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Beam splitter

A beam splitter is an optical device that splits a beam of light in two. It is a crucial part of many optical experimental and measurement systems, such as interferometers finding widespread application in fibre optic telecommunications. In its most common form, a cube, it is made from two triangular glass prisms which are glued together at their base using polyester, epoxy, or urethane-based adhesives; the thickness of the resin layer is adjusted such that half of the light incident through one "port" is reflected and the other half is transmitted due to frustrated total internal reflection. Polarizing beam splitters, such as the Wollaston prism, use birefringent materials to split light into two beams of orthogonal polarization states. Another design is the use of a half-silvered mirror; this is composed of an optical substrate, a sheet of glass or plastic, with a transparent thin coating of metal. The thin coating can be aluminium deposited from aluminium vapor using a physical vapor deposition method.

The thickness of the deposit is controlled so that part of the light, incident at a 45-degree angle and not absorbed by the coating or substrate material is transmitted, the remainder is reflected. A thin half-silvered mirror used in photography is called a pellicle mirror. To reduce loss of light due to absorption by the reflective coating, so-called "swiss cheese" beam splitter mirrors have been used; these were sheets of polished metal perforated with holes to obtain the desired ratio of reflection to transmission. Metal was sputtered onto glass so as to form a discontinuous coating, or small areas of a continuous coating were removed by chemical or mechanical action to produce a literally "half-silvered" surface. Instead of a metallic coating, a dichroic optical coating may be used. Depending on its characteristics, the ratio of reflection to transmission will vary as a function of the wavelength of the incident light. Dichroic mirrors are used in some ellipsoidal reflector spotlights to split off unwanted infrared radiation, as output couplers in laser construction.

A third version of the beam splitter is a dichroic mirrored prism assembly which uses dichroic optical coatings to divide an incoming light beam into a number of spectrally distinct output beams. Such a device was used in three-pickup-tube color television cameras and the three-strip Technicolor movie camera, it is used in modern three-CCD cameras. An optically similar system is used in reverse as a beam-combiner in three-LCD projectors, in which light from three separate monochrome LCD displays is combined into a single full-color image for projection. Beam splitters with single mode fiber for PON networks use the single mode behavior to split the beam; the splitter is done by physically splicing two fibers "together" as an X. Arrangements of mirrors or prisms used as camera attachments to photograph stereoscopic image pairs with one lens and one exposure are sometimes called "beam splitters", but, a misnomer, as they are a pair of periscopes redirecting rays of light which are non-coincident.

In some uncommon attachments for stereoscopic photography, mirrors or prism blocks similar to beam splitters perform the opposite function, superimposing views of the subject from two different perspectives through color filters to allow the direct production of an anaglyph 3D image, or through alternating shutters to record sequential field 3D video. Beam splitters are sometimes used to recombine beams of light, as in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In this case there are two incoming beams, two outgoing beams, but the amplitudes of the two outgoing beams are the sums of the amplitudes calculated from each of the incoming beams, it may result that one of the two outgoing beams has amplitude zero. In order for energy to be conserved, there must be a phase shift in at least one of the outgoing beams. For example, if a polarized light wave in air hits a dielectric surface such as glass, the electric field of the light wave is in the plane of the surface the reflected wave will have a phase shift of π, while the transmitted wave will not have a phase shift.

The behavior is dictated by the Fresnel equations. This does not apply to partial reflection by conductive coatings, where other phase shifts occur in all paths. In any case, the details of the phase shifts depend on the geometry of the beam splitter. For beam splitters with two incoming beams, using a classical, lossless beam-splitter with electric fields incident at both its inputs, the two output fields Ec and Ed are linearly related to the inputs through =, where the 2 × 2 element is the beam-splitter matrix and r and t are the reflectance and transmittance along a particular path through the beam-splitter, that path being indicated by the subscripts. If the beam-splitter removes


VarageSale is a virtual garage sale app that lets users buy and sell items in their communities. It has users across the United States and Canada, as well as in Australia, Italy and the UK; the company is based in Toronto and funded by investors including Sequoia Capital and Lightspeed Venture Partners. VarageSale was founded by an elementary school teacher living in Montreal, Quebec. While pregnant with her first child, she asked her husband Carl Mercier, a programmer, to improve on the experience of buying and selling items over social networks. In May 2012, VarageSale launched its first community, "Vaudreuil-Dorion and Surrounding Areas"; the company has since moved its headquarters to Ontario. VarageSale was named 2014 Startup of the Year in the Canadian Startup Awards. In March 2015, it was included as part of Canadian Business's list of Canada's Most Innovative Companies. On November 7th, 2017 VarageSale announced it was acquired by VerticalScope, another Toronto-based company that focuses on building online communities

De La Salle Philippines

De La Salle Philippines, established in 2006, is a network of Lasallians within the Lasallian East Asia District established to facilitate collaboration in the Lasallian Mission and the promotion of the spirit of faith, zeal for service and communion in mission. There are sixteen Lasallian Educational Institutions in the Philippines. De La Salle Philippines replaced the De La Salle University System, established under the presidency of Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC in 1987 as a response to the rapid expansion of Lasallian educational institutions nationwide. In line with the Lasallian Mission, the network holds various projects that improve educational communities for the youth "especially those who are poor. Among these are the software training for indigenous peoples and the exhibit on people killed during the Philippine government's operations against illegal drugs; the history of Lasallian education in the Philippines dates back to 1905 when the Archbishop of Manila, Jeremiah James Harty, an alumnus of a La Salle educational institution in the U.

