Dillard University is a private black, liberal arts college in New Orleans, United States. Founded in 1930 and incorporating earlier institutions that were founded as early as 1869 after the American Civil War, it is affiliated with the United Church of Christ and the United Methodist Church; the campus is near the London Avenue Canal. The history of Dillard University dates to 1869 and its founding predecessor institutions—Straight University and Union Normal School. Responding to the post-Civil War need to educate newly freed African Americans in New Orleans and the surrounding region, the American Missionary Association of the Congregational Church founded Straight University on June 12, 1868. Straight University offered professional training, including a law department from 1874 to 1886, its graduates participated in local and national Reconstruction and post-Reconstruction era civil rights struggles. Straight University was renamed Straight College in 1915, to better reflect the limitations of its curriculum.
The Union Normal School was established on July 8, 1868, by the Freedman's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The Society recruited teachers in the North to work in the South educating freedmen and their children. In addition to Straight University, the AMA helped found several other black colleges and universities, such as Clark Atlanta University, Fisk University, Hampton University, Howard University, Huston-Tillotson University, LeMoyne-Owen College, Talladega College, Tougaloo College. Straight University and Union Normal School became known and developed as Straight College and New Orleans University, respectively. Both schools offered education for elementary-level teachers, but enlarged their curricula to include secondary and professional-level instruction. New Orleans University operated a secondary school--Gilbert Academy. By the 1890s, the university offered professional medical training, it included a school of pharmacy, the Flint Medical College, the Sarah Goodridge Hospital and Nurse Training School.
After the medical college was closed in 1911, the Flint Goodridge Hospital emerged and continued nurse training. Local Black and White leaders felt there was a need to develop a larger, more notable African-American institution of higher learning in New Orleans and the greater South. Due to economic hardships and rounds of negotiations between the two institutions, Straight College and New Orleans University chartered Dillard University on June 6, 1930. Named after James H. Dillard, the new university was created to "... offer a traditional liberal arts curriculum—rather than nonprofessional, vocational training" and emphasize a close engagement with the Black community through "various education extension programs and clubs."The development of Dillard University was tempered by its context of Jim Crow America. Many local whites took issue about the possibility of a black president presiding over white faculty members; the increased numbers of African-American bus riders in the Gentilly area, as students started attending classes, disturbed some white residents.
Edgar B. Stern Sr, an influential and diplomatic member of Dillard's board of trustees, suggested Will W. Alexander as a compromise candidate for president. Will W. Alexander, a white Southern preacher, was Dillard's first acting president, his experience as the director of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation proved valuable. Dillard University opened its doors in the fall of 1935, was able to attract a number of prominent scholars, such as Horace Mann Bond and education. In August 2005, the campus, not far from the lower levee breach of the London Avenue Canal, suffered extensive flood damage in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Nelson Hall was destroyed by a fire. A bus fire destroyed belongings of 37 students who were in the process of being evacuated. In spring 2006, the students of Dillard University took their normal classes at The New Orleans World Trade Center and The New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel; as is tradition, Dillard held graduation on the Rosa Freeman Keller Avenue of the Oaks in July 2006.
Students returned to campus in September 2006. In November 2016, Raycom Media rented a space at Dillard University to host a debate with senatorial candidates, including David Duke; the event was met with opposition. When the rental agreement was made, months in advance, the university was unaware of the candidates. In 2003, musician Ray Charles added a provision in his will to endow a $1 million professorship of African-American culinary history at Dillard, it is the first such position in the country. Dillard University offers Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science in Nursing degrees in over 35 majors; these majors are organized within four academic colleges, further subdivided by departments. The university is a member of the Council of Undergraduate Research and the National Council of Undergraduate Research. Most departments offer courses in methodology, the university's Office of Undergraduate Research organizes additional workshops on writing proposals, analyzing data, using human participants.
