1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
James River (Dakotas)
The James River is a tributary of the Missouri River 710 miles long, draining an area of 20,653 square miles in the U. S. states of South Dakota. About 70 percent of the drainage area is in South Dakota; the river provides the main drainage of the flat lowland area of the Dakotas between the two plateau regions known as the Coteau du Missouri and the Coteau des Prairies. This narrow area was formed by the James lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the last ice age, as a consequence the watershed of the river is slender and it has few major tributaries for a river of its length; the James drops 5 inches per 1 mile, this low gradient sometimes leads to reverse flow. Reverse flow occurs when high inflow from tributaries leads to James River water flowing upstream for several miles above the joining water; this happens most north of Huron, South Dakota. The river arises in Wells County, North Dakota 10 mi northwest of Fessenden, it flows east towards New Rockford generally SSE through eastern North Dakota, past Jamestown, where it is first impounded by a large reservoir, joined by the Pipestem River.
It enters northeastern South Dakota in Brown County, where it is impounded to form two reservoirs northeast of Aberdeen. At Columbia, it is joined by the Elm River. Flowing southward across eastern South Dakota, it passes Huron and Mitchell, where it is joined by the Firesteel Creek. South of Mitchell, it joins the Missouri just east of Yankton; the James River flows across the state of South Dakota, the only river other than the Missouri to do so. River conditions during normal years include still water on both the James and its tributaries as well as flooding. Floods occur after snowmelt or heavy rains, as water breaches the James' low banks, such floods tend to cover a significant portion of the floodplain; when the river is still, water quality drops. Called "E-ta-zi-po-ka-se Wakpa," "unnavigable river", by the Dakota tribes, the river was named Rivière aux Jacques by French explorers. By the time Dakota Territory was incorporated, it was being called the James River. Thomas L. Rosser, a former Confederate general who helped to build the Northern Pacific Railroad across North Dakota.
A Virginian, he named the settlement of Jamestown, North Dakota, after the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia. However, the Dakota Territory Organic Act of 1861 renamed it the Dakota River; the new name failed to attain popular usage and the river retains its pre-1861 name. List of longest rivers of the United States List of rivers of North Dakota List of rivers of South Dakota
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota. The Dakota Territory consisted of the northernmost part of the land acquired in the Louisiana purchase in 1803, as well as the southernmost part of Rupert's Land, acquired in 1818 when the boundary was changed to the 49th parallel; the name refers to the Dakota branch of the Sioux tribes. Most of Dakota Territory was part of the Minnesota and Nebraska territories; when Minnesota became a state in 1858, the leftover area between the Missouri River and Minnesota's western boundary fell unorganized. When the Yankton Treaty was signed that year, ceding much of what had been Sioux Indian land to the U. S. Government, early settlers formed an unofficial provisional government and unsuccessfully lobbied for United States territory status.
Three years President-elect Abraham Lincoln's cousin-in-law, J. B. S. Todd lobbied for territory status and the U. S. Congress formally created Dakota Territory, it became an organized territory on March 2, 1861. Upon creation, Dakota Territory included much of present-day Montana and Wyoming as well as all of present-day North Dakota and South Dakota and a small portion of present-day Nebraska. A small patch of land known as "Lost Dakota" existed as a remote exclave of Dakota Territory until it became part of Gallatin County, Montana Territory, in 1873. Dakota Territory was not directly involved in the American Civil War but did raise some troops to defend the settlements following the Dakota War of 1862 which triggered hostilities with the Sioux tribes of Dakota Territory; the Department of the Northwest sent expeditions into Dakota Territory in 1863, 1864 and 1865. It established forts in Dakota Territory to protect the frontier settlements of the Territory and Minnesota and the traffic along the Missouri River.
Following the Civil War, hostilities continued with the Sioux until the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. By 1868, creation of new territories reduced Dakota Territory to the present boundaries of the Dakotas. Territorial counties were defined including Bottineau County, Cass County and others. During the existence of the organized territory, the population first increased slowly and very with the "Dakota Boom" from 1870 to 1880; because the Sioux were considered hostile and a threat to early settlers, the white population grew slowly. The settlers' population grew and the Sioux were not considered as severe a threat; the population increase can be attributed to the growth of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Settlers who came to the Dakota Territory were from other western territories as well as many from northern and western Europe; these included large numbers of Norwegians, Germans and Canadians. Commerce was organized around the fur trade. Furs were carried by steamboat along the rivers to the settlements.
Gold was discovered in the Black Hills in 1874 and attracted more settlers, setting off the last Sioux War. The population surge increased the demand for meat spurring expanded cattle ranching on the territory's vast open ranges. With the advent of the railroad agriculture intensified: wheat became the territory's main cash crop. Economic hardship hit the territory in the 1880s due to a drought; the territorial capital was Yankton from 1861 until 1883. The Dakota Territory was divided into the states of North Dakota and South Dakota on November 2, 1889; the admission of two states, as opposed to one, was done for a number of reasons. The two population centers in the territory were in the northeast and southeast corners of the territory, several hundred miles away from each other. On a national level, there was pressure from the Republican Party to admit two states to add to their political power in the Senate. Admission of new western states was a party political battleground with each party looking at how the proposed new states were to vote.
