A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete informal diary-style text entries. Posts are displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page; until 2009, blogs were the work of a single individual of a small group, covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, "multi-author blogs" emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic; the rise of Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog; the emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming.
A knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, but often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers. However, there are high-readership blogs. Many blogs provide commentary on topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, links to other blogs, web pages, other media related to its topic; the ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs.
However, blog owners or authors moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are textual, although some focus on art, videos and audio. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources; these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring short posts. On 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On 20 February 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics. Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014. The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997; the short form, "blog", was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms.
Before blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms including Usenet, commercial online services such as GEnie, Byte Information Exchange and the early CompuServe, e-mail lists, Bulletin Board Systems. In the 1990s, Internet forum software created running conversations with "threads". Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual "corkboard". From 14 June 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their "What’s New" list of new websites, updated daily and archived monthly; the page was accessible by a special ``. The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in 1995 by Ty, Inc. which featured a blog in a section called "Online Diary". The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors; the modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers journalers. Justin Hall, who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is recognized as one of the earlier bloggers, as is Jerry Pournelle.
Dave Winer's Scripting News is credited with being one of the older and longer running weblogs. The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994; this practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, such journals were used as evidence in legal matters. Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997 referred to their online presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were manually updated components of common Websites. In 1995, the "Online Diary" on
Race Matters is a social sciences book by Cornel West. The book was first published on April 1993 by Beacon Press; the book analyzes moral authority and racial debates concerning skin color in the United States. The book questions matters of economics and politics, as well as ethical issues and spirituality, addresses the crisis in black leadership
Notes of a Native Son
Notes of a Native Son is a non-fiction book by James Baldwin. It was his first non-fiction book, was published in 1955; the volume collects ten of Baldwin's essays, which had appeared in such magazines as Harper's Magazine, Partisan Review, The New Leader. The essays tackle issues of race in America and Europe. In spite of his father wanting him to be a preacher, Baldwin said he had always been a writer at heart, he tried to find his path as a Negro writer. Furthermore, Baldwin emphasizes the importance of his desire to be writer. Baldwin castigates Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin for being too sentimental, for depicting black slaves as praying to a white God so as to be cleansed and whitened, he proceeds to repudiate Richard Wright's Native Son for portraying Bigger Thomas as an angry black man, viewing this as an example of stigmatizing categorization. Baldwin offers a sharp critique of Richard Wright's Native Son, citing its main character, Bigger Thomas, as unrealistic and stereotypical.
Baldwin criticises a film adaptation of Carmen using an all black cast. Baldwin is unhappy that the characters display no connection to the condition of blacks and sees it as no coincidence that the main characters have lighter complexions. Baldwin points out that the rent is expensive in Harlem. Moreover, although there are black politicians, the President is white. On to the black press, Baldwin notes that it emulates the white press, with its scandalous spreads and so forth; however the black Church seem to him to be a unique forum for the spelling out of black injustice. He ponders on antisemitism amongst blacks and comes to the conclusion that the hatred boils down to Jews being white and more powerful than Negroes. Baldwin tells the story that happened to The Melodeers, a group of jazz singers employed by the Progressive Party to sing in Southern Churches. However, once in Atlanta, they were used for canvassing until they refused to sing at all and were returned to their hometown, they now enjoy success in New York City.
Baldwin paints a vivid recollection of his time growing up with a paranoid father, dying of tuberculosis, his initial experience with Jim Crow style segregation. Prior to his father's death, Baldwin was befriended by a white teacher whom his father disapproved of, he worked in New Jersey and was turned down in segregated places—Baldwin recalls a time he hurled a cup half full of water at a waitress in a diner only to realize his actions could have dire consequences. He goes on to say that blacks participating in military service in the South got abused, he recounts his father's death which occurred just before his mother gave birth to one of his sisters. Baldwin compares Black Americans to Blacks in France. Whilst Africans in France have a history and a country to hold on to, Black Americans don't—their history lies in the United States and it is in the making. Baldwin explains how American students living in Paris are shocked when they arrive and are eager to return home. Baldwin recounts getting arrested in Paris over the Christmas period in 1949, after an acquaintance of his had stolen a bedsheet from a hotel, which he had used.