S. appealed to the Superior General of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools - FSC for the establishment of a De La Salle educational institution in the Philippines due to the small number of Catholic institutions at that time. Archbishop Harty's request was rejected at first due to lack of funds, however he would continue to appeal to Pope Pius X for the establishment of additional Catholic educational institutions in the country. From March to June 1911, nine De La Salle Christian Brothers from Europe and the United States led by Brother Blimond FSC of France arrived in the Philippines. Together on June 16, 1911, the Brothers established the first Christian Brother educational institution in the Philippines, De La Salle College, on Calle Nozaleda in Paco, Manila; because of increasing student population, the Brothers transferred the educational institution to its present location on Taft Avenue in the Malate district of Manila in 1921. During the 1980s President of De La Salle University, the late Brother Andrew Gonzalez FSC,Ph.

D. Introduced the idea of a multiversity because of the growing number of Lasallian institutions nationwide, his vision was to establish a system where the resources could be utilized to create a greater impact. The De La Salle University System was created in 1987, composed of De La Salle University-Manila, De La Salle-Santiago Zobel School, the newly acquired De La Salle University-Dasmariñas and De La Salle Medical and Health Sciences Institute in Dasmariñas, Cavite. A year the newly established De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde in Malate, Manila was included in the system. De La Salle University-Manila provided the resources and expertise needed in the establishment of these institutions where it extended financial assistance and human resources in building the other campuses; the first general assembly of administrators and their representatives from the five campuses was convened in 1992 to support and facilitate the establishment of the system. Several committees were formed during the convention to introduce improvement and innovations to existing programs and structures among the campuses.

A task force to study the different needs of the campuses was formed in 1994. It was during this year that an organizational structure was formed and a vision and mission statement was created for the system. In 1995, a 50-hectare property in Biñan, Laguna was acquired by the System from the family of the late National Artist of the Philippines for Architecture and La Salle High School alumnus Leandro Locsin to be used as the site of De La Salle University-Canlubang, a science and technology-oriented campus. Construction of the first building of the campus as well as start of operations both began in 2003. De La Salle University-Professional Schools, Inc. established in 1960, became a semi-autonomous entity in 1996 working within the campus of De La Salle University-Manila. In 2002, the management and ownership of the Gregorio Araneta University Foundation in Malabon City was transferred by the Araneta Family to the system and was renamed De La Salle Araneta University, becoming the eighth member of the system.

In 2006, the 8-Campus De La Salle University System was abolished and in its place the 17-Campus De La Salle Philippines, Inc. was established in order to have a more focused and unified implementation of the Lasallian Mission, generate greater and more creative synergy among Lasallian educational institutions, improve the overall quality of Lasallian education in the country and promote the spirit of “One La Salle” with a common vision of educating the Filipino youth. Ten more Lasallian institutions throughout the country were integrated into the eight campuses of the DLSU System, bringing the total number of campuses to eighteen. Since De La Salle-Professional Schools, Inc. and De La Salle Canlubang were integrated into De La Salle University which brought back the number of educational institutions to sixteen. The network administration is composed of a National Mission Council which includes eight De La Salle Brothers including the Brother Visitor and seven Lasallian Partners elected by corporate members.

The National Mission Council serves as the Board of Trustees of DLSP. As the highest policy-making body of the network, it accompanies school boards and school heads in following the Lasallian Mission; the NMC provides assistance


MAX-3SAT is a problem in the computational complexity subfield of computer science. It generalises the Boolean satisfiability problem, a decision problem considered in complexity theory, it is defined as: Given a 3-CNF formula Φ, find an assignment that satisfies the largest number of clauses. MAX-3SAT is a canonical complete problem for the complexity class MAXSNP; the decision version of MAX-3SAT is NP-complete. Therefore, a polynomial-time solution can only be achieved if P = NP. An approximation within a factor of 2 can be achieved with this simple algorithm, however: Output the solution in which most clauses are satisfied, when either all variables = TRUE or all variables = FALSE; every clause is satisfied by one of the two solutions, therefore one solution satisfies at least half of the clauses. The Karloff-Zwick algorithm satisfies ≥ 7/8 of the clauses; the PCP theorem implies that there exists an ε > 0 such that -approximation of MAX-3SAT is NP-hard. Proof: Any NP-complete problem L ∈ P C P by the PCP theorem.

