Tierra del Fuego gold rush
Between 1883 and 1906 Tierra del Fuego experienced a gold rush attracting a large number of Chileans and Europeans to the archipelago, including a large number of Dalmatians. The gold rush led to the formation of the first towns in the archipelago and fueled economic growth in Punta Arenas. After the gold rush was over, most gold diggers left the archipelago, while the remaining settlers engaged in sheep farming and fishing. Indigenous Selk'nam populations declined during the rush. In 1879 an expedition led by Chilean Navy officer Ramón Serrano Montaner discovered gold in some watercourses of western Tierra del Fuego; however the gold rush was triggered only in 1884. That year the French steamship aground on the northern coast of Cape Virgenes. An expedition sent; when news reached Punta Arenas many inhabitants left for Zanja a Pique. From Punta Arenas the news reached Buenos Aires. In Buenos Aires the press portrayed the gold findings comparing it to the rushes of Australia and California. In that city many companies were formed for the purpose of extracting gold.
Julio Popper, a mining engineer, was contracted by one of these companies in Buenos Aires. Popper proceeded to recruit a number of Dalmatians from the many immigrants that lived in Buenos Aires those years. With these workers Popper set out to exploit the findings of El Páramo in San Sebastián Bay. Another camp was established in Sloggett Bay at the southern coast of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego; the gold rush reached the Chilean islands south of Beagle Channel so that by 1893 over thousand men, most of them Dalmatians, lived there. However, by 1894 gold extraction begun to decline in these islands and deposits became depleted. A number of enterprises formed in the 1900s to extract gold from the islands south of Beagle Channel ended with meager results. During his work in Tierra del Fuego Popper was involved in the killings of native Selk'nam, which came to be known as the Selk'nam genocide. Around the island gold diggers, sheep herders and "even police" are reported to have assaulted Indian camps to acquire their women.
This created a shortage of women among Fuegian tribes. The capture and control of women in the main island worsened conflicts between rival groups. There are reports of trade of women during deals between men. By 1894 Porvenir consisted of five houses, two of them liquor stores and a third one a brothel; the Dalmatians involved in the gold rush left mining activities either to return to Dalmatia or Buenos Aires or establish themselves in Punta Arenas. The gold rush caused an improvement in the geographical knowledge of the poorly known islands south of Beagle Channel and linked them to Punta Arenas. Gold extracted in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego left the zone without improving much the economy of southernmost South America, but in the case of the gold extracted in from the islands south of Beagle Channel much of it ended up in Punta Arenas where it fueled economic growth. Chilean silver rush Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina German colonization of Valdivia and Llanquihue
Gordon Island is an island in the Tierra del Fuego archipelago located between the Tierra del Fuego and the Hoste Island. It divides the Beagle Channel in the Nordwest arm or Pomar Channel and the Southwest arm. At the east end of the island is located the lighthouse Punta Divide. Media related to category:Islands of Chile at Wikimedia Commons List of islands of Chile Cabo de Hornos Islands of Chile @ United Nations Environment Programme World island information @ WorldIslandInfo.com South America Island High Points above 1000 meters Ministerio de Obras Públicas de Chile, "Maps of all regions of Chile", Cartas camineras 2010 in 200 dpi and 70 dpi resolution available, Government of Chile, archived from the original on 4 September 2012, retrieved 20 April 2013
A maritime pilot, marine pilot, harbor pilot, bar pilot, or pilot, is a sailor who maneuvers ships through dangerous or congested waters, such as harbors or river mouths. They are navigational experts possessing knowledge of the particular waterway such as its depth and hazards; the word pilot came from Middle French pilot, from Italian piloto, from Late Latin pillottus. The work functions of the pilot go back to Ancient Greece and Roman times, when locally experienced harbour captains local fishermen, were employed by incoming ships' captains to bring their trading vessels into port safely; because the act of pilotage needed to be regulated and to ensure that pilots had adequate insurance, the harbours licensed pilots. The California Board of Pilot Commissioners was the first government agency created by California's legislature, in 1850. Before harbour boards were established, pilots known as hobblers would compete with one another; the first to reach an incoming ship would receive payment.
