20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the
American International Pictures
American International Pictures was an independent film production and distribution company formed on April 2, 1954 as American Releasing Corporation by James H. Nicholson, former Sales Manager of Realart Pictures, Samuel Z. Arkoff, an entertainment lawyer, it was dedicated to releasing low-budget films packaged as double features of interest to the teenagers of the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s. Nicholson and Arkoff formed ARC in 1954. Nicholson and Arkoff served as executive producers while Roger Corman and Alex Gordon were the principal film producers and, directors. Writer Charles B. Griffith wrote many of the early films, along with Arkoff's brother-in-law, Lou Rusoff, who produced many of the films he had written. Other writers included Richard Matheson and Charles Beaumont. Floyd Crosby, A. S. C. Famous for his camera work on a number of exotic documentaries and the Oscar winner, High Noon, was chief cinematographer, his innovative use of surreal color and odd lenses and angles gave AIP films a signature look.
The early rubber monster suits and miniatures of Paul Blaisdell were used in AIP's science fiction films. The company hired Les Baxter and Ronald Stein to compose many of its film scores. In the 1950s the company had a number of actors under contract, including John Ashley, Fay Spain and Steve Terrell; when many of ARC/AIP's first releases failed to earn a profit, Arkoff quizzed film exhibitors who told him of the value of the teenage market as adults were watching television. AIP stopped making Westerns with Arkoff explaining: "To compete with television westerns you have to have color, big stars and $2,000,000". AIP was the first company to use focus groups, polling American teenagers about what they would like to see and using their responses to determine titles and story content. AIP would question their exhibitors what they thought of the success of a title would have a writer create a script for it. A sequence of tasks in a typical production involved creating a great title, getting an artist such as Albert Kallis who supervised all AIP artwork from 1955–73 to create a dynamic, eye-catching poster raising the cash, writing and casting the film.
Samuel Z. Arkoff related his tried-and-true "ARKOFF formula" for producing a successful low-budget movie years during a 1980s talk show appearance, his ideas for a movie included: Action Revolution Killing Oratory Fantasy Fornication Later the AIP publicity department devised a strategy called "The Peter Pan Syndrome": a) a younger child will watch anything an older child will watch. AIP began as the American Releasing Company, a new distribution company formed in the early 1950s formed by James H. Nicholson and Samuel Z. Arkoff, they were interested in distributing a car chase movie produced by Roger Corman for his Palo Alto Productions, The Fast and the Furious. Corman had received offers from other companies for the film, but ARC offered to advance money to enable Corman to make two other films. Corman agreed, The Fast and the Furious performed well at the box office and the company was launched. Corman's next two films for the company were a Western Five Guns West, which Corman directed, a science fiction film, The Beast with a Million Eyes.
The title from the latter had come from Nicholson. ARC distributed the Western Outlaw Treasure starring Johnny Carpenter. ARC got Corman to direct another Western and science fiction double bill Apache Woman and Day the World Ended. Both scripts were written by Arkoff's brother-in-law Lou Rusoff, who would become the company's leading writer in its early days. Apache Woman was produced by Alex Gordon, an associate of Arkoff's, Day was produced by Corman. Both were made by ARC's production arm. B movies were made for the second part of a bill and received a flat rate; as television was encroaching on the B movie market and Arkoff felt it would be more profitable to make two low budget films and distribute them together on a double bill. Nicholson came up with a title for a film to support Day the World Ended, The Phantom from 10,000 Leagues, but lacked the money to make both films, they split the costs with film editors who wanted to get into production. The resulting double bill was successful at the box office.
Gordon produced The Oklahoma Woman, a Western by Corman, made through Sunset Productions. It was put on a double bill with a film noir. Other films released under the ARC banner include a British documentary Operation Malaya and Corman's Gunslinger. Arkoff and Nicholson had always wanted to name their company "American International Pictures" but the name was unavailable; when the name became available, they changed over. There were three main production arms at AIP in the late 1950s: Roger Corman, Alex Gordon and Lou Rusoff, Herman Cohen. Arkoff and Nicholson would buy films from other filmmakers as well, import films from outside America. Corman continued to be an important member of AIP, he had a big hit for the company with the science fiction film It Conquered th
Annette Joanne Funicello was an American actress and singer. Funicello began her professional career as a child performer at the age of twelve, she rose to prominence as one of the most popular Mouseketeers on the original Mickey Mouse Club. As a teenager, she transitioned to a successful career as a singer with the pop singles "O Dio Mio", "Tall Paul" and "Pineapple Princess", as well as establishing herself as a film actress, popularizing the successful "Beach Party" genre alongside co-star Frankie Avalon during the mid-1960s. In 1992, Funicello announced, she died of complications from the disease on April 8, 2013. Annette Joanne Funicello was born in Utica, New York, to Italian Americans Virginia Jeanne and Joseph Edward Funicello, her family moved to Southern California. Annette took music lessons as a child to overcome shyness. In 1955, the 12-year-old was discovered by Walt Disney when she performed as the Swan Queen in Swan Lake at a dance recital at the Starlight Bowl in Burbank, California.