The essay stresses his cultural inability to know. Baldwin looks back to his time in a village in Switzerland—how he was the first black man most of the other villagers had seen, he goes on to reflect that blacks from European colonies are still located in Africa, while the United States has been informed by blacks. Notes of a Native Son is regarded as a classic of the black autobiographical genre; the Modern Library placed it at number 19 on its list of the 100 best 20th-century nonfiction books. James Baldwin. Notes of a Native Son. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-0624-5
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Transsexual Empire
The Transsexual Empire: The Making of the She-Male is a book critical of transsexualism by the American radical feminist author and activist Janice Raymond. The book is derived from Raymond's dissertation, produced under the supervision of the feminist theologian Mary Daly. Raymond investigates the role of transsexualism in society – psychological and surgical approaches to it – and argues that transsexualism reinforces traditional gender stereotypes. Raymond writes about the ways in which the medical-psychiatric complex is medicalizing gender identity and the social and political context that has helped spawn transsexual treatment and surgery as normal and therapeutic medicine. Raymond maintains that transsexualism is based on the "patriarchal myths" of "male mothering", "making of woman according to man's image", she claims this is done in order "to colonize feminist identification, culture and sexuality", adding: "All transsexuals rape women's bodies by reducing the real female form to an artifact, appropriating this body for themselves....
Transsexuals cut off the most obvious means of invading women, so that they seem non-invasive." The Transsexual Empire was first published in the United States by Beacon Press in 1979. In 1980, the book was published in the United Kingdom by The Women's Press. In 1994, a second edition was published by Teachers College Press. At time of publishing, The Transsexual Empire was respected and admired in mainstream media, with psychiatrist Thomas Szasz commenting that " has rightly seized on transsexualism as an emblem of modern society’s unremitting—though concealed—antifeminism." In a 1980 review, Sarah Hoagland called it a "fecund discussion of patriarchal deception". However, that interpretation has since gone out of vogue. Raymond's views on transsexuality have been criticized by many in the LGBT and liberal feminist communities as transphobic, constituting hate-speech against transsexual men and women. In The Transsexual Empire Raymond included sections on Sandy Stone, a trans woman who had worked as a sound engineer for Olivia Records, Christy Barsky, accusing both of creating divisiveness in women's spaces.
These writings have been criticized as personal attacks on these individuals. Writing in The Transgender Studies Reader, Carol Riddell argues that The Transsexual Empire "did not invent anti-transsexual prejudice, but it did more to justify and perpetuate it than any other book written." Feminist views on transgender and transsexual people Fictions and Facts About the Transsexual Empire – Janice Raymond's comments about her book
United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress. Articles Four and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, the shared process of constitutional amendment. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it, it is regarded as the oldest codified national constitution in force. Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been amended 27 times, including an amendment to repeal a previous one, in order to meet the needs of a nation that has profoundly changed since the eighteenth century. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government.
The majority of the seventeen amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S. Constitution are written on parchment. According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers wisely separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights, of liberty and equality, of the federal and state governments."The first permanent constitution of its kind, adopted by the people's representatives for an expansive nation, it is interpreted and implemented by a large body of constitutional law, has influenced the constitutions of other nations. From September 5, 1774, to March 1, 1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States.
Delegates to the First and the Second Continental Congress were chosen through the action of committees of correspondence in various colonies rather than through the colonial or state legislatures. In no formal sense was it a gathering representative of existing colonial governments; the process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a central governing body. Endowed by the people collectively, the Continental Congress alone possessed those attributes of external sovereignty which entitled it to be called a state in the international sense, while the separate states, exercising a limited or internal sovereignty, may rightly be considered a creation of the Continental Congress, which preceded them and brought them into being; the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. It was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late 1777, ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781.
The Articles of Confederation gave little power to the central government. The Confederation Congress lacked enforcement powers. Implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. Although, in a way, the Congressional powers in Article 9 made the "league of states as cohesive and strong as any similar sort of republican confederation in history", the chief problem was, in the words of George Washington, "no money"; the Continental Congress could print money but it was worthless. Congress couldn't pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes. Some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt no more. No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments. By 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts. Internationally, the United States had little ability to defend its sovereignty. Most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil.
