Beale Street

Beale Street is a street in Downtown Memphis, which runs from the Mississippi River to East Street, a distance of 1.8 miles. It is a significant location in the city's history, as well as in the history of blues music. Today, the blues clubs and restaurants that line Beale Street are major tourist attractions in Memphis. Festivals and outdoor concerts bring large crowds to the street and its surrounding areas. Beale Street was created in 1841 by entrepreneur and developer Robertson Topp, who named it for a forgotten military hero, its western end housed shops of trade merchants, who traded goods with ships along the Mississippi River, while the eastern part developed as an affluent suburb. In the 1860s, many black traveling musicians began performing on Beale; the first of these to call Beale Street home were the Young Men's Brass Band, who were formed by Sam Thomas in 1867. In the 1870s, the population of Memphis was rocked by a series of yellow fever epidemics, leading the city to forfeit its charter in 1879.

During this time, Robert Church purchased land around Beale Street that would lead to his becoming the first black millionaire from the south. In 1890, Beale Street underwent renovation with the addition of the Grand Opera House known as the Orpheum. In 1899, Church paid the city to create Church Park at the corner of Beale, it became a cultural center, where blues musicians could gather. A major attraction of the park was an auditorium. Speakers in the Church Park Auditorium included Woodrow Wilson, Booker T. Washington, Franklin D. Roosevelt. Beale Street Baptist Church, Tennessee's oldest surviving African American Church edifice built in 1864, was important in the early civil rights movement in Memphis. In 1889, NAACP co-founder Ida B. Wells was a editor of an anti-segregationist paper called Free Speech based on Beale. In the early 1900s, Beale Street was filled with many clubs and shops, many of them owned by African-Americans. In 1903, Mayor Thornton was looking for a music teacher for his Knights of Pythias Band and called Tuskegee Institute to talk to his friend, Booker T. Washington, who recommended a trumpet player in Clarksdale, Mississippi named W. C.

Handy. Mayor Thornton contacted Handy, Memphis became the home of the musician who created the "Blues on Beale Street". Mayor Thornton and his three sons played in Handy's band. In 1909, W. C. Handy wrote "Mr. Crump" as a campaign song for political machine leader E. H. Crump; the song was renamed "The Memphis Blues." Handy wrote a song called "Beale Street Blues" in 1916 which influenced the change of the street's name from Beale Avenue to Beale Street. From the 1920s to the 1940s, Louis Armstrong, Muddy Waters, Albert King, Memphis Minnie, B. B. King, Rufus Thomas, Rosco Gordon and other blues and jazz legends played on Beale Street and helped develop the style known as Memphis Blues; as a young man, B. B. King was billed as "the Beale Street Blues Boy." One of Handy's proteges on Beale Street was the young Walter Furry Lewis, who became a well known blues musician. In his years Lewis lived near Fourth and Beale, in 1969 was recorded there in his apartment by Memphis music producer Terry Manning.

In 1934, local community leader George Washington Lee authored Beale Street:. In 1938, Lewis O. Swingler, editor of the Memphis World Newspaper, a Negro newspaper, in an effort to increase circulation, conceived the idea of a "Mayor of Beale St." having readers vote for the person of their choice. Matthew Thornton, Sr. a well-known community leader, active in political and social affairs and one of the charter members of the Memphis Branch of the NAACP, won the contest against nine opponents and received 12,000 of the 33,000 votes cast. Mr. Thornton was the original "Mayor of Beale St." an honorary position that he retained until he died in 1963 at the age of 90. By the 1960s, Beale had fallen on hard times and many businesses closed though the section of the street from Main to 4th was declared a National Historic Landmark on May 23, 1966. On December 15, 1977, Beale Street was declared the "Home of the Blues" by an act of Congress. Despite national recognition of its historic significance, Beale was a virtual ghost town after a disastrous urban renewal program that razed blocks of buildings in the surrounding neighborhood, as well as a number of buildings on Beale Street.