Students can participate in A Katrina Recovery Initiative, Louisiana Alliance for Minority Participation, the Undergraduate Research & Creative Work Competition. The university produces the Dillard University Journal of Undergraduate Research, which publishes the findings and articles of fin
Hurry Sundown (film)
Hurry Sundown is a 1967 American drama film produced and directed by Otto Preminger, starring Jane Fonda and Michael Caine. The screenplay by Horton Foote and Thomas C. Ryan is based on the 1965 novel of the same title by K. B. Gilden, a pseudonym for the married couple Katya and Bert Gilden, it marked Faye Dunaway's film debut. In 1946, draft-dodging, gold-digging Henry Warren and his heiress, land-owning wife Julie Ann, are determined to sell their land in rural Georgia to owners of a northern canning plant but the deal rests on selling two adjoining plots as well, one owned by Henry's cousin Rad McDowell and his wife Lou, the other by Black farmer Reeve Scott, whose ailing mother Rose had been Julie's wet nurse. Neither sharecropper is interested in selling his land, they form a dangerous and controversial Black and white partnership to strengthen their legal claim to their land, which infuriates Henry; when Rose dies, Henry tries to persuade his wife to charge Reeve with illegal ownership of his property, but local Black teacher Vivian Thurlow searches the town's records and uncovers proof that Reeve registered the deed to his land.
Julie, upset with Henry's treatment of their mentally challenged young son, decides to leave him and drops her suit against Reeve. With the help of Ku Klux Klansmen, Henry dynamites the levee above the farms, Rad's oldest child drowns in the ensuing flood, much to Henry's dismay. Rather than admit defeat and Reeve decide to rebuild their decimated property with the assistance of their neighbors. Michael Caine..... Henry Warren Jane Fonda..... Julie Ann Warren Diahann Carroll..... Vivian Thurlow Beah Richards..... Rose Scott Robert Hooks..... Reeve Scott Faye Dunaway..... Lou McDowell John Phillip Law..... Rad McDowell Luke Askew..... Dolph Higginson George Kennedy..... Sheriff Coombs Burgess Meredith..... Judge Purcell Madeleine Sherwood..... Eula Purcell Frank Converse..... Reverend Clem De Lavery Robert Reed..... Lars Finchley Jim Backus..... Carter Sillens Otto Preminger was shown the galley proof of the 1,046-page Gilden manuscript by his brother Ingo and expecting it to be another Gone with the Wind, purchased the film rights to the novel for $100,000 eight months prior to its publication.
He intended to adapt it for a four-and-a-half-hour epic film that would be shown twice-a-day at what would be the highest price scale in the history of American film exhibition, with a top admission of $25 on Friday and Saturday nights. When the book sold a mere 300,000 copies, Preminger decided a less grandiose project might be in order; because he admired his screenplay for the Harper Lee novel To Kill a Mockingbird, Preminger hired Horton Foote to adapt the Gilden book, which the author thought was "embarrassing," with "no genuine Southern flavor at all." His first instinct was to decline the offer, but he decided he could do something with it, so Preminger installed him and his family in a house in London, where the director was filming Bunny Lake Is Missing. Foote completed his draft in three months, but Preminger was unhappy with it, feeling it was missing the melodrama and theatricality the story required, he paid Foote his full fee and dismissed him, although he insisted on giving the writer screen credit, which Foote accepted.
Preminger replaced Foote with Thomas C. Ryan, who worked for him as his chief reader and was familiar with the type of material his employer found appealing. Preminger wanted to shoot the entire film in Georgia, in November and December 1965 he visited the state to scout locations, but a union dispute changed his plans; because he would be filming during the oppressively hot and humid months of June through August, he planned to shoot at night as much as possible. The New York union, which had jurisdiction over Georgia, demanded crews be paid double for any filming after 4:00pm, an added expense Preminger knew would be prohibitive. Production designer Gene Callahan suggested his home state of Louisiana might be a viable alternative, since the unions there were governed by the more liberal one in Chicago. Baton Rouge and its environs were selected, Callahan's crew began planting cornfields, erecting shanties, constructing a dam and reservoir containing 17.5 million gallons of water. From the start and his cast and crew encountered strong resistance from the locals, who resented having a film featuring a biracial friendship made in their midst and were prejudiced against the film's Black crew members and cast.
Tires were slashed, some actors received telephoned death threats, a burning cross appeared on one of the sets at 3:00 am. The manager of the hotel where everyone was housed, the Bellemont Motor Hotel, advised Preminger mixed bathing would not be permitted in the swimming pools, but grudgingly agreed to designate one "interracial" when the director threatened to vacate the premises and not pay the bill. At one point a "crude bomb" was thrown into the desegregated pool, but no one was injured as it happened late at night. Armed state troopers were called in to guard the hotel wing where everyone was staying, making them feel as if they were under house arrest. Problems were encountered in New Orleans, when Michael Caine and Bobby Hooks were refused admission to Brennan's restaurant. Matters came to a head when a convoy of cars and trucks returning to the hotel through a wooded area one evening became the target of a volley of sniper gunfire. Robert Hooks recalled, "All of us were convinced that we were surrounded by some of the dumbest and meanest people on the face of the earth, to say nothing of being the most cowardly."