They had not been paid. Spain closed New Orleans to American commerce. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce. If any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the diverse sentiments and interests of the various states. Although the Treaty of Paris was signed between Great Britain and the U. S. and named each of the American states, various states proceeded blithely to violate it. New York and South Carolina prosecuted Loyalists for wartime activity and redistributed their lands. Individual state legislatures independently laid embargoes, negotiated directly with foreign authorities, raised armies, and
Mary Daly was an American radical feminist philosopher and theologian. Daly, who described herself as a "radical lesbian feminist", taught at the Jesuit-run Boston College for 33 years. Daly retired in 1999, after violating university policy by refusing to allow male students in her advanced women's studies classes, she allowed male students in her introductory class and tutored those who wanted to take advanced classes. Before obtaining her two doctorates in sacred theology and philosophy from the University of Fribourg, she received her Bachelor of Arts degree in English from the College of Saint Rose, her Master of Arts degree in English from the Catholic University of America, a doctorate in religion from Saint Mary's College. Daly taught classes at Boston College from 1967 to 1999, including courses in theology, feminist ethics, patriarchy. Daly was first threatened with dismissal when, following the publication of her first book, The Church and the Second Sex, she was issued a terminal contract.
As a result of support from the student body and the general public, Daly was granted tenure. Daly's refusal to admit male students to some of her classes at Boston College resulted in disciplinary action. While Daly argued that their presence inhibited class discussion, Boston College took the view that her actions were in violation of title IX of federal law requiring the college to ensure that no person was excluded from an education program on the basis of sex, of the university's own non-discrimination policy insisting that all courses be open to both male and female students. In 1989, Daly became an associate of the Women's Institute for Freedom of the Press. In 1998, a discrimination claim against the college by two male students was backed by the Center for Individual Rights, a conservative advocacy group. Following further reprimand, Daly absented herself from classes rather than admit the male students. Boston College removed her tenure rights, she brought suit against the college disputing violation of her tenure rights and claimed she was forced out against her will, but her request for an injunction was denied by Middlesex Superior Court Judge Martha Sosman.
A confidential out-of-court settlement was reached. The college maintains that Daly had agreed to retire from her faculty position, while others assert she was forced out. Daly maintained that Boston College wronged her students by depriving her of her right to teach to only female students, she documented her account of the events in the 2006 book, Amazon Grace: Recalling the Courage to Sin Big. Daly protested the commencement speech of Condoleezza Rice at Boston College, she spoke on campuses around the United States as well as internationally. Daly published a number of works, is best known for her second book, Beyond God the Father. Beyond God the Father is the last book in which Daly considers God a substantive subject, she laid out her systematic theology, following Paul Tillich's example. Regarded as a foundational work in feminist theology, Beyond God the Father is her attempt to explain and overcome androcentrism in Western religion, it is notable for its playful writing style and its attempt to rehabilitate "God-talk" for the women's liberation movement by critically building on the writing of existentialist theologians such as Paul Tillich and Martin Buber.
While the former characterized her writing, she soon abandoned the latter. In Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism, Daly argues that men throughout history have sought to oppress women. In this book she moves beyond her previous thoughts on the history of patriarchy to the focus on the actual practices that, in her view, perpetuate patriarchy, which she calls a religion. Daly's Pure Lust: Elemental Feminist Philosophy and Websters' First New Intergalactic Wickedary of the English Language introduce and explore an alternative language to explain the process of exorcism and ecstasy. In Wickedary Daly provides definitions as well as chants that she says can be used by women to free themselves from patriarchal oppression, she explores the labels that she says patriarchal society places on women to prolong what she sees as male domination of society. Daly said it is the role of women to unveil the liberatory nature of labels such as "Hag", "Witch", "Lunatic". Daly's work continues to influence feminism and feminist theology, as well as the developing concept of biophilia as an alternative and challenge to social necrophilia.
She was an ethical animal rights activist. Gyn/Ecology, Pure Lust, Websters' First New Intergalactic Wickedary all endorse anti-vivisection and anti-fur positions. Daly was a member of the advisory board of Feminists For Animal Rights, a group, now defunct. Daly created her own theological anthropology based around the context of what it means to be a woman, she created a thought-praxis that separates the world into the world of false images that create oppression and the world of communion in true being. She Background respectively. Daly considered the Background the realm of Woman, she argued that the Background is under and behind the surface of the false reality of the foreground. The foreground, for Daly, was a distortion of true being, the paternalistic society in which she said most people live, it drains the "life energy" of women residing in the Background. In her view, the foreground creates a world of poisons, she called the male-centered world of the foreground necrophilic. In c