Beam engine

A beam engine is a type of steam engine where a pivoted overhead beam is used to apply the force from a vertical piston to a vertical connecting rod. This configuration, with the engine directly driving a pump, was first used by Thomas Newcomen around 1705 to remove water from mines in Cornwall; the efficiency of the engines was improved by engineers including James Watt, who added a separate condenser. Beam engines were first used to pump water out of mines or into canals, but could be used to pump water to supplement the flow for a waterwheel powering a mill; the rotative beam engine is a design of beam engine where the connecting rod drives a flywheel, by means of a crank. These beam engines could be used to directly power the line-shafting in a mill, they could be used to power steam ships. The first beam engines were water-powered, used to pump water from mines. A preserved example may be seen at the Straitsteps Lead Mine in Wanlockhead in Scotland. Beam engines were extensively used to power pumps on the English canal system when it was expanded by means of locks early in the Industrial Revolution, to drain water from mines in the same period, as winding engines.

The first steam-related beam engine was developed by Thomas Newcomen. This was not speaking, steam powered, as the steam introduced below the piston was condensed to create a partial vacuum thus allowing atmospheric pressure to push down the piston, it was therefore called an Atmospheric Engine. The Newcomen atmospheric engine was adopted by many mines in Cornwall and elsewhere, but it was inefficient and consumed a large quantity of fuel; the engine was improved by John Smeaton but James Watt resolved the main inefficiencies of the Newcomen engine in his Watt steam engine by the addition of a separate condenser, thus allowing the cylinder to remain hot. Technically this was still an atmospheric engine until he enclosed the upper part of the cylinder, introducing steam to push the piston down; this arguably confirms him as the inventor of the steam engine. He patented the centrifugal governor and the parallel motion; the latter allowed the replacement of chains round an arch head and thus allowed its use as a rotative engine.

His patents remained in place until the start of the 19th Century and some say that this held back development. However, in reality development had been ongoing by others and at the end of the patent period there was an explosion of new ideas and improvements. Watt's beam engines were used commercially in much larger numbers and many continued to run for 100 years or more. Watt held patents on key aspects of his engine's design, but his rotative engine was restricted by James Pickard's patent of the simple crank; the beam engine went on to be improved and enlarged in the tin- and copper-rich areas of south west England, which enabled the draining of the deep mines that existed there. The Cornish beam engines became world-famous, as they remain among the most massive beam engines constructed; because of the number of patents on various parts of the engines and the consequences of patent infringements, examples exist of Beam Engines with no makers name on any of the parts. In a rotative beam engine, the piston is mounted vertically, the piston rod drives the beam as before.

A connecting rod from the other end of the beam, rather than driving a pump rod, now drives a flywheel. Early Watt engines used Watt's patent sun and planet gear, rather than a simple crank, as use of the latter was protected by a patent owned by James Pickard. Once the patent had expired, the simple crank was employed universally. Once rotary motion had been achieved a drive belt could be attached beside the flywheel; this transmitted the power to other drive shafts and from these other belts could be attached to power a variety of static machinery e.g. threshing, grinding or milling machines. The first steam-powered ships used variants of the rotative beam engine; these marine steam engines – known as side-lever, crosshead, or'walking beam', among others – all varied from the original land-based machines by locating the beam or beams in different positions to take up less room on board ship. Media related to Rotative beam engines at Wikimedia Commons Compounding involves two or more cylinders.

This is the compound effect. The first experiment with compounding was conducted by Jonathan Hornblower, who took out a patent in 1781, his first engine was installed at Cornwall. It had two cylinders – one 21-inch diameter with 6-foot stroke and one 27-inch diameter with 8-foot stroke – placed alongside each other at one end of the beam; the early engines showed little performance gain: the steam pressure was too low, interconnecting pipes were of small diameter and the condenser ineffective. At this time the laws of thermodynamics were not adequately understood the concept of absolute zero. Engineers such as Arthur Woolf were trying to tackle an engineering problem with an imperfect understanding of the physics. In particular, their valve gear was cutting-in at the wrong position in the stroke, not allowing for expansive working in the cylinder. Successful Woolf compound engines were produced in 1814, for the Wheal Abraham copper

Thomas Leverton

Thomas Leverton was an English architect. He was born in Waltham Abbey, where he was baptised on 11 June 1743, the son of the builder Lancelot Leverton. Having learned his father's trade he acquired the skills of architecture with the help of patrons, he built houses both in London and the countryside, including Watton Wood Hall, built in 1777–82 for Sir Thomas Rumbold, which includes a hall decorated in the Etruscan style. In 1780 he designed Plaistow Lodge for Peter Thellusson at Bromley, Kent in a style suggestive of Adams, his domed refit of Scampston Hall near Malton, reflected the work of Wyatt. Other houses by Leverton, now demolished, included Woodford Hall, built in 1775 for William Hunt, Riddlesworth Hall, built in 1792 for Silvanus Bevan III. Error:. In the grounds of Parlington Hall, Yorkshire, he built a triumphal arch in commemoration of the American victory in the War of Independence for Sir Thomas Gascoigne. Leverton showed the design at the Royal Academy in 1781, he has sometimes been credited with the design of Bedford Square in London: while this is uncertain some of the individual houses are attributed to him, interiors, including those at No 13, where he lived from 1795.

