadillac ATS-V.
The Quadrifoglio is powered by an all-aluminium alloy, twin-turbocharged gasoline direct injection 90° V6 engine, with a single-cylinder displacement of just under half a litre, for a total of 2,891 cc (176.4 cu
The Audi Quattro is a road and rally car, produced by the German automobile manufacturer Audi, part of the Volkswagen Group. It was first shown at the 1980 Geneva Motor Show on 3 March. Production continued through 1991; the word quattro is derived from the Italian word for "four". The name has been used by Audi to refer to the quattro four-wheel-drive system, or any four-wheel-drive version of an Audi model; the original Quattro model is commonly referred to as the Ur-Quattro - the "Ur-" is an augmentative prefix, in this case meaning "original". The idea of such a car came from the Audi engineer Jörg Bensinger; the Audi Quattro was the first rally car to take advantage of the then-recently changed rules which allowed the use of four-wheel drive in competition racing. It won consecutive competitions for the next two years. To commemorate the success of the original vehicle, all subsequent Audi production automobiles with their trademark quattro four-wheel-drive system were badged quattro with a lower case "q" and in a distinct typeface which has remained nearly unchanged since its inception.
The Audi Quattro shared many parts and core body components with the Coupé version of the Audi 80 model range. The Quattro was internally designated Typ 85, a production code it shared with the quattro versions of the Audi 80 coupé, its characteristic flared wheelarches were styled by Martin Smith. The Audi Quattro had independent front and rear suspension; the idea for a high-performance four-wheel-drive car was proposed by Audi's chassis engineer, Jörg Bensinger, in 1977, when he found that the Volkswagen Iltis could outperform any other vehicle in snow, no matter how powerful. Bensinger's idea was to start developing an Audi 80 variant in co-operation with Walter Treser, Director of Pre-Development. Audi introduced the original Quattro to European customers in late 1980, featuring Audi's quattro permanent four-wheel drive system, the first to mate the front-engine, four-wheel-drive layout with a turbocharged engine; the original engine was the 2,144 cc, longitudinally-mounted inline-5-cylinder 10 valve SOHC, with a turbocharger and intercooler.
It generated 147 kW and torque of 285 N⋅m at 3,500 rpm, propelling the Quattro from 0 to 100 km/h in 7.1 seconds, on to a top speed of over 220 km/h. The displacement of the engine was dropped from 2144 cc to 2133 cc with a bore x stroke of 79.3 mm × 86.4 mm for the Rally car so that Audi could satisfy the 3-litre rallying class with a 1.4 times multiplication factor. Valvetrain was DOHC 4 valves per cylinder with an oil cooled KKK K27 turbocharger at 1.03 bars and Air-to-Air - Längerer & Reich intercooler fed by Bosch LH-Jetronic fuel injection, generating 225 kW at 6,700 rpm and 350 N⋅m of torque at 3,700 rpm. The engine was modified to a 2,226 cc inline-5 with 10 valves, still generating 147 kW, but with peak torque lower in the rev-range. In 1989, it was changed to a 2,226 cc inline-5 20v DOHC setup generating 162 kW, now with a top speed of 230 km/h. Audi Quattros are referred to among owners and enthusiasts by their engine codes, to differentiate between the earlier and versions: the earliest 2,144 cc 10v being the "WR" engine, the 2,226 cc 10v being the "MB" engine, the 20v being the "RR" engine.
Hence, Quattro models may be referred to as either the WR Quattro, MB Quattro, RR or "20v" Quattro, respectively. Production of the quattro totalled to 11,452 units over the period from 1980–1991, through this 11 year production span, despite some touch-ups, there were no major changes in the visual design of the car. For the 1983 model year, the dash-board did away with an analogue instrument cluster now fitted with a green digital liquid crystal display electronic instrument cluster; this was changed in 1988 to an orange LCD electronic instrument cluster. The interior was redesigned in 1984, featured a whole new dash-board layout, new steering wheel design, new centre console design, the switches around the instrument panel were redesigned at this time. In 1985, the dash-board changed with harder foam and lost a diagonal stripe, the switches were varied and the diff lock pull knob gave way to a two-position turning knob with volt and oil temp digital readouts. Exterior styling received little modification during the Quattro's production run.