In 1973, the Beale Street Development Corporation was formed by George B. Miller and others as a racially diverse, cooperative effort for the redevelopment of Beale Street; the corporation was selected by the City of Memphis to participate in the redevelopment of the blocks on Beale between Second and Fourth streets in August, 1978. The corporation dedicated its efforts to the success of the Beale Street project for the preservation of the street's rich history, to its cultural as well as physical development; the BSDC secured $5.2 million in grants for the renovation of Beale Street. In 1982, the City of Memphis recommended that the BSDC hire a management company led by John A. Elkington to assist in the development of the street by securing new tenants, collecting rents and handling certain maintenance and security issues; each new lease had to be agreed upon by BSDC, the City of Memphis and the management company, Performa. The day-to-day management of Beale Street was turned over to the City of Memphis in an October, 2012 court decision after a long legal dispute involving the city, BSDC and Performa.

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Phillip Cary

Phillip S. Cary is an American philosopher who serves as a professor at Eastern University with a concentration on Augustine of Hippo. Born on June 10, 1958, he received his Doctor of Philosophy degree from Yale Divinity School under Nicholas Wolterstorff, he has written a number including three published by Oxford University Press. Additionally, he has provided lectures on the history of Christian theology as well as on major figures in ecclesiastical history for The Teaching Company. Inner Grace: Augustine in the Traditions of Plato and Paul. Phillip Cary. Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 0-19-533648-8. Augustine's Invention of the Inner Self: The Legacy of a Christian Platonist. Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-515861-X. Cary's Worldcat identity Brief biography "Why Luther Is Not Quite Protestant?" Pro Ecclesia. Fall 2005. Pp. 447–486


Öregrund is a locality situated in Östhammar Municipality, Uppsala County, Sweden with 1,555 inhabitants in 2010. It is located by the coast of the Baltic Sea. Öregrund is, despite its small population, for historical reasons still referred to as a city. The town was granted a royal charter in 1491, by request from citizens from nearby city of Östhammar. Östhammar had once been a coastal town, but due to post-glacial rebound its harbour had become useless. The royal council granted the request to construct a city at the end of the archipelago where the sea opened, it further proclaimed "the city shall forever be known as Öregrund". The small but expanding city soon became a point of conflict. In 1520 Christian II of Denmark conquered Stockholm. A young Gustav Eriksson tried to gather an army, Öregrund became the port whereto ships with men and weapons were transported; as a countermeasure, the Danish King had the city burnt in the winter of 1520. And so, the citizens of Öregrund had to move back to Östhammar.

Not until 1555, when Gustav Eriksson had become King Gustav I of Sweden and stabilized the nation, were the citizens granted permission to reconstruct the city. Uppland underwent an industrial revolution in the 17th century, with the Swedish iron industry becoming the foundation of Sweden's status as a Great Power. Bar iron was exported through Öregrund. In England the best quality wrought. Fishing was the only industry through the centuries; the industrialization of the 19th century never took hold in Öregrund. In the late 19th century a new industry prospered: the spas. People from outside made Öregrund their summer residence. During this era, several fine villas and gardens were built. However, the summer residents led to decreased tax incomes for economically troubled city. In 1968, Öregrund was merged with the then-city of Östhammar. Since the municipal reform of 1971, Öregrund is in Östhammar Municipality. In 2017 Öregrund was used as scenery for the Dutch television show Kroongetuige; the nave of Öregrund is still the harbour.

In modern times it is used for small boats. In the summer it flourishes due to other pleasure boats. Boats arrive from Stockholm, taking a trip from the Stockholm Archipelago. Öregrund is one of Uppland's best attracts many visitors. Apart from the wooden houses, there is a noteworthy stone church in the town center, a town hall from the mid 19th century. Allt om Öregrund article Öregrund from Nordisk familjebok Öregrund historia private webpage / Stig Sandelin