His chief skill lay in the innovatory design of small-scale interiors. Describing his work at Woodhall Park, Nikolaus Pevsner said that Leverton's interiors "have a style, decidedly their own, different from Adam's or Chambers's or Hollands's" their character coming out most in the central staircase hallway, "profusely but delicately decorated with plaster à la antique". Leverton was surveyor to the Grocers' Company, for whom he built a new hall, completed in 1802. A brick building with stone facings, it was described in a contemporary account as "though not a splendid fabric... well adapted to its enclosed situation." The foundations proved inadequate, by 1814 cracks had developed in the building. He was surveyor to the theatres royal in London and the Phoenix Fire Insurance Company, for which he built offices in Lombard Street in about 1787 and a fire engine house at Charing Cross, both demolished, he took over as architect at the Department of Land Revenue after the retirement of John Marquand.

In this capacity he, along with his pupil, Thomas Chawner, submitted a plan for the improvement of the crown property of Marylebone Park Farm in July 1811, although John Nash's plans were preferred. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1777 until 1803, he was a Justice of the Peace for Westminster, Middlesex and Kent. He was married twice, firstly in 1766 and in 1803, to Rebecca Craven of Blackheath, but his only son predeceased him, his niece married a pupil, James Donaldson, was the mother of Thomas Leverton Donaldson, who became Professor of Architecture at London University. Leverton died at 13 Bedford Square, London, on 23 September 1824, he was buried at Waltham Abbey. The Thomas Leverton Charity, founded by money left in Leverton's will, is intended to aid deserving women in distress, preferably widows resident in the united parishes of St Giles and St George, it has since been amalgamated into the St Giles-in-the-Fields and Bloomsbury United Charity. Woodford Hall in Essex Watton Wood Hall, Hertfordshire.

Triumphal Arch, Parlington Hall, Yorkshire. Riddlesworth Hall in Norfolk. Grocers' Hall, City of London. Scampston Hall, Yorkshire. Gordon House, Chelsea. Office for the Phoenix Fire Insurance Company, Lombard Street, London. Fire engine house at Charing Cross fire engine house at Charing Cross, and when he died his wife set up a school in Highbridge Street, with money that Thomas had left for 20 poor boys and 20 poor girls in the parish to attend a school. Graves, Algernon; the Royal Academy: A Complete Dictionary of Contributors from its Foundations in 1769 to 1904. 5. London: Henry Graves. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Hertfordshire. Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Winters, W.. Our Parish Records. Waltham Cross: W. Winters

Lucio Filomeno

Lucio Filomeno is a former Argentine footballer who played as a striker. His last club was Acassuso. After growing up in Haedo, Buenos Aires, Filomeno played for a variety of clubs around the world and for the Argentina U-16 national team. Filomeno made his professional debut in March 1996 playing for Nueva Chicago and being still 15 years old, he was one of the youngest players to this day to start playing professionally in Argentina. He was noticed by English club Newcastle United F. C. and made his first move to Europe. He did not play for Newcastle and moved to Italy where he signed first for Udinese and for Inter Milan. A year he returned to Argentina to join San Lorenzo de Almagro where he contributed to the club winning of the Argentine "Torneo Clausura" 2001 and the Southamerican "Copa Mercosur" 2001. Subsequently, he moved to Mexico where he joined Jaguares de Chiapas in their inaugural 2002 season, scoring the team's first goal in a 3–1 loss to Tigres. In 2005, he joined Busan IPark. In 2006, he returned to Argentina to join Nueva Chicago.

In the summer of 2007 he was signed by Greek first division club Asteras Tripolis and in June 2009 he was picked up on a two-year deal by Greek club PAOK FC. He had signed a one-year deal with Atlético de Rafaela of the Argentinian first division on August 4, 2011, he played for one season and he stopped. In summer 2013, he signed with Acassuso playing in Primera B Metropolitana, the regionalised third division of the Argentine football league system. D. C. UnitedMajor League Soccer Supporter's Shield: 2006 Teams Played at Bdfa Lucio Filomeno – K League stats at