Disney cast her as one of the original Mouseketeers. She was the last to be selected, one of the few cast-members to be selected by Walt Disney himself. In 1955 she signed a seven year contract with Disney at $160 a week to rise to $500 a week if all options were exercised. Funicello proved to be popular and by the end of the first season of The Mickey Mouse Club, she was receiving 6,000 letters a month, according to her Disney Legends biography - more than any other Mouseketeer. In addition to appearing in many Mouseketeer sketches and dance routines, Funicello starred in several serials on The Mickey Mouse Club; these included Adventure in Dairyland, the second and third Spin and Marty serials – The Further Adventures of Spin and Marty and The New Adventures of Spin and Marty, Walt Disney Presents: Annette. In a hayride scene in the Annette serial, she performed the song; the studio received so much mail about "How Will I Know My Love", that Walt Disney issued it as a single, gave Funicello a recording contract.
A proposed live-action feature Rainbow Road to Oz was to have starred some of the Mouseketeers, including Darlene Gillespie as Dorothy and Funicello as Ozma. Preview segments from the film aired on September 1957, on Disneyland's fourth anniversary show. By MGM's The Wizard of Oz had been shown on CBS Television for the first time. Theories on why the film was abandoned include Disney's failure to develop a satisfactory script, the popularity of the MGM film on television. Disney replaced this film project with a new adaptation of Babes in Toyland, which starred Funicello as "Mary Contrary". After the Mickey Mouse Club, she remained under contract with Disney for a time, she had a role on the Disney television roles in Zorro, playing Anita Cabrillo in a three-episode storyline about a teen-aged girl arriving in Los Angeles to visit a father who does not seem to exist. This role was a birthday present from Walt Disney, the first of two different characters played opposite Guy Williams as Zorro.
She had a multiple-episode guest arc on Make Room for Daddy as an Italian exchange student. Annette made her feature film debut in the Disney-produced comedy The Shaggy Dog with Fred MacMurray and Tommy Kirk; the film was a huge hit at the box office. Although uncomfortable being thought of as a singer, Funicello had a number of pop record hits in the late 1950s and early 1960s written by the Sherman Brothers and including: "Tall Paul", "First Name Initial", "O Dio Mio", "Train of Love" and "Pineapple Princess", they were released by Disney's Buena Vista label. Annette recorded "It's Really Love" in 1959, a reworking of an earlier Paul Anka song called "Toot Sweet". Paul Anka was noted to have a crush on her, Walt Disney overprotected Annette, which broke Paul's heart; this resulted in his song "Puppy Love", inspired by his hopeless romantic crush on Annette. In an episode of the Disney anthology television series titled "Disneyland After Dark", Funicello can be seen singing live at Disneyland.
Walt Disney was a fan of 1950s pop star Teresa Brewer and tried to pattern Funicello's singing on the same style. However, Funicello credits "the Annette sound" to her record producer, Tutti Camarata, who worked for Disney in that era. Camarata had her double-track her vocals, matching her first track as as possible on the second recording to achieve a fuller sound than her voice would otherwise produce. Early in her career, she appeared on the NBC interview program Here's Hollywood. In December 1959 Funicello attempted to have her contract with Disney set aside, claiming that it was unquitable and that she was without an agent or legal counsel when she signed it, she was on $325 a week. The court refused. In 1961 Funnicello returned to Zorro playing a different role, she starred in a big budget musical for Disney, Babes alongside Tommy Sands and Kirk. She appeared in two television movies filmed in Europe for Disney alongside Kirk, both of which were released theatrically in some markets: The Horsemasters, shot in England, Escapade in Florence, filmed in Italy.