At the beginning of 1888, the Democrats under president Grover Cleveland proposed that the four territories of Montana, New Mexico and Washington should be admitted together. The first two were expected to vote Democratic and the latter two were expected to vote Republican so this was seen as a compromise acceptable to both parties. However, the Republicans won majorities in Congress and the Senate that year. To head off the possibility that Congress might only admit Republican territories to statehood, the Democrats agreed to a less favorable deal in which Dakota was divided in two and New Mexico was left out altogether. Cleveland signed it into law on February 22, 1889 and the territories could become states in nine months time after that. However, incoming Republican president Benjamin Harrison had a problem with South Dakota. There had been previous attempts to open up the territory, but these had foundered because the Treaty of Fort Laramie required that 75% of Sioux adult males on the reservation had to agree to any treaty change.
Most a commission headed by Richard Henry Pratt in 1888 had failed to get the necessary signatures in the face of opposition from Sioux leaders and government worker Elaine Goodale Superintendent of Indian Education for the Dakotas. The government believed that the Dawes Act, which attempted to move the Indians from hunting to farming, in theory meant that they needed less land (but in reality was an economic dis
South Dakota's at-large congressional district
South Dakota's At-Large Congressional District is the sole congressional district for the state of South Dakota. Based on area, it is the fourth largest congressional district in the nation; the district is represented by Dusty Johnson. The district was created when South Dakota achieved statehood on November 2, 1889, electing two members At-Large. Following the 1910 Census a third seat was gained, with the legislature drawing three separate districts; the third district was eliminated after the 1930 Census. Following the 1980 Census the second seat was eliminated. Since 1983, South Dakota has retained a single congressional district. Hillary Clinton of New York won the June 3, 2008 South Dakota Democratic Primary with 55.35% of the statewide/at-large congressional district vote while Barack Obama of Illinois received 44.65%. The state/at-large congressional district gave Clinton her final win during the course of the historic and drawn-out 2008 Democratic Presidential Primary season. U. S. Representative Stephanie Herseth Sandlin, who had endorsed John Edwards, decided to support Obama before her state/congressional district voted in the primary for Clinton.
John McCain of Arizona won the June 3, 2008 South Dakota GOP Primary with 70.19% of the statewide/at-large congressional district vote while libertarian-leaning Ron Paul of Texas finished in second place in the state/congressional district with 16.52%. Incumbent U. S. Representative Bill Janklow resigned the seat January 20, 2004, after he was convicted of second-degree manslaughter, triggering a special election. Democrat Stephanie Herseth was selected as the Democratic nominee for this special election and she defeated Republican Larry Diedrich with 51 percent of the vote in a close-fought election on June 1, 2004. Herseth's victory gave the state its first all-Democratic congressional delegation since 1937. In the November general election, Herseth was elected to a full term with 53.4 percent of the vote, an increase of a few percentage points compared with the closer June special elections. Herseth's vote margin in June was about 3,000 votes, but by November it had grown to over 29,000. Herseth thereby became the first woman in state history to win a full term in the U.
S. Congress. Both elections were hard-fought and close compared to many House races in the rest of the United States, the special election was watched by a national audience; the general election was viewed as one of the most competitive in the country, but was overshadowed in the state by the competitive U. S. Senate race between Democrat Tom Daschle and Republican John Thune, which Thune narrowly won. Two seats were created in 1889, they were changed into three districts in 1913. One at-large seat remained after 1983. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2004 campaign finance data
Nehemiah G. Ordway
Nehemiah George Ordway was an American politician, a New Hampshire state senator and the seventh Governor of Dakota Territory. Ordway was regarded as one of Dakota Territory's most controversial governors. Nehemiah Ordway was born in New Hampshire. After receiving his education, Ordway entered banking businesses. During Abraham Lincoln's bid for the Presidency in 1860, Ordway served as chairman in New Hampshire for the new Republican party. In 1862, he was appointed General Agent of the Post Office Department for the New England states. From 1863 until 1875, Ordway served as Sergeant at Arms of the United States House of Representatives in Washington, D. C, he controlled it for the remainder of his life. From 1875 until 1880, Ordway served as state senator in New Hampshire; the New Hampshire congressional delegation nominated Nehemiah Ordway for the office of Governor of Dakota Territory. In May 1880, he was appointed by President Rutherford B. Hayes. Ordway was confirmed on June 1, 1880. During his time as governor, Ordway made efforts to move the territorial capitol to Bismarck.
This action angered political leaders in Sioux Falls. Citizens of Yankton viewed Ordway as corrupt. On February 2, 1881, nine consecutive days of snowfall started in Dakota Territory, resulting in food and fuel shortages. Governor Ordway sought Indian supplies until private donations could be obtained, he obtained $7000 in cash contributions as well as six tons of relief supplies. According to records, Governor Ordway engaged in a number of questionable dealings. In May 1881, Richard F. Pettigrew filed charges against Governor Ordway, insisting on his removal from office. On June 2, 1883, Ordway moved the capital of Dakota Territory from Yankton to Bismarck with the assistance of Alexander McKenzie, an agent for the Northern Pacific Railway. In the fall of 1883, representatives of southern counties made further efforts to remove Ordway from office, he was indicted for corruption and President Chester A. Arthur replaced him with Gilbert A. Pierce in 1884. After leaving office, Ordway remained in Bismarck for a number of years because of investments.