Midway through filming, Preminger had to replace cinematographer Loyal Griggs with M
The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Broadway Theatre, more known as the Tony Award, recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre. The awards are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League at an annual ceremony in Manhattan; the awards are given for Broadway productions and performances, an award is given for regional theatre. Several discretionary non-competitive awards are given, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, the Isabelle Stevenson Award; the awards are named after co-founder of the American Theatre Wing. The rules for the Tony Awards are set forth in the official document "Rules and Regulations of The American Theatre Wing's Tony Awards", which applies for that season only; the Tony Awards are considered the highest U. S. theatre honor, the New York theatre industry's equivalent to the Academy Awards for film, the Emmy Awards for television, the Grammy Awards for music. It forms the fourth spoke in the EGOT, that is, someone who has won all four awards.
The Tony Awards are considered the equivalent of the Laurence Olivier Awards in the United Kingdom and the Molière Awards in France. From 1997 to 2010, the Tony Awards ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City in June and broadcast live on CBS television, except in 1999, when it was held at the Gershwin Theatre. In 2011 and 2012, the ceremony was held at the Beacon Theatre. From 2013 to 2015, the 67th, 68th, 69th ceremonies returned to Radio City Music Hall; the 70th Tony Awards was held on June 2016 at the Beacon Theatre. The 71st Tony Awards and 72nd Tony Awards were held at Radio City Music Hall in 2017 and 2018, respectively; as of 2014, there are 26 categories of awards, plus several special awards. Starting with 11 awards in 1947, the names and number of categories have changed over the years; some examples: the category Best Book of a Musical was called "Best Author". The category of Best Costume Design was one of the original awards. For two years, in 1960 and 1961, this category was split into Best Costume Designer and Best Costume Designer.
It went to a single category, but in 2005 it was divided again. For the category of Best Director of a Play, a single category was for directors of plays and musicals prior to 1960. A newly established non-competitive award, The Isabelle Stevenson Award, was given for the first time at the awards ceremony in 2009; the award is for an individual who has made a "substantial contribution of volunteered time and effort on behalf of one or more humanitarian, social service or charitable organizations". The category of Best Special Theatrical Event was retired as of the 2009–2010 season; the categories of Best Sound Design of a Play and Best Sound Design of a Musical were retired as of the 2014–2015 season. On April 24, 2017, the Tony Awards administration committee announced that the Sound Design Award would be reintroduced for the 2017–2018 season; the award was founded in 1947 by a committee of the American Theatre Wing headed by Brock Pemberton. The award is named after Antoinette Perry, nicknamed Tony, an actress, producer and co-founder of the American Theatre Wing, who died in 1946.
As her official biography at the Tony Awards website states, "At Jacob Wilk's suggestion, proposed an award in her honor for distinguished stage acting and technical achievement. At the initial event in 1947, as he handed out an award, he called it a Tony; the name stuck."The first awards ceremony was held on April 6, 1947, at the Waldorf Astoria hotel in New York City. The first prizes were "a scroll, cigarette lighter and articles of jewelry such as 14-carat gold compacts and bracelets for the women, money clips for the men", it was not until the third awards ceremony in 1949 that the first Tony medallion was given to award winners. Awarded by a panel of 868 voters from various areas of the entertainment industry and press. Since 1967, the award ceremony has been broadcast on U. S. national television and includes songs from the nominated musicals, has included video clips of, or presentations about, nominated plays. The American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League jointly administer the awards.
Audience size for the telecast is well below that of the Academy Awards shows, but the program reaches an affluent audience, prized by advertisers. According to a June 2003 article in The New York Times: "What the Tony broadcast does have, say CBS officials, is an all-important demographic: rich and smart. Jack Sussman, CBS's senior vice president in charge of specials, said the Tony show sold all its advertising slots shortly after CBS announced it would present the three hours.'It draws upscale premium viewers who are attractive to upscale premium advertisers,' Mr. Sussman said..." The viewership has declined from the early years of its broadcast history but has settled into between six and eight million viewers for most of the decade of the 2000s. In contrast, the 2009 Oscar telecast had 36.3 million viewers. The Tony Award medallion was designed by art director Herman Rosse and is a mix of brass and a little bronze, with a nickel plating on the outside; the face of the medallion portrays an adaptation of the tragedy masks.
