A beachhead is a temporary line created when a military unit reaches a landing beach by sea and begins to defend the area while other reinforcements help out until a unit large enough to begin advancing has arrived. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with lodgement. Beachheads were important in operations such as Operation Neptune during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, among many other examples. Although many references state that Operation Neptune refers to the naval operations in support of Operation Overlord, the most reliable references make it clear that Overlord refers to the establishment of a large-scale lodgement in Normandy, that Neptune refers to the landing phase which created the beachhead. According to the D-Day Museum: The armed forces use codenames to refer to the planning and execution of specific military operations. Operation Overlord was the codename for the Allied invasion of north-west Europe; the assault phase of Operation Overlord was known as Operation Neptune.

Operation Neptune began on D-Day and ended on 30 June 1944. By this time, the Allies had established a firm foothold in Normandy. Operation Overlord began on D-Day, continued until Allied forces crossed the River Seine on 19 August 1944. Once an amphibious assault starts, victory tends to go to the side which can reinforce the beachhead most quickly. There are exceptions to this rule where the amphibious forces have not expanded from their beachheads enough to create a lodgement area before the defenders can reinforce their positions. Two famous examples in which the attackers failed to expand their beachheads before the defending side could bring up reinforcements occurred during the landing at Suvla Bay in the Gallipoli Campaign in World War I and the amphibious landing at Anzio during the Italian Campaign of World War II. Airhead Bridgehead Lodgement

Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong collaborations

The collaborations between Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong have attracted much attention over the years. The artists were both known icons not just in the areas of big band and swing music but across 20th century popular music in general; the two African-American musicians produced three official releases together in Ella and Louis and Louis Again, Porgy and Bess. Each release earned both commercial and critical success; as well, tracks related to those albums have appeared in various forms in multi-artist collections and other such records. In terms of touring performances, Fitzgerald once again teamed up with Armstrong, after the success of their first album, to hold a series of concerts at the Hollywood Bowl; the duo's music proved popular with the live audiences. Two live tracks from those 1956 concerts would end up being released as album bonus material in the 1990s. Ella Fitzgerald was an African-American jazz vocalist referred to by honorific nicknames such as the "First Lady of Song" and the "Queen of Jazz".

"Lady Ella" attracted notoriety for her purity of tone, impeccable diction, lyrical phrasing, vocal intonation. In the 1950s, the depth and scope of her many releases had attracted major attention. Many critics of the time regarded her as one of the best female vocalists still making music. Louis Armstrong was an African-American jazz singer and trumpeter as well as composer who ended up being one of the most pivotal and influential figures in not just jazz-related styles but across popular music, his career spanned five decades, from the 1920s to the 1960s, different eras both musically and in terms of U. S. culture. Coming to prominence first as an inventive player, Armstrong attracted notice for shifting the focus in his records from collective improvisations to turn-by-turn solo performances. Like Fitzgerald, Armstrong picked up popular nicknames, in his case "Pops" and "Satchmo", that stuck, critics praised him by the 1950s as a sort of elder statesmen of popular music. Fitzgerald appeared in many duets in the Forties, appearing on recordings with, among others, The Ink Spots, Louis Jordan and Louis Armstrong as well as a host of instrumentalists from the Jazz At The Philharmonic troupe.

The idea of entire duet album came about from Verve's Norman Granz who had the idea to pair Fitzgerald and Armstrong. Granz persuaded Armstrong to forsake his own trad jazz group and embrace the modern sound of Oscar Peterson and composers such as Porter and Berlin. Fitzgerald allowed Louis to choose the keys in which to sing the repertoire and together they recorded the first of three albums and Louis. Ella and Louis found Louis Armstrong accompanied by the Oscar Peterson Quartet; the studio album came out. The recording sessions getting started in August 1956, the tracks featured Oscar Peterson on piano, Buddy Rich on drums, Herb Ellis on guitar, Ray Brown on bass. Seminal record producer Norman Granz masterminded the affair. Granz, who founded the record label Verve in 1956, is known as "one of the most powerful non-musicians in jazz" history. Consisting of vocal duets, compositions sung by the artists in the album include the George and Ira Gershwin songs "A Foggy Day" and "They Can't Take That Away from Me" as well as James Warburg with Kay Swift's "Can't We Be Friends?".

Ella and Louis Again, which features nineteen songs consists as a collection of vocal duets like its predecessor. However, seven selections do involve either Fitzgerald singing without the other. Examples of the popular music standards done in the album include the Irving Berlin compositions "I'm Putting All My Eggs in One Basket" and "I've Got My Love to Keep Me Warm" as well as the Vernon Duke piece "Autumn in New York"; the backing group remained the same except for Buddy Rich's role being taken by Louie Bellson. Porgy and Bess, which came out in April 1959, is not to be confused with either the 1951 release by the same title or the 1956 release The Complete Porgy and Bess. All three albums draw on the material in George and Ira Gershwin's operatic stage drama of that name, a piece that had its original Broadway production in 1935. All of the above titles are sometimes known as Porgy & Bess. On May 20, 1997, the compilation album The Complete Ella Fitzgerald & Louis Armstrong on Verve first came out.

The Complete Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong Studio Recorded Duets was first released on March 31, 2008. It saw a re-release in 2011. Despite the latter's title, that two-CD album only featured a selection of thirty-five particular tracks by the duo, lifting just four of the pieces on Porgy and Bess. Ella and Louis has picked up praise from a variety of publications. Writing for AllMusic, critic Scott Yanow stated that the two stars made "for a charming team" and provided "tasteful renditions" of the ballads chosen; the album joined the Grammy Hall of Fame by 2016. Ella & Louis Again earned similar laudatory comments from many publications. AllMusic's Alex Henderson stated that he could find details to "nitpick", such as a possible lack of trumpet solos despite Armstrong's strong presence, yet found little reason to criticize "this fine set". Henderson made a note of the "solid rhythm section led by pianist Oscar Peterson". Porgy and Bess joined the Grammy Hall of Fame by 2001; the Comple

2017–18 Feldhockey-Bundesliga

The 2017–18 Feldhockey-Bundesliga was the 76th season of the top German league for field hockey clubs. The season started in on 9 September 2017 and concluded with the championship final on 10 June 2018. Mannheimer HC were the defending champions, while Düsseldorfer HC and Münchner SC entered as the promoted teams from the 2016–17 2. Bundesliga. Rot-Weiss Köln won the regular season with an eight point lead, they qualified together with Mannheimer HC, Uhlenhorst Mülheim and Harvetshude for the Final Four. In the Final Four or championship playoff Uhlenhorst Mülheim and Rot-Weiss Köln qualified for the final where Uhlenhorst Mülheim won 3–2 and they won their 17th title after a 21 year wait. Twelve teams competed in the league – the top ten teams from the previous season and the two teams promoted from the 2. Bundesliga; the promoted teams were Düsseldorfer Münchner SC, who replaced Klipper THC and Lichterfelde. The play offs were played on 10 June 2018 in Krefeld. page Flashscore page