He lobbied for the Northern Pacific Railway and fought against separate statehood for the southern counties. During the 1890s, Ordway returned to New Hampshire, where he managed two large farms and spent the rest of his life. Nehemiah G. Ordway is the namesake of the community of South Dakota. Nehemiah Ordway's biography at the Historical Society of North Dakota website Profile of Nehemiah Ordway at the Nehemiah G. Ordway at Find a Grave
Kingsbury County, South Dakota
Kingsbury County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 5,148, its county seat is De Smet. The county was created in 1873, was organized in 1880, it was named for brothers George W. and T. A. Kingsbury, descendants of the colonial English Kingsbury family in Boston, Massachusetts, they were prominently involved in the affairs of Dakota Territory and served as elected members of several Territorial Legislatures. The terrain of Kingsbury County consists of low rolling hills; the central and east portions of the county hold numerous ponds. The land is devoted to agriculture; the terrain slopes to the SW, the highest point is near the midpoint of the east boundary line, at 1,857' ASL. The county has a total area of 864 square miles, of which 832 square miles is land and 3.6 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 14 U. S. Highway 81 South Dakota Highway 25 Arnold State Public Shooting Area Industrialization of agriculture and the attraction of urban areas have contributed to the decline in population of Kingsbury County, similar to what has occurred in other Plains rural areas.
In 2010 it had less than half the population of its peak in 1930, before the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 5,815 people, 2,406 households, 1,592 families in the county; the population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 2,724 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.54% White, 0.05% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races. 0.69 % of the population were Latino of any race. 36.2 % were of 22.5 % Norwegian, 8.4 % Danish, 7.0 % American and 5.9 % Irish ancestry. There were 2,406 households out of which 27.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.00% were married couples living together, 4.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.80% were non-families. 31.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.95.
The county population contained 24.50% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 22.90% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 24.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,262, the median income for a family was $41,057. Males had a median income of $26,681 versus $19,174 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,522. About 7.00% of families and 10.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.50% of those under age 18 and 11.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,148 people, 2,222 households, 1,418 families in the county; the population density was 6.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,720 housing units at an average density of 3.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.1% white, 0.5% American Indian, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.3% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of European ancestry, 42.8% were German, 25.5% were Norwegian, 10.9% were Danish, 9.6% were Irish, 7.2% were English, 3.5% were American. Of the 2,222 households, 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 5.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families, 32.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.81. The median age was 47.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,948 and the median income for a family was $56,925. Males had a median income of $35,585 versus $28,141 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,660. About 7.0% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.8% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. Esmond Osceola Spring Lake Colony Manchester Harvey Dunn - painter and professor of Fine Arts Laura Ingalls Wilder - author Kingsbury County voters have been reliably Republican for decades.
In only two national elections since 1932 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Kingsbury County, South Dakota Official website Johnson, Lyle R. "Decades of Drought: A Year by Year-by-Year Account of Weather-Related Changes in 1930s Kingsbury County," South Dakota History 43, 218–44
Spink County, South Dakota
Spink County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 6,415, its county seat is Redfield. The county was created in 1873, was organized in 1879 within Dakota Territory; the terrain of Spink County consists of rolling hills, dedicated to agriculture. The James River flows southerly through the central portion of the county; the terrain slopes to the south. The county has a total area of 1,510 square miles, of which 1,504 square miles is land and 5.8 square miles is water. Fisher Grove State Park Alkali Lake Cottonwood Lake Twin Lakes As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 7,454 people, 2,847 households, 1,933 families in the county; the population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 3,352 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.56% White, 0.21% Black or African American, 1.48% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, 0.52% from two or more races.
0.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,847 households out of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.60% were married couples living together, 6.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.10% were non-families. 29.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.05. The county population contained 25.60% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 26.10% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 18.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 107.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,717, the median income for a family was $37,114. Males had a median income of $25,065 versus $20,386 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,728. About 10.20% of families and 12.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.20% of those under age 18 and 9.80% of those age 65 or over.
Several Hutterite communities are including near Ashton and Stratford. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,415 people, 2,608 households, 1,677 families in the county; the population density was 4.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,139 housing units at an average density of 2.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.1% white, 1.2% American Indian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 52.6% were German, 11.6% were Norwegian, 10.0% were Irish, 9.2% were English, 5.5% were American. Of the 2,608 households, 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families, 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age was 44.4 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $45,000 and the median income for a family was $60,639. Males had a median income of $40,273 versus $26,139 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,295. About 8.2% of families and 17.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.0% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over. Mansfield Spink County was a swing county, but in the past few decades has become Republican. In no national election since 1992 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Spink County, South Dakota