The reverse side had a relief profile of Antoinette Perry. The medallion has been mounted on a black base since 1967. A larger base was introduced in time for the 2010 award ceremony; the n
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Beauty and the Beast (1987 TV series)
Beauty and the Beast is an American fantasy-drama series which first aired on CBS in 1987. Creator Ron Koslow's updated version of the fairy tale has a double focus: the relationship between Vincent, a mythic, noble man-beast, Catherine, a savvy Assistant District Attorney in New York. Through an empathetic bond, Vincent senses Catherine's emotions, becomes her guardian; the series follows the developing relationship between the characters and the division between New York and the hidden world beneath it. In a twist from the original tale, this "beast" does not transform into society's idea of beauty after gaining the love of Catherine. Rather, Vincent's inner beauty is allowed to remain the focus of who he is, it is Catherine's life that transforms from her relationship to Vincent. In the third season after the death of the character Catherine, Jo Anderson became the new female lead playing Diana Bennett, a criminal profiler investigating Catherine's murder; as the title indicates, the premise of the series is inspired by the fairy tale "Beauty and the Beast".
George R. R. Martin, who would write the A Song of Ice and Fire book series, was a writer and producer on the show. In 2004 and 2007, Beauty and the Beast was ranked #14 and #17 on TV Guide's Top Cult Shows Ever. Catherine Chandler is abducted, beaten and left to die in Central Park because she was inadvertently mistaken for somebody else, she is rescued and cared for by Vincent who has taken her to Father, head of a hidden community of people dwelling in tunnels below the city of New York. Ten days Catherine returns to the surface with the promise of keeping Vincent's secret and the challenge to go on after her terrible attack. After completing her recovery, her life begins a serious transition: she takes self-defense lessons, leaves her comfortable job at her father's law firm and joins the Manhattan District Attorney's office as an Assistant District Attorney, her first action involves her asking Carol Stabler about those men that attacked her, where she states that they were part of an illegal escort service run by Martin Belmont.
When Catherine is attacked by Martin Belmont's men, she is saved by Vincent. During the course of the first season, the production team fashioned a blend of romance and crime drama, which used both Catherine's position as an ADA and her will to help Vincent and his world to place her in moments of physical danger that would bring the idealized romantic figure of Vincent to the surface world as her guardian angel. During its second season, the series shifted its focus to add more character development, as the central characters spent considerable time exploring their relationships with the inhabitants of the Tunnel World, where Catherine had been accepted as a friend and "Helper". More people from the World Above turned up for emotional support and healing in the secure environment of the World Below. Near the end of the season however, in an effort to boost faltering ratings, the action orientation returned as a result of the misleadings of the recurrent villain Paracelsus. In a cliffhanger final episode, Catherine is seen walking down a tunnel into a chamber, where Vincent is suffering from a violent madness.
When the series returned for its abbreviated third season late in 1989, Linda Hamilton had announced her decision to leave the series as she was pregnant at the time. It was a decision that, along with the network's desire to attract more male viewers, would have serious repercussions for the show's continued survival. In the resolution to the previous season's cliffhanger, Catherine rescued Vincent from his inner demons but was kidnapped by a man named Gabriel, the ruthless head of a huge criminal empire she had been investigating, trying to corrupt the D. A.'s office. She was killed, but not before giving birth to Vincent's son, held hostage by the evil Gabriel. Catherine's boss and close friend Joe Maxwell hired Diana Bennett, a criminal profiler with the police department, to track down Catherine's killer. Quite her investigation led her to the now darkly obsessed and grieving Vincent. Although still popular with its dedicated fans, the darker, more resolutely violent aspects of the reworked concept, coupled with the fatal loss of the all-important central relationship between Catherine and Vincent, led to further declining ratings and cancellation.