Funicello moved on from Disney to become a teen idol, starring in a series of "Beach Party" movies with Frankie Avalon for American International Pictures. These started with Beach Party, so successful American International Pictures signed Funicello to a seven-year contract and starred her
Joel Dee McCrea, known as Jody McCrea, was an American film and television actor. He was the oldest of the three sons of veteran film actors Joel Frances Dee. McCrea went to school in Santa Rosa, at New Mexico Military Institute in Roswell, New Mexico, he served in the United States Army Special Services. McCrea had small roles in Wichita, he was in Lucy Gallant. While still at UCLA he had the lead role in Johnny Moccasin, a half hour film made for television by Laslo Benedek as a white boy raised by Indians after a massacre. McCrea followed this with a good supporting role in a feature starring The First Texan. McCrea studied under Sanford Meisner for two years in New York City, he appeared on television in Chevron Hall of Stars, The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show, Studio One in Hollywood, Sergeant Preston of the Yukon, Kraft Theatre. He had a supporting role in Naked Gun, The Monster That Challenged the World, he made Trooper Hook and Gunsight Ridge with his father and was one of several young names in Lafayette Escadrille and The Restless Years.
He briefly hosted Country Style, USA, an Army-produced recruiting television program filmed in Nashville, featuring various country music entertainers. In 1959, McCrea costarred with his father in the short-lived NBC western Wichita Town, set in Wichita, Kansas. Joel McCrea appeared as Marshal Mike Dunbar. Jody McCrea did not portray the role of Joel's son on the program but as the deputy marshal, Ben Matheson. McCrea had a small role in All Hands on Deck and could be seen in the episode, "The Wrestler" on the ABC situation comedy, Guestward Ho!, starring Joanne Dru. He toured the country with The Tiger a production from Moral Rearmament, he did The Moon is Look Homeward Angel in stock. McCrea was cast as Lieutenant John J. Pershing in the 1962 episode, "To Walk with Greatness", on the syndicated television anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews. In the story line, three outlaws endanger an Indian treaty. Frank Ferguson was cast in the episode as Colonel Carr. In the early 1960s, McCrea guest starred on the CBS game program, I've Got a Secret with Garry Moore.
His appearance was part of a group of entertainers related to famous Hollywood personalities. McCrea had support parts in Force of The Broken Land, he made Young Guns of Texas with Alana Ladd, daughter of Alan Ladd, James Mitchum, son of Robert. McCrea had a support role in Operation Bikini at American International Pictures starring Tab Hunter and Frankie Avalon, he impressed the studio enough for them to cast him in a comedic role as dumb-minded "Deadhead" in Beach Party starring Avalon and Annette Funicello. When cast in the beach pictures, he realized his comedic potential; when first offered the role of "Deadhead", for example, he was quoted at the time as saying that he "wasn't sure what the character would become". McCrea felt. McCrea was an avid body builder, the only actor appearing in the American International Pictures beach movies who could surf; the film was a big hit and after appearing in Law of the Lawless and The Greatest Show on Earth, McCrea reprised his performance as Deadhead in Muscle Beach Party and Bikini Beach.
He recorded. He wrote a script Stage to Nowhere which appears not to have been made. McCrea played the "Big Lurch" in the 1964 film, Pajama Party, with Tommy Kirk and Annette Funicello in the lead parts. McCrea had a small part in Young Fury and played Lieutenant Brannin, a cocky cavalry officer based loosely on George Armstrong Custer, in Sam Peckinpah's Major Dundee, but his scene was deleted from the final cut, he appeared in Wagon Train, before returning to AIP beach movies with Beach Blanket Bingo. McCrea played "Bonehead", again the same character - but it was his biggest role in the series, having a romance with a mermaid. McCrea was back as Bonehead in How to Stuff a Wild Bikini, the last Beach Party movie in which he appeared. H was replaced by Aaron Kincaid for Ghost in the Invisible Bikini. McCrea guest starred on Pistols'n' Petticoats, he had a lead role as a biker in The Glory Stompers, starred in Sam for Larry Buchanan. He was a judge on Dream Girl of'67. McCrea had a supporting role in Scream Free! and the lead in The Girls from Thunder Strip.
McCrea starred in a Western Cry Blood, Apache which he produced. He retired after November Children. McCrea became a rancher in New Mexico, he came out of retirement to appear in 1981 in Lady Street Fighter. He died in 2009 of a heart attack at the age of seventy-four, he was married to the former Dusty Ironwing from 1976 until her death in 1996. He is survived by the stepchildren that he reared, David Ironwing. Http://www.latimes.com/news/obituaries/la-me-jody-mccrea17-2009apr17,0,3886252.story Official website Jody McCrea on IMDb Jody McCrea at Find a Grave Jod
Anthropology is the scientific study of humans and human behavior and societies in the past and present. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States and Canada, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right or grouped under other related disciplines, such as history; the abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history. Its present use first appeared in Renaissance Germany in the works of Otto Casmann, their New Latin anthropologia derived from the combining forms of the Greek words ánthrōpos and lógos. It began to be used in English via French Anthropologie, by the early 18th century. In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows: Anthropology, to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, Psychology, which speaks of the soul.