In Dún Laoghaire, there is a monument to the hobblers who lost their lives. In Kent they were known as "hovellers" and worked alongside and in competition with the licensed pilots, but were sometimes blamed as wreckers. George Byng Gattie defends the hovellers or "hobilers" as lifesavers in his 1890 book about the Goodwin Sands. Pilots had to have quick transport to get from the port to the incoming ships, they used their own fishing boats to reach the incoming vessels, but these were heavy working boats, which led to the development of the specialised pilot boat. Joseph Henderson was an early American harbor pilot, a Sandy Hook pilot for the New York Harbor and along the East Coast of the United States during the American Civil War. In the inland brown water trade another type of pilots are known as trip pilots. Due to the shortage of qualified posted masters these independent contractors fill the holes in the manning schedule on inland push boats on various inland river routes. In English law, Section 742 of the Merchant Shipping Act 1894 defines a pilot as "any person not belonging to a ship who has the conduct thereof."
In other words, someone other than a member of the crew who has control over the speed and movement of the ship. The Pilotage Act 1987 governs the management of maritime pilots and pilotage in harbors in the United Kingdom. Pilots may be required to have prior maritime experience prior to becoming a pilot. For example, the California Board of Pilot Commissioners requires that pilot trainees must have a master's license, two years command experience on tugs or deep draft vessels, pass a written exam and simulator exercise, followed by a period of up to three years training gaining experience with different types of vessel and docking facilities. Following licensing, pilots are required to engage in continuing educational programs; the pilot joins an incoming ship prior to the ship's entry into the shallow water at the designated "pilot boarding area" via helicopter or pilot boat and climbs a pilot ladder sometimes up to 40 feet to the deck of the largest container and tanker ships. Climbing the pilot ladder can be dangerous more so in rough seas considering that both the ship to be piloted and the pilot's own vessel are both moving.
With outgoing vessels, a pilot boat returns the pilot to land after the ship has negotiated coastal waters. Pilots are required by law in most major sea ports of the world for large ships. Pilots use pilotage techniques relying on nearby visual reference points and local knowledge of tides, currents and shoals that might not be identifiable on nautical charts without first hand experience in the waters in question; the master has full responsibility for safe navigation of their vessel if a pilot is on board. If they have clear grounds that the pilot may jeopardize the safety of navigation, they can relieve the pilot from their duties and ask for another pilot or, if not compulsory to have a pilot on board, navigate the vessel without one. In every case, during the time passed aboard for operation, the pilot will remain under the master's authority, always out of "ship's command chain"; the pilot remains aboard as an indispensable consultant of the master. Only in transit of the Panama Canal and in Canada does the pilot have the full responsibility for the navigation of the vessel.
However, in some countries, deck officers of vessels who have strong local knowledge and experience of navigating in those ports, such as a ferry, may be issued with a pilotage exemption certificate, which relieves them of the need to take a pilot on board. The Florida Alliance of Maritime Organizations reported that Florida pilots salaries range from US$100,000 to US$400,000 annually; this was similar to other US states with large ports. Columbia Bar pilots earn about US$180,000 per year. A 2008 review of pilot salary in the United States showed that pay ranged from about US$250,000 to over US$500,000 per year. Pilot compensation has been controversial in many ports, including Los Angeles and Long Beach, California regarding pilots who are employed by public agencies instead of acting as independent contractors. Compensation varies in other nations. In New Zealand, according to the government career service, pilots earn NZ$90,000-120,000; the novel Shōgun by James Clavell features John Blackthorne, an English pilot serving on the Dutch warship Erasmus, shipwrecked on the coast of Japan.
In the Gilbert and Sullivan comic opera The Pirates of Penzance Frederic's father directs his nursemaid Ruth to apprentice him to be a pilot, but instead she
Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina
The Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina was signed into agreement at the Vatican on 29 November 1984. It was ratified on 30 December 1984 by the Argentine Chamber of Deputies. On 12 April 1985 it was signed by Augusto Pinochet, on 2 May 1985 the Foreign Ministers of both countries exchanged original documents. Due to the timing, the treaty is variously known as the 1985 Treaty; the treaty contains a preamble, a maritime border definition, a comprehensive body of legislation on solving disputes, ship navigation rights and an exact definition of the border through the Straits of Magellan. Chile and Argentina, though never at war with each other, have named some of their border treaties as "peace treaties"; the treaty ended the Beagle conflict and was the result of long-standing negotiations between Chile and the Vatican as mediator. The outcome of the Falklands war made the treaty possible; when consulted in a non-binding referendum on resolving the conflict by then-President Raul Alfonsin, 82% of Argentine population voted in favor of signing the treaty.