The car had a flat front grille featuring four separate headlamp lenses, one for each of the low and high beam units. This was altered for the 1983 model year, replaced with combined units featuring a single lens, but housing twin reflectors; this was changed again, for the 1985 model year, in what has become known as the'facelift model' and included such alterations as a new sloping front grille and trim and badging changes. The 1985 Quattro featured a new three spoke steering wheel design, leather trim for door arm rests, centre console and door pockets. There was a full length leather-wrapped centre console running all the way to the rear seats; the 1985 Quattro was the first Ur-Quattro to have'quattro' script on the interior with partial leather seats. The floor on the driver's side had a bulge due to dual catalytic exhaust setup; the different models may be distinguished by the emblems on their boot lids: the WR had a vinyl'quattro' decal or a brushed aluminium effect plastic emblem, the MB had chrome plated'Audi','Audi rings' and'quattro' emblems, whilst the RR had only chrome plated'Audi rin
Schuco is a German toy maker founded in 1912 by Heinrich Müller and the businessman Heinrich Schreyer in Nuremberg Germany's toy capital since early days. The company's specialty was cars and trucks in tin and diecast; the company went bankrupt in 1976 but was reorganized in 1993 and totally independent again by 1996. Named Spielzeugfirma Schreyer & Co, the company changed its name to the more succinct Schuco in 1921. At its beginnings, the company made unique clockwork tin toys; some of these were clever in that, instead of using a key, one would wind another feature. In the 1920s Schuco introduced its famous Pick-Pick bird. A wind-up mouse, a dancing mouse and trotting dog wearing a cape were other popular offerings. Before World War II there were a number of'gnome'-like wind-up figures and soldiers sometimes called blacksmiths - finished in creative colorful attire. In 1935 one of the first Schuco patent motor cars was produced, starting a legacy of producing toy motor vehicles that have been the company's main offering.
Schuco toy lines always had some special quality or gimmick to attract collectors as well as children. Around 1938, production was begun on tin cars that were made either with clockwork motors or'telesteering' where the toy could be steered through a small steering wheel attached to the car with a wire. Schuco'Studio' cars had a starting crank, removable wheels, varied gearing and rack and pinion steering. Cars came with miniature tool kits; because the Schuco name ended in "o", this started a tradition of naming vehicle lines and sets with a somewhat male, Italian-sounding "o" at the end. Thus, Studio and Varianto. One notable Studio car was the Luigi Fagioli Auto Union Avus'Streamline', built in 1937, which came in a detailed box, complete with tools. Only 1,000 were produced. Schuco'Turn Back' cars had a metal pin sensor that made the car turn when approaching the edge of a table. Wooden pegs were provided with the toy so the car could be driven around them; the Schuco'Command 2000' car was voice activated, by speaking loudly or blowing through louvres in the roof, it would start or stop on command.
Toy production was halted during the devastation of World War II. In the late 1940s, Schuco again began tin toy assembly - this time focusing a bit more on the broader European and international market. Tin toys were larger scale - in the neighborhood of 1:24 to 1:18. During the 1950s there was a shift to plastic and diecast metal, introduced in the Piccolo series in 1958, became commonplace for models in the early 1970s. Model types continued to include remote control and wind-up toys. Toy scales were always varied starting with HO up to a foot long or larger. Post-war cars during the 1950s mimicked real cars but were most generic - some Schucos looked like Kaiser-Frazers, BMW 328s, Buick sedans, or Porsches, but these names were never used for the toys until the Mercedes Elektro Phanomenal was introduced in 1955. By the mid-1960s, most cars were given specific brand names of actual automobiles; the Schuco Varianto wire-track system was introduced in 1951. The company's advertisements stated, "The automatic traffic game featuring a new kind of wire track never seen before."
The clockwork or battery-operated cars had a guide wheel on the underside that set within coiled wire tracks. The tracks could be arranged in various configurations of the owner's own design. Different plastic pieces could be linked with the wire track to create overpasses; the Varianto system was sold for fifteen years and was immensely popular as a much cheaper alternative to electric train sets, having similar features and limited in layout only by the owner's imagination. Edward Force wrote that Schuco's first consistent foray into diecast toys was in 1958 when the 1:90 scale'Piccolo' series was introduced; these solid metal cars were mildly cartoonish at the same time. Piccolos did they have interiors. Piccolos are collectible today, whether the original models or the Schuco reproductions. More than 100 different Piccolos have been produced, some in many liveries, like the VW transporter van. With a windup key, the 1:45 scale Micro Racer cars would zip around, yet could be pushed forward or backward without harming the wind-up mechanism.
The "micro" name came from the "micro" - threaded steering which could be adjusted.'Old Timers' had specialized clock-work motors. When wound up and in neutral, the cars would vibrate. Shift the car into gear and off they roll - the direction chosen by how the steering wheel was turned. Examples of cars in this series were a Ford Model T, a Mercedes Simplex, or a Mercer 35J. In addition, drive-by-wire "telesteering" was seen on earlier, larger scale cars. Larger cars made during the 1970s were impressive and focused on German products; the 1:12 scale BMW 3.0 CSL Coupe in racing colors had switches to turn on and off head and hazard lamps. A lever on the steering column operated; the instrument panel was illuminated. The model had working steering. A 1:16 scale Porsche 911 was cleverly equipped with an electric horn that sounded with two tones and a set of studded rally tires that