The Dingle Peninsula is the northernmost of the major peninsulas in County Kerry. It ends beyond the town of Dingle at Dunmore Head, the westernmost point of Ireland and arguably Europe; the Dingle Peninsula is named after the town of Dingle. The peninsula is commonly called Corca Dhuibhne when those referring to it are speaking in English. Corca Dhuibhne, which means "seed or tribe of Duibhne", takes its name from the túath of Corco Dhuibhne who occupied the peninsula in the Middle Ages and who held a number of territories in the south and east of County Kerry; the peninsula exists because of the band of sandstone rock that forms the Slieve Mish mountain range at the neck of the peninsula, in the east, the unnamed central mountain range further to the west. Ireland's highest mountain outside MacGillycuddy's Reeks, Mount Brandon at 951 m, forms part of a beautiful high ridge with stunning views over the peninsula and North Kerry. Conor Pass, which runs from Dingle on the south-western end of the peninsula towards Brandon Bay and Castlegregory in the north-east, is the highest mountain pass in Ireland, a narrow, twisting road.
The Blasket Islands lie off the west coast. They are famous for the linguistic heritage of the former inhabitants. However, these remote islands have been uninhabited since the 1950s following an evacuation; the western end of the peninsula is a Gaeltacht that has produced a number of nationally notable authors and poets. This is the westernmost part of Ireland, the village of Dún Chaoin is jokingly referred to as "the next parish to America." The peninsula is the location of numerous prehistoric and early medieval remains including: Glanfahan, site of ancient dry-stone huts Caherdorgan North, with medieval stone buildings Ballywiheen, containing an ancient stone fort and monastic settlement Kilmalkedar, monastic settlement with Ogham stone Ferriter's Cove, at the western tip of the peninsula. Músaem Chorca Dhuibhne, situated in the village of Baile an Fheirtéaraigh has exhibitions detailing the archaeology and history of the peninsula; some of the exhibitions include Ogham stones, artefacts from the excavations at the nearby monastic site of Riasc and objects on loan from the National Museum of Ireland.
The peninsula is known for the MV Ranga, a Spanish cargo vessel that wrecked on the coast in 1982. Gallaunmore is National Monument. Rahinnane Castle is a 15th century castle built on a medieval ringfort. Inch Beach offers miles of beach where many visit to surf, fish and more. David Lean's 1970 film Ryan's Daughter takes place at a village on the Dingle Peninsula in the immediate aftermath of the 1916 Easter Rising, was shot on location near Dún Chaoin, Coumeenole Beach, Slea Head and Inch Strand. Far and Away, a 1992 film directed by Ron Howard, was filmed on the peninsula; the film Leap Year is set in the Dingle Peninsula, but none of the filming took place in the area. Beara Peninsula Eask tower Iveragh Peninsula Mount Brandon Munster Irish MV Ranga, a ship wrecked near Coumeenole Beach, near Slea Head, Dingle Dingle Peninsula travel guide from Wikivoyage 2007 Comprehensive Gaeltacht Linguistic studyDestination Ireland: Dingle. Ireland's Homes Living. No. 225. March 2014
University College Cork
University College Cork – National University of Ireland, