A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
The Auckland central business district called the city centre by Auckland Council, is the geographical and economic heart of the Auckland metropolitan area. The area is made up of the city's largest concentration of businesses; the CBD is one of the most densely developed places in New Zealand, with many commercial and some residential developments packed into a space of only 433 hectares. Bounded by several major motorways and by the harbour coastline in the north, it is surrounded further out by suburban areas. Located on the northern shore of a narrow isthmus, the CBD extends from the Auckland waterfront on the Waitematā Harbour southwards along Queen Street and a number of other parallel-running streets; the CBD is considered to be bounded by the main motorways that surround all non-harbour sides, with State Highway 1 forming the southern and western boundaries, State Highway 16 / Grafton Gully forming the eastern boundary. The CBD has an area of 433 hectares, similar to the Sydney CBD, twice as large as the CBDs of Wellington and Christchurch.
The CBD is to a substantial part located on reclaimed land of the Waitematā Harbour. For a closer discussion of this aspect, see the Commercial Bay and Auckland waterfront articles; the town of Auckland was created in 1840 with the first European colonisation of the area, marked by an official ceremony on the now non-existent Point Britomart. The initial centre of the new town was focused on what is now the corner of Shortland and Queen Streets, at the shoreline of Commercial Bay. From their junction, the main wharf ran north off the end of Queen Street, with Shortland Street leading up to Fort Britomart and Government House, around which many of the richer people built houses. Shortland Street tended to be the location of the more important businesses and most of the'luxury' shops of the mid 19th century; the 1850s onwards saw an increasing number of businesses, retail, locating further south along Queen Street, which still to this day forms the'spine' of the area. In 1841, one year after the European founding, the census counted 2,000 people, with "mechanics" the largest group at 250, other groups of note being 150 agricultural labourers, 100 shopkeepers, 100 domestic servants, 125 "upper class members".
During the remainder of the 19th century, Commercial Bay was progressively filled in, allowing a northward extension of Queen Street and the creation of Fort Street, Customs Street, Quay Street. The part of Queen Street north of Customs Street is today referred to informally as Lower Queen Street; as well as being the location of a great many multi-storey warehouses the Lower Queen Street area contained many manufacturing businesses, though many of these started to move to other areas such as Freeman's Bay and Parnell if they took up a lot of room or created noise or pollution. Up until the middle of the 20th century the centre of town still contained a large number of small factories including clothing manufacturers; the relocation of industries to outlying suburbs became pronounced in the 1950s due to incentives made by council planners to create industrial areas in Penrose and Rosebank Road and thus rid the inner city area of noise and heavy traffic. This was mirrored by the development of suburban shopping malls which enticed retailers to vacate the inner city as well.
Attempts by the council to halt this pattern by constructing numerous public car parking buildings met with varying success. The rise of suburban supermarket and mall shopping, created in places such as Pakuranga from 1965 onwards has been added to by the appearance of Big Box retailers in places such as Botany and the North Shore. Residential numbers in the inner city were declining in the 20th century from as early as the 1920s. In the two-mile zone surrounding the CBD, there were 70,000 people in 1926, with only around 50,000 in 1966 - a change made more marked by the development of the remainder of Auckland's population, which grew more than fourfold in the same timeframe. In the 1990s, only a token population of around 1,400 was still residing within the CBD, though this was to grow with a boom of new apartment buildings around the turn of the millennium. Around 24,000 apartment units exist as of 2010; the CBD of Auckland has been the leading centre of New Zealand's business and economic development for nearly two centuries.
The area of today's CBD was the site of the original European settlement of Auckland, oriented along the coastline and Queen Street, in a southward direction. From those origins, it has grown progressively, become much more densely built-up, now being an area of high-rise buildings used for commercial and retail uses, it has the highest concentration of arts and higher education institutions and venues in the country. Some commentators have noted that the recent decades have not been kind to the aesthetics and the community values of the inner city; the demolishing of many older buildings the prerequisite for low-quality or uninspired new office and residential developments, is considered by them to be due to a combination of developers uninterested in long-term outcomes and Council planning direction being too weak. In an attempt to reverse the decline of aesthetics in the CBD, previous Auckland City Councils and the current unitary Auckland Council have instigated several urban regeneration schemes.
These include the recent redevelopment of Aotea Square in 2010 and the upgrade of Saint Patrick's Square in 2009. The area east o
North Shore, New Zealand
The North Shore is part of the urban area of Auckland, New Zealand, located to the north of the Waitematā Harbour. The North Shore was North Shore City, a distinct territorial authority district, governed by the North Shore City Council from 1989 until 2010, when it was incorporated into Auckland Council; the city had an estimated population of 229,000 at 30 June 2010, making it the fourth most populous city in New Zealand prior to the November 2010 reorganisation. The former city was the country's fourth largest city in land, with an area of 129.81 square kilometres and a coastline of 141 kilometres. It was the most densely populated city in the country because, unlike other New Zealand cities, most of the city's area was urban or suburban in character; the North Shore comprises a large suburban area to the north of downtown Auckland. The North Shore has been administered by various councils over the years, in the most recent past the North Shore City Council. On 1 November 2010, North Shore City Council and the six other local councils and Auckland Regional Council merged to create Auckland Council.
Today, the entire area has been divided among four local boards of the amalgamated Auckland Council: Devonport-Takapuna, Upper Harbour and Hibiscus and Bays. The administrative area of North Shore City Council was bounded by Rodney District to the north, Waitematā Harbour to the south and the Rangitoto Channel of the Hauraki Gulf to the east; the seat of the council was in Takapuna. North Shore City was divided into the following wards, which each ward was further divided into two community boards. Albany Community Board: Albany2, Albany Heights, Fairview Heights, Greenhithe2, Lucas Heights, Paremoremo, Rosedale, Schnapper Rock, Unsworth Heights, Windsor Park; the European history of the North Shore was dominated by rural settlement, with people from the "main" Auckland venturing there only during weekends, when the beaches and many coastal settlements were favourite daytripper goals reached by the ferries connecting the North Shore to Auckland. By the 1950s, only about 50,000 people lived on the Shore, its growth rate was still about half that of the areas south of the Waitemata because few jobs were on offer.
This changed with the construction of the Auckland Harbour Bridge in 1959, which opened up the Shore for Auckland expansion – vehicle volumes on the bridge became three times the forecast volume within the first decade – and began turning parts of it into a dormitory town for people working in the Auckland CBD or further south. The growth became significant enough for the North Shore to be considered a city in its own right, though densities remained still below what is typical south of the Harbour. On 1 November 2010 the North Shore boundaries were amalgamated with the rest of the entire Auckland Region, the North Shore City Council was abolished and replaced by a single unitary city authority. All council services and facilities are now under authority of the Auckland Council. Commuting within the North Shore itself can be done easily, but those who commute to Auckland City and need to cross the Auckland Harbour Bridge face severe traffic congestion; the alternative route through western suburbs is prone to nose-to-tail traffic at peak times.
As with the greater Auckland area, there has been much discussion regarding the problem at both national and local government levels, but little concrete action related to the high cost and difficulty of providing additional crossings over the Waitematā Harbour. Several options for new bridges and tunnels have been studied in depth, but at the moment, the official position is to mitigate congestion effects instead of providing new infrastructure; the Northern Busway running alongside the Northern Motorway, together with park and ride or drop-off areas at most of its stations, serves as the spine of a bus-based rapid transit system for North Shore and Hibiscus Coast citizens. The busway was operational between Constellation and Akoranga in February 2008. A number of North Shore suburbs have a regular ferry service to Auckland City, including Devonport, Stanley Bay, Birkenhead. Others are planned for Takapuna and Browns Bay. A plan in the mid-2000s to turn North Shore streets into a venue for a three-day V8 supercar race generated controversy.
The city was run by a 15-member council and mayor, democratically elected every three years using the First Past The Post voting system. The
Auckland Libraries is the public library system for the Auckland Region of New Zealand. It was created when the seven separate councils in the Auckland region merged in 2010, it is the largest public-library network in the Southern Hemisphere with 55 branches from Wellsford to Waiuku. In November 2010, Auckland's local councils merged to create the Auckland Council; as a result of this process, the seven public library systems within the region were combined to form Auckland Libraries. The following library networks were amalgamated, forming Auckland Libraries: Auckland City Libraries Bookinopolis Manukau Libraries North Shore Libraries Papakura Library Services – The Sir Edmund Hillary Library Rodney Libraries Waitakere Libraries In the years leading up to the merger of the library systems within Auckland, the separate library systems combined to form a consortium in order to align their processes; this organisation was called eLGAR. This consortium settled on Millenium as their Library Management System, the libraries within this system all moved to this software.
The result was that the library systems were able to offer their customers a seamless transition to membership of the larger network, with immediate access to all 55 libraries from November 1, 2010. Prior to amalgamation, Auckland City Libraries was a network of 17 public libraries and a mobile library operated by Auckland City Council. In September 1880, Auckland City Council took responsibility for the library of the Auckland Mechanics' Institute which had come under financial difficulties; the Mechanics’ Institute was formed in 1842 and the items remaining in its library, along with items from the Library of the old Auckland Provincial Council, were included in the collection of the Auckland Free Public Library. In 1887, George Grey donated around 8,000 books, doubling the existing collection, a new building was erected for the library on the corner of Wellesley and Coburg streets. At the time, this building housed the entire collection for the Auckland public library, in addition to the city's art collection.