For x ∈ L, a 3-CNF formula Ψx is constructed so that x ∈ L ⇒ Ψx is satisfiable x ∉ L ⇒ no more than m clauses of Ψx are satisfiable. The Verifier V reads all required bits at; this is valid. Let q be the number of queries. Enumerating all random strings Ri ∈ V, we obtain poly strings since the length of each string r = O. For each RiV chooses q positions and a Boolean function fR: q-> and accepts if and only if fR. Here π refers to the proof obtained from the Oracle. Next we try to find a Boolean formula to simulate this. We introduce Boolean variables x1... xl. To demonstrate that the Verifier runs in Probabilistic polynomial-time, we need a correspondence between the number of satisfiable clauses and the probability the Verifier accepts. For every R, add clauses representing fR using 2q SAT clauses. Clauses of length q are converted to length 3 by adding new variables e.g. x2 ∨ x10 ∨ x11 ∨ x12 = ∧. This requires a maximum of q2q 3-SAT clauses. If z ∈ L there is a proof π such that Vπ accepts for every Ri.

All clauses are satisfied if xi = π and the auxiliary variables are added correctly. If input z ∉ L For every assignment to x1...xl and yR's, the corresponding proof π = xi causes the Verifier to reject for half of all R ∈ r. For each R, one clause representing fR fails; therefore a fraction 1 2 1 q 2 q of clauses fails. It can be concluded that if this holds for every NP-complete problem the PCP theorem must be true. Håstad demonstrates a tighter result than Theorem 1 i.e. the best known value for ε. He constructs a PCP Verifier for 3-SAT. For every ε > 0, there is a PCP-verifier M for 3-SAT that reads a random string r of length O and computes query positions ir, jr, kr in the proof π and a bit br. It accepts; the Verifier has completeness and soundness 1/2 + ε. The Verifier satisfies z ∈ L ⟹ ∃ π P r ≥ 1 − ϵ z ∉ L ⟹ ∀ π P r ≤ 1 2 + ϵ If the first of these two equations were equated to "=1" as usual, one could find a proof π by solving a system of linear equations implying P = NP. If z ∈ L, a fraction ≥ of clauses are satisfied.

If z ∉ L for a fraction of R, 1/4 clauses are contradicted. This is enough to prove the hardness of approximation ratio 1 − 1 4 1 − ϵ = 7 8 + ϵ ′ MAX-3SAT is the restricted special case of MAX-3SAT where every variable occurs in at most B clauses. Before the PCP theorem was proven and Yannakakis showed that for some fixed constant B, this problem is MAX SNP-hard. With the PCP theorem, it is APX-hard; this is useful because MAX-3SAT can be used to obtain a PTAS-preserving reduction in a way that MAX-3SAT cannot. Proofs for explicit values of B include: all B ≥ 13, all B ≥ 3. Moreover, although the decis

Tim Blue

Tim Blue is an American professional basketball player, who plays for Antibes Sharks of the French LNB Pro A. Blue plays as power forward or small forward. In his professional career, he has played in the Netherlands, Germany and France. In the 2013–14 season, Blue played in the French Pro A with Antibes. Antibes team finished 16th and relegated back to the second division Pro B. In the 2014–15 season, Blue finished 6th in the regular season with Antibes Sharks. In the Playoffs, Antibes won the Finals 2–0 over ASC Denain-Voltaire PH. After averaging 20 points per game in the Finals, Blue won his second LNB Pro B Finals MVP Award. GasTerra FlamesDutch Basketball League: 2009–10Antibes SharksLNB Pro B: 2012–13 French 2nd Division Finals MVP: 2013, 2015 DBL All-Star: 2008, 2010, 2011 LNB Pro A All-Star: 2016, 2017 Profile at Profile at Profile at Finnish league bio at

The Leaving Song Pt. II

"The Leaving Song Pt. II" is a song by American rock band AFI, it was released as the second single from their sixth studio album Sing the Sorrow in 2003. "The Leaving Song Pt. II" was released to radio on June 3, 2003, it peaked at number 16 on number 27 in Australia. UK 7" "The Leaving Song Pt. II" – 3:31 "The Great Disappointment" – 5:01Australian tour edition CD "The Leaving Song Pt. II" – 3:31 "This Celluloid Dream" – 4:18 "Synesthesia" – 4:35 "Girl's Not Grey" – 3:11Germany CD "The Leaving Song Pt. II" – 3:31 "The Great Disappointment" – 5:01EU Cassette "The Leaving Song Pt. II" – 3:31UK CD 1 "The Leaving Song Pt. II" – 3:31 "The Great Disappointment" – 5:01 "Paper Airplanes" – 4:04 "The Leaving Song Pt. II" – 3:32UK CD 2 "The Leaving Song Pt. II" – 3:31 "...but home is nowhere" – 3:42 "The Leaving Song – 2:34 A music video was directed by Marc Webb and filmed at a warehouse in Los Angeles in May 2003. The videoclip was released in June 2003 It features the band performing in suits in front of a moshing crowd, executing hardcore dancing style punch-and-kick moves.

Members of the crowd are shown applying athletic tape and straight edge-culture gloves on their hands before the gig. The band members are shown preparing for the show as well. Havok walks off stage at the end of the video; the song used while the crowd is moshing was a song by the band Throwdown. Watch "The Leaving Song Pt. II" on YouTube