The treaty recognizes the Boundary Treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina and its «…supplementary and declaratory instruments…» as the unshakeable foundation of relations between Chile and Argentina and defines the border «…from the end of the existing boundary in the Beagle Channel, i.e. the point fixed by the coordinates 55°07.3' South latitude and 66°25.0' West longitude…». That is, Argentina recognizes the borderline determined by the Beagle Channel Arbitration in 1977, which it had earlier rejected. Hence, there is no mention of Picton, Nueva and other islands; the Treaty calls its content a Transaction. Excepting articles 1 to 6, which define a comprehensive body of legislation regarding dispute resolution, the other provisions shall not affect in any way, nor may they be interpreted in any way, that can affect, directly or indirectly, the sovereignty, juridical positions of the Parties, or the boundaries in Antarctica or in its adjacent maritime areas, including the seabed and subsoil.
The international maritime border is the line ABCDEF. Westward are Chilean waters, eastward are Argentine waters. Both countries mutually recognized its baselines. From the Cape Horn Meridian to the east end of the Isla de los Estados both countries reduced their internal waters to 3 nmi only in their mutual relations; the line ABCDEF gives most of the exclusive economic zone of the islands in dispute to Argentina. On the map, the gray line is equidistant between the shores of Chile and Argentina; such an equidistant line is how maritime borders are drawn between two countries, though this approach is not compulsory. Vessels of all nations in traffic between the Straits of Magellan and Argentine ports in the Beagle Channel, vice versa, enjoy navigation facilities along the following route through Chilean internal waters: Magdalena Channel, Canal Cockburn, Paso Brecknock or Canal Occasion, Canal Ballenero, Canal O'Brien, Paso Timbales, northwest arm of the Beagle Channel and the Beagle Channel as far as the meridian 68°36'38.5" West longitude and vice versa.
The passage shall be navigated with a Chilean pilot and the Chilean Authority shall be informed at least 48 hours in advance of the date on which the vessel will begin passage. For maritime traffic between Argentine ports in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Exclusive Economic Zone, vice versa, Argentine vessels shall enjoy navigation facilities for the passage through Chilean internal waters via the following route: Paso Picton and Paso Richmond following from a point fixed by the coordinates 55'21.0' South latitude and 66'41.0" West longitude, the general direction of the arc between true 090' and 180', emerging in the Chilean territorial sea. The passage may be effected without notice. For maritime traffic to and from the north through the Le Maire Strait, Chilean vessels shall enjoy navigation facilities for the passage of that strait, without an Argentine pilot and without notice; the Straits of Magellan belong, since the Treaty of 1881, to Chile, The Straits are a demilitarized zone and free for navigation for vessels of all countries.
New in respect thereof is that the Argentine Republic undertakes to maintain, at any time and in whatever circumstances, the right of ships of all flags to navigate expeditiously and without obstacles through its jurisdictional waters to and from the Straits of Magellan. The Parties give mutual recognition to the baselines which they have traced in their respective territories; that is, regarding the Straits of Magellan, Argentina recognizes that the Straits of Magellan have no delta at the western end and that the Channels Abra, Magdalena and others are Chilean internal waters as defined by the Chilean baselines and that they are not free for navigation. The parties agree that at the eastern end of the Straits of Magellan, defined by Punta Dúngeness in the north and Cabo del Espiritu Santo in the south, the boundary between their respective sovereignties shall be the straight line joining the "Dungeness Marker (Former Be
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
HMS Beagle was a Cherokee-class 10-gun brig-sloop of the Royal Navy, one of more than 100 ships of this class. The vessel, constructed at a cost of £7,803, was launched on 11 May 1820 from the Woolwich Dockyard on the River Thames. In July of that year she took part in a fleet review celebrating the coronation of King George IV of the United Kingdom, for that occasion is said to have been the first ship to sail under the old London Bridge. There was no immediate need for Beagle so she "lay in ordinary", moored afloat but without masts or rigging, she was adapted as a survey barque and took part in three survey expeditions. The second voyage of HMS Beagle is notable for carrying the graduated naturalist Charles Darwin around the world. While the survey work was carried out, Darwin travelled and researched geology, natural history and ethnology onshore, he gained fame by publishing his diary journal, best known as The Voyage of the Beagle, his findings played a pivotal role in the formation of his scientific theories on evolution and natural selection.