Additionally, from its inception in 1916 until it was closed in 1957, The Old Colonists’ Museum was in this building. This building is now the Auckland Art Gallery; the building on Lorne Street that houses the Central City library was opened in 1971. Before amalgamation, three public libraries—Pukekohe and Tuakau—made up a network known as "Bookinopolis". A municipal library had first been established at Pukekohe in 1913 and at Waiuku in 1946, in each case taking over an existing subscription library. Tuakau Public Library was opened in 1977. After local-body amalgamation in 1989, these three libraries formed the Franklin District library system. In 2000, this was taken over by the Franklin District Library Trust; the Trust renamed its library system "Bookinopolis". In 2010, the Pukekohe and Waiuku libraries became branches of Auckland Libraries, due to boundary changes, Tuakau was taken over by Waikato Dictrict Council; when Manukau City Council was formed by the amalgamation of Manukau County and Manurewa Borough in 1965, it took over responsibility for a small subscription library at Māngere East and volunteer-run community libraries in Alfriston, Clevedon, Kawakawa Bay, Orere Point and Weymouth.
The newly formed city opened its first full-service public library at Manurewa in 1967. This was followed by children’s libraries at both Otara and Māngere East in 1969, branch libraries at Pakuranga in 1973 and Manukau City Centre in 1976, a combined school and public library at Ngā Tapuwae College in 1978. Came Māngere Bridge in 1979, Māngere Town Centre in 1980 and Highland Park in 1987. Local-body amalgamation in 1989 saw two more libraries added to the system: Papatoetoe and Howick, where the municipal library services dated from 1945 and 1947 respectively. In 1958 Papatoetoe Library had earned the distinction of setting up the first municipal mobile library in New Zealand. Manukau Libraries’ last three branches were Clendon, the innovative Tupu-Dawson Road Youth Library, the Botany Idealibrary. Clendon Library was renamed Te Matariki Clendon when it was relocated in 2006. Throughout its life, Manukau Libraries operated as a dispersed rather than a centralised library system. However, in 2001 it opened a reference and reading room near Manukau City Centre that expanded into the Manukau Research Library.
By 2010 Manukau Libraries operated 13 branch libraries, a research library, five volunteer-run'rural libraries', a mobile library. In 1989, the North Shore City Council was formed by combining the various boroughs that had existed on the North Shore, so that prior to the 2010 amalgamation of the council into the Auckland Council, North Shore Libraries was a network of six libraries and a mobile library. Membership of Auckland Libraries is free for residents and ratepayers of the Auckland Council region. Auckland Libraries has a small number of rental collections. Library members can request an item from any of the libraries in Auckland Libraries for free. Many of the libraries provide Internet access; the library system gives access to three specialised eBook suppliers: Overdrive, BorrowBox, Wheelers. There is a Digital Library which includes over 100 databases; the library system provides a number of free events: Wriggle and Rhyme: Active Movement for Early Learning for babies.
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Bach (New Zealand)
A bach ( is a small very modest holiday home or beach house in New Zealand. Baches are an iconic part of the country's culture. In the middle of the 20th century, they symbolized the beach holiday lifestyle, becoming more accessible to the middle class. Bach was thought to be short for bachelor pad, but they tended to be a family holiday home. An alternative theory for the origin of the word is that bach is the Welsh word for small and little; the phrase TyBach is used for outbuildings, with sizable population of Welsh miners relocated to New Zealand during mining booms. Today the word is pronounced differently to the original Welsh, similar to the German name "J S Bach". Baches began to gain popularity in the 1950s as roads improved and the increasing availability of cars allowed for middle-class beach holidays to the same beach every year. With yearly return trips being made, baches began to spring up in many family vacation spots, they are always small structures made of cheap or recycled material like fibrolite, corrugated iron or used timber.
They were influenced by the backwoods sheds of the early settlers and farmers. Other baches used a caravan as the core of the structure, built extensions on to that. Many cities were dismantling tram systems in the 1950s, old trams were sometimes used as baches, most noticeably on the coast of the Coromandel Peninsula on the Firth of Thames, to which more than 100 trams were relocated. A reconstructed example of a typical bach from the 1950s can be found in National Maritime Museum on Princes Wharf in central Auckland; the period-furnished bach is complemented with an adjacent beach shop with original products from that time. While older baches tend to be fibrolite lean-to structures, modern kit-set buildings are becoming popular amongst bach owners; some figures estimate. Early baches enjoyed amenities like connections to the water and electricity grid or indoor toilets, they were furnished often with secondhand furniture. In more recent times the basic bach has been replaced by the modern "holiday house", more substantial, more expensive and professionally built.
Another important change has been the subdivision of coastal land, with increasing numbers of residents and visitors, bringing traffic, mobile phone coverage, craft shops and other conveniences to what were empty beaches and bush-filled gullies. Some bach-dotted beaches in the 1950s have today become suburban areas. Old baches have "existing use" rights under the 1991 Resource Management Act in areas where newer planning regulations would not allow such modest residential or part-time residential buildings; as such they are quite prized though authorities look unfavourably on proposals to convert them into full residential buildings. Dacha