Sporadic use of the term for some of the subject matter occurred subsequently, such as the use by Étienne Serres in 1839 to describe the natural history, or paleontology, of man, based on comparative anatomy, the creation of a chair in anthropology and ethnography in 1850 at the National Museum of Natural History by Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau. Various short-lived organizations of anthropologists had been formed; the Société Ethnologique de Paris, the first to use Ethnology, was formed in 1839. Its members were anti-slavery activists; when slavery was abolished in France in 1848 the Société was abandoned. Meanwhile, the Ethnological Society of New York the American Ethnological Society, was founded on its model in 1842, as well as the Ethnological Society of London in 1843, a break-away group of the Aborigines' Protection Society; these anthropologists of the times were liberal, anti-slavery, pro-human-rights activists. They maintained international connections. Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century.
Theorists in such diverse fields as anatomy and Ethnology, making feature-by-feature comparisons of their subject matters, were beginning to suspect that similarities between animals and folkways were the result of processes or laws unknown to them then. For them, the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect. Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild. Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s. There was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. Paul Broca in Paris was in the process of breaking away from the Société de biologie to form the first of the explicitly anthropological societies, the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, meeting for the first time in Paris in 1859; when he read Darwin, he became an immediate convert to Transformisme, as the French called evolutionism. His definition now became "the study of the human group, considered as a whole, in its details, in relation to the rest of nature".
Broca, being what today would be called a neurosurgeon, had taken an interest in the pathology of speech. He wanted to localize the difference between man and the other animals, which appeared to reside in speech, he discovered the speech center of the human brain, today called Broca's area after him. His interest was in Biological anthropology, but a German philosopher specializing in psychology, Theodor Waitz, took up the theme of general and social anthropology in his six-volume work, entitled Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker, 1859–1864; the title was soon translated as "The Anthropology of Primitive Peoples". The last two volumes were published posthumously. Waitz defined anthropology as "the science of the nature of man". By nature he meant matter animated by "the Divine breath". Following Broca's lead, Waitz points out that anthropology is a new field, which would gather material from other fields, but would differ from them in the use of comparative anatomy and psychology to differentiate man from "the animals nearest to him".
He stresses. The history of civilization, as well as ethnology, are to be brought into the comparison, it is to be presumed fundamentally that the species, man, is a unity, that "the same laws of thought are applicable to all men". Waitz was influential among the British ethnologists. In 1863 the explorer Richard Francis Burton and the speech therapist James Hunt broke away from the Ethnological Society of London to form the Anthropological Society of London, which henceforward would follow the path of the new anthropology rather than just ethnology, it was the 2nd society dedicated to general anthropology in existence. Representatives from the French Société were present. In his keynote address, printed in the first volume of its new publication, The Anthropological Review, Hunt stressed the work of Waitz, adopting his definitions as a standard. Among the first associates were the young Edward Burnett Tylor, inventor of cultural anthropology, his brother Alfred Tylor, a geologist. Edward had referred to himself as an ethnologist.
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Moritz "Morey" Amsterdam was an American television actor and comedian. He was known for the role of Buddy Sorrell on CBS's The Dick Van Dyke Show from 1961 to 1966. Amsterdam was born in Chicago, the youngest of the three sons of Max and Jennie Amsterdam, Jewish immigrants from Austria-Hungary, he began working in vaudeville in 1922 as the straight man for his older brother's jokes. He was a skill he used throughout his career. By 1924, he was working in a speakeasy operated by Al Capone. After being caught in the middle of a gunfight, Amsterdam moved to California and worked writing jokes, his enormous repertoire, his ability to come up with a joke on any subject, earned him the nickname The Human Joke Machine. He sometimes performed with a mock machine on his chest, he turned a hand paper rolled out. Amsterdam's reputation for humor preceded him. Hal Block tells of Amsterdam meeting an old friend. "Where have you been?" the friend asked. "Sick," Amsterdam replied, "I've been in bed with a cold."