The Cherokee class of 10-gun brig-sloops was designed by Sir Henry Peake in 1807, over 100 were constructed. The working drawings for HMS Beagle and HMS Barracouta were issued to the Woolwich Dockyard on 16 February 1817, amended in coloured ink on 16 July 1817 with modifications to increase the height of the bulwarks by an amount varying from 6 inches at the stem to 4 inches at the stern. Beagle's keel was laid in June 1818, construction cost £7,803, the ship was launched on 11 May 1820. In July of that year she took part in a fleet review on the River Thames, celebrating the coronation of King George IV of the United Kingdom. Captain Pringle Stokes was appointed captain of Beagle on 7 September 1825, the ship was allocated to the surveying section of the Hydrographic Office. On 27 September 1825 Beagle fitted out for her new duties, her guns were reduced from ten cannon to six and a mizzen mast was added to improve her handling, thereby changing her from a brig to a bark. Beagle set sail from Plymouth on 22 May 1826 on her first voyage, under the command of Captain Stokes.
The mission was to accompany the larger ship HMS Adventure on a hydrographic survey of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, under the overall command of the Australian Captain Phillip Parker King and Surveyor. Faced with the more difficult part of the survey in the desolate waters of Tierra del Fuego, Captain Stokes fell into a deep depression. At Port Famine on the Strait of Magellan he locked himself in his cabin for 14 days after getting over-excited and talking of preparing for the next cruise, shot himself on 2 August 1828. Following four days of delirium Stokes recovered but his condition deteriorated and he died on 12 August 1828. Captain Parker King replaced Stokes with the First Lieutenant of Beagle, Lieutenant William George Skyring as commander, both ships sailed to Montevideo. On 13 October King sailed Adventure to Rio de Janeiro for refitting and provisions. During this work Rear Admiral Sir Robert Otway, commander in chief of the South American station, arrived aboard HMS Ganges and announced his decision that Beagle was to be brought to Montevideo for repairs, that he intended to supersede Skyring.
When Beagle arrived, Otway put the ship under the command of his aide, Flag Lieutenant Robert FitzRoy. The 23-year-old aristocrat FitzRoy proved meticulous surveyor. In one incident a group of Fuegians stole a ship's boat, FitzRoy took their families on board as hostages, he held two men, a girl and a boy, given the name of Jemmy Button, these four native Fuegians were taken back with them when Beagle returned to England on 14 October 1830. During this survey, the Beagle Channel was named after the ship; the log book from the first voyage, in Captain FitzRoy's handwriting, was acquired at auction at Sotheby's by the Museo Naval de la Nación located in Tigre, Buenos Aires Province, where it is now preserved. FitzRoy had been given reason to hope that the South American Survey would be continued under his command, but when the Lords of the Admiralty appeared to abandon the plan, he made alternative arrangements to return the Fuegians. A kind uncle contacted the Admiralty. Soon afterwards FitzRoy heard that he was to be appointed commander of HMS Chanticleer to go to Tierra del Fuego, but due to her poor condition Beagle was substituted for the voyage.
FitzRoy was re-appointed as commander on 27 June 1831 and Beagle was commissioned on 4 July 1831 under his command, with Lieutenants John Clements Wickham and Bartholomew James Sulivan. Beagle was taken into dock at Devonport for extensive rebuilding and refitting; as she required a new deck, FitzRoy had the upper-deck raised by 8 inches aft and 12 inches forward. The Cherokee-class ships had the reputation of being "coffin" brigs, which handled badly and were prone to sinking. Apart from increasing headroom below, the raised deck made Beagle less liable to top-heaviness and possible capsize in heavy weather by reducing the volume of water that could collect on top of the upper deck, trapped aboard by the gunwales. Additional sheathing added to the hull added about seven tons to her burthen and fifteen to her displacement; the ship was one of the first to be fitted with the lightning conductor invented by William Snow Harris. FitzRoy spared no expense in her fitting out, which included 22 chronometers, five examples of the Sympiesometer, a kind of mercury-free bar
The Yaghan called Yagán, Yahgan, Yámana, Yamana or Tequenica, are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southern Cone, who are regarded as the southernmost peoples in the world. Their traditional territory includes the islands south of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, extending their presence into Cape Horn, they have been there for more than 10,000 years. In the 19th century, they were known as Fuegians by the English-speaking world, but the term is now avoided as it can refer to any of the several indigenous peoples of Tierra del Fuego; some are reputed to still speak the Yaghan language, considered to be a language isolate. As of 2017, Cristina Calderón, who lives in Chile territory, is known as the last full-blooded Yaghan and last native speaker of the Yaghan language; the Yaghan were traditionally hunter-gatherers. They traveled by canoes between islands to collect food: the men hunted sea lions, while the women dove to collect shellfish. In 1871, Anglican missionaries Thomas Bridges and George Lewis established a mission at Tierra del Fuego, where they both raised their families.
Bridges had learned the language starting when he lived on Keppel Island at the age of 17. Over more than a decade, he compiled a 30,000-word dictionary of Yaghan-English. Bridges' second son, Lucas Bridges learned the language and is one of the few Europeans to do so. In his 1948 book, a history of that period, he writes that in Yaghan, their autonym or name for themselves was yamana; the name Yaghan, was first used by his father Thomas Bridges from the name of their territory, Yahgashaga, or Yahga Strait. They called themselves Yahgashagalumoala, it was the name of the inhabitants of the Murray Channel area, from whom Thomas Bridges first learned the language. The name Tekenika, first applied to a sound in Hoste Island means "I do not understand", evidently originated as the answer to a misunderstood question. Despite the cold climate in which they lived, early Yaghan wore little to no clothing until after their extended contact with Europeans, they were able to survive the harsh climate because: They kept warm by huddling around small fires when they could, including in their boats to stay warm.
The name of "Tierra del Fuego" was based on the many fires seen by passing European explorers. They made use of rock formations to shelter from the elements, they covered themselves in animal grease. Over time, they had evolved higher metabolisms than average humans, allowing them to generate more internal body heat, their natural resting position was a deep squatting position, which reduced their surface area and helped to conserve heat. The Yaghan may have been driven to this inhospitable area by enemies to the north, they were famed for their complete indifference to the bitter weather around Cape Horn. Although they had fire and small domed shelters, they went about naked in the frigid cold and biting wind of Tierra del Fuego. Women swam in its 48-degree-south waters hunting for shellfish, they were observed to sleep in the open unsheltered and unclothed, while Europeans shivered under blankets. A Chilean researcher claimed their average body temperature was warmer than a European's by at least one degree.
Mateo Martinic, in Crónica de las tierras del sur del canal Beagle, asserts that there were five groups under the Yahgan people: Wakimaala on both shores of the Beagle Channel from Yendegaia to Puerto Róbalo and at the Murray Channel. The Yaghan established many temporary, but reused, settlements within Tierra del Fuego. A significant Yaghan archaeological site from the Megalithic period has been found at Wulaia Bay. C. Michael Hogan has called it the Bahia Wulaia Dome Middens; the Yaghan left strong impressions on all who encountered them, including Ferdinand Magellan, Charles Darwin, Francis Drake, James Cook, James Weddell and Julius Popper. Spanish explorers came upon the area around Tierra del Fuego in the early sixteenth century, but it was not until the 19th century that Europeans started to be interested in the zone and its peoples; the Yahgan were estimated to number 3,000 persons in the mid-19th century, when Europeans started colonizing the area. The British officer Robert FitzRoy was made captain of HMS Beagle in November 1828, continued her first survey voyage.
On the night following 28 January 1830 the ship's whaleboat was stolen by Fuegians, over a month of fruitless searching to recover the boat he took guides and prisoners who escaped taking a man and a young girl hostage. A week he took another youth hostage and on 11 May captured Jemmy Button; as it was not possible to put them ashore, he decided to "civilise the savages." He taught them "English..the plainer truths of Christianity..and the use of common tools" and took them with the return of the Beagle to England. Boat Memory died, but the others were considered "civilised" enough to b