Catherine Chandler – A corporate attorney in her father's law firm. After she's abducted and her face slashed upon being mistaken for Carol Stabler, Catherine was rescued and tended to by Vincent. After that experience, Catherine changes her life and becomes an investigator for the Manhattan District Attorney's Office. In Season Three, Catherine is captured by Gabriel, she is killed by Gabriel who overdoses her with morphine. Vincent – A man of large build with the facial characteristics of a lion and fingers tipped with claw-like nails, he is much stronger than ordinary humans and, when enraged and roars like a lion. He wears a hooded cloak to hide his appearance from strangers while walking the city streets at night, his parentage is unkn
Paul Leroy Robeson was an American bass baritone concert artist and stage and film actor who became famous both for his cultural accomplishments and for his political activism. Educated at Rutgers College and Columbia University, he was a star athlete in his youth, he studied Swahili and linguistics at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London in 1934. His political activities began with his involvement with unemployed workers and anti-imperialist students whom he met in Britain and continued with support for the Loyalist cause in the Spanish Civil War and his opposition to fascism. In the United States he became active in the Civil Rights Movement and other social justice campaigns, his sympathies for the Soviet Union and for communism, his criticism of the United States government and its foreign policies, caused him to be blacklisted during the McCarthy era. In 1915, Robeson won an academic scholarship to Rutgers College, where he was twice named a consensus All-American and was the class valedictorian.
80 years he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame. He received his LL. B. from Columbia Law School, while playing in the National Football League. At Columbia, he acted in off-campus productions. After graduating, he became a figure in the Harlem Renaissance with performances in The Emperor Jones and All God's Chillun Got Wings. Between 1925 and 1961, Robeson recorded and released some 276 distinct songs, many of which were recorded several times; the first of these were the spirituals "Steal Away" backed with "Were You There" in 1925. Robeson's recorded repertoire spanned many styles, including Americana, popular standards, classical music, European folk songs, political songs and spoken excerpts from plays. Robeson performed in Britain in a touring melodrama, Voodoo, in 1922, in Emperor Jones in 1925, scored a major success in the London premiere of Show Boat in 1928, settling in London for several years with his wife Eslanda. While continuing to establish himself as a concert artist, Robeson starred in a London production of Othello, the first of three productions of the play over the course of his career.
He gained attention in the film production of Show Boat and other films such as Sanders of the River and The Proud Valley. During this period, Robeson became attuned to the sufferings of people of other cultures, notably the British working class and the colonized peoples of the British Empire, he advocated for Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War and became active in the Council on African Affairs. Returning to the United States in 1939, during World War II Robeson supported the American and Allied war efforts. However, his history of supporting civil rights causes and pro-Soviet policies brought scrutiny from the FBI. After the war ended, the CAA was placed on the Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations and Robeson was investigated during the age of McCarthyism. Due to his decision not to recant his public advocacy, he was denied a passport by the U. S. State Department, his income plummeted, he moved to Harlem and from 1950 to 1955 published a periodical called Freedom, critical of United States policies.
His right to travel was restored as a result of the 1958 United States Supreme Court decision, Kent v. Dulles. In the early 1960s he retired and lived the remaining years of his life in Philadelphia. Paul Leroy Robeson was born in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1898, to Reverend William Drew Robeson and Maria Louisa Bustill, his mother, Maria was from a prominent Quaker family of mixed ancestry. His father, was of Igbo origin and was born into slavery, William escaped from a plantation in his teens and became the minister of Princeton's Witherspoon Street Presbyterian Church in 1881. Robeson had three brothers: William Drew Jr. Reeve, Ben. In 1900, a disagreement between William and white financial supporters of Witherspoon arose with apparent racial undertones, which were prevalent in Princeton. William, who had the support of his black congregation, resigned in 1901; the loss of his position forced him to work menial jobs. Three years when Robeson was six, his mother, nearly blind, died in a house fire.
William became financially incapable of providing a house for himself and his children still living at home and Paul, so they moved into the attic of a store in Westfield, New Jersey. William found a stable parsonage at the St. Thomas A. M. E. Zion in 1910, where Robeson would fill in for his father during sermons. In 1912, Robeson attended Somerville High School in Somerville, New Jersey, where he performed in Julius Caesar and Othello, sang in the chorus, excelled in football, basketball and track, his athletic dominance elicited racial taunts. Prior to his graduation, he won a statewide academic contest for a scholarship to Rutgers, he took a summer job as a waiter in Narragansett Pier, Rhode Island, where he befriended Fritz Pollard to be the first African-American coach in the National Football League. In late 1915, Robeson became the third African-American student enrolled at Rutgers, the only one at the time, he tried out for the Rutgers Scarlet Knights football team, his resolve to make the squad was tested as his teammates engaged in excessive play, during which his nose was broken and his shoulder dislocated.