His friend looked at him and asked, "What's so funny about that?" During the 1930s, Amsterdam was a regular on The Al Pearce Show radio program, by 1937 was the master of ceremonies on The Night Club of the Air. Amsterdam had a notable career as a songwriter, with his first popular success being "Why Oh Why Did I Ever Leave Wyoming". Amsterdam was credited as the lyricist on the 1945 Andrews Sisters hit "Rum and Coca-Cola". However, the original song was written and performed by Trinidadian calypso singer Lord Invader, composed by Lionel Belasco. Amsterdam had altered some lyrics for the Andrews Sisters record, was subsequently involved in a copyright suit over the song, which dragged on until 1948. In the end, Lord Invader was given a substantial royalty payment for having written the lyrics of original piece, while Amsterdam retained the credit for his revised version of the lyric. In the early 1940s, Amsterdam was a screenwriter, contributing dialogue for two East Side Kids films, he is listed as screenwriter for the 1943 film the Guest and 1944's Bowery Champs.
By 1947, he was performing on three daily radio shows. Beginning in 1948, he appeared on the radio show Stop Me; the Morey Amsterdam Show aired on CBS radio from July 10, 1948, to February 15, 1949. For three months, it was on both radio and television with different scripts for the same premise and cast, he did a radio show called the Laugh and Chuckle Swing Club, broadcasting from the Filmart Theater on Vine Street in Hollywood, in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The Morey Amsterdam Show ran on CBS TV from December 1948 to March 1949 and on DuMont from April 1949 to October 1950. Among Morey's regular guests was song-and-dance man Art Carney; the cigarette girl was future author Jacqueline Susann, wife of the producer of the show, Irving Mansfield. Jazz musician Johnny Guarneri led the band. In 1950, he hosted the comedy-variety show Broadway Open House, TV's first late-night entertainment show, on NBC. One of the pioneering TV creations of NBC president Pat Weaver, it demonstrated the potential for late-night programming and led to the development of The Tonight Show.
The show was to be hosted by comic Don "Creesh" Hornsby, but he died of polio two weeks before the premiere broadcast. Hornsby's replacements, hosting different nights each week, were Amsterdam and the raucous Jerry Lester, the brother of character actor Buddy Lester. Amsterdam soon exited the show. In February 1952, Amsterdam made his dramatic TV debut on an episode of the DuMont Television Network series Not for Publication. In 1957, he appeared as "Jack Connors" in the third episode of the syndicated television sitcom How to Marry a Millionaire, with Barbara Eden and Merry Anders. In 1958, he appeared as saloon manager Lucien Bellingham in an episode of the CBS western series Have Gun, Will Travel entitled "The Moor's Revenge", he guest-starred on the CBS sitcom Pete and Gladys, with Harry Morgan and Cara Williams. His best-known role was as comedy writer Buddy Sorrell on The Dick Van Dyke Show, a role suggested for him by his friend Rose Marie, who appeared on the show; the show's creator, Carl Reiner, based the character on his old friend Mel Brooks, with whom he worked on the writing staff of Your Show of Shows.
Like Amsterdam himself, Buddy had a ready quip for any situation, one of the show's most popular running gags was his insult-laden feud with producer Mel Cooley. Buddy was one of the rare overtly Jewish characters on TV in that era, with one episode revolving around his belated decision to have a Bar Mitzvah. Amsterdam wrote lyrics for the show's theme song, which were never heard on the air, but have been performed by Dick Van Dyke in concert. Van Dyke sang those lyrics on the October 23, 2010 edition of the NPR show Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me!. Amsterdam was an occasional panelist on Match Game and the short-lived Can You Top This? during the 1970s. He appeared as a small-time criminal in several episodes of the soap opera The Young and the Restless in the 1990s. Amsterdam and Rose Marie appeared as panelists on The Hollywood Squares and guest-starred together in a February 1996 episode of the NBC sitcom Caroline in the City. In 1958, Amsterdam appeared in the low-budget film Machine-Gun Kelly with Charles Bronson, he did a notable dramatic t
Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that comprises California's southernmost counties, is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Ventura; the more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, the Mojave Desert is located north on California's Nevada border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico–United States border. Southern California includes the built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego, inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley, it encompasses eight metropolitan areas, three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA.
These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire (, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area. In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, El Centro metropolitan areas. The Southern California Megaregion is larger still, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation; the counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside are the five most populous in the state, are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.
The motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros. and Sony run major record companies. Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, the U. S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California; the region is important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii.
The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California in 1974. Since southern California, San Diego in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing and culture. Southern California is home to many sports sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches; the inland desert city of Palm Springs is popular. Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose. When the state is divided into two areas, the term southern California refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state; this definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo and San Bernardino counties.
Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary. Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be a