The coach, Foster Sanford, decided he had overcome the provocation and announced that he had made the team. Robeson joined the debating team and sang off-campus for spending money, on-campus with the G
Sir Sidney Poitier, is a Bahamian-American actor, film director and diplomat. In 1964, Poitier became the first Bahamian and first black actor to win an Academy Award for Best Actor, the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor for his role in Lilies of the Field, he continued to break ground by starring in three successful 1967 films, all of which dealt with issues involving race and race relations: To Sir, with Love. Poitier has directed a number of films, including Uptown Saturday Night, Let's Do It Again, A Piece of the Action, with Bill Cosby. From 1997 to 2007, he served as the Bahamian Ambassador to Japan. Poitier was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1974. On August 12, 2009, Poitier was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor, by President Barack Obama. In 2016, he was awarded the BAFTA Fellowship for outstanding lifetime achievement in film. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Poitier 22nd of 25 on their list of Greatest Male Stars of classic Hollywood cinema.
In 2002, thirty-eight years after receiving the Best Actor Award, Poitier was chosen by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to receive an Academy Honorary Award, in recognition of his "remarkable accomplishments as an artist and as a human being". Sidney Poitier's parents were Evelyn and Reginald James Poitier, Bahamian farmers who owned a farm on Cat Island and traveled to Miami to sell tomatoes and other produce. Reginald worked as a cab driver in Bahamas. Poitier was the youngest of seven surviving children, was born in Miami while his parents were visiting, his birth was two months premature and he was not expected to survive, but his parents remained in Miami for three months to nurse him to health. Poitier grew up in the Bahamas a British Crown colony; because of his birth in the United States, he automatically received American citizenship. Poitier's uncle has claimed that the Poitier ancestors on his father's side had migrated from Haiti and were among the runaway slaves who established maroon communities throughout the Bahamas, including Cat Island.
He mentions that the surname Poitier is a French name, there were no white Poitiers from the Bahamas. The name Poitier came from a planter of English heritage who immigrated to Cat Island from Jamaica in the early 1800s, his name was Charles Leonard Poitier. In 1834, his wife's estate on Cat Island had 39 men and 47 women; the slaves kept the name Poitier, a name, introduced into England during the Norman conquest in the 11th century. That is where the Poitier name came from - not from Haiti. Poitier lived with his family on Cat Island until he was 10, when they moved to Nassau, where he saw his first automobile, first experienced electricity, plumbing and motion pictures, he was raised a Roman Catholic but became an agnostic with views closer to deism. At the age of 15, he was sent to Miami to live with his brother's large family. At the age of 16, he held a string of jobs as a dishwasher. A waiter sat with him every night for several weeks helping, he lied about his age and enlisted in the Army during World War II in 1943.
He only served as a mental hospital attendant and feigned insanity to get discharged, but dropped this tactic. After talking to a psychiatrist, Poitier was granted release from the Army, after which he worked as a dishwasher until a successful audition landed him a spot with the American Negro Theater. Poitier was rejected by audiences. Contrary to what was expected of black actors at the time, Poitier's tone deafness made him unable to sing. Determined to refine his acting skills and rid himself of his noticeable Bahamian accent, he spent the next six months dedicating himself to achieving theatrical success. On his second attempt at the theater, he was noticed and given a leading role in the Broadway production Lysistrata, for which, though it ran a failing four days, he received an invitation to understudy for Anna Lucasta. By the end of 1949, he had to choose between leading roles on stage and an offer to work for Darryl F. Zanuck in the film No Way Out, his performance in No Way Out, as a doctor treating a Caucasian bigot, was noticed and led to more roles, each more interesting and more prominent than those most African-American actors of the time were offered.
In 1951, he traveled to South Africa with the African-American actor Canada Lee to star in the film version of Cry, the Beloved Country. Poitier's breakout role was as Gregory W. Miller, a member of an incorrigible high-school class in Blackboard Jungle. Poitier was the first black male actor, he was the first black actor to win the Academy Award for Best Actor.. His satisfaction at this honor was undermined by his concerns that this award was more of the industry congratulating itself for having him as a token and it would inhibit him from asking for more substantive considerations afterward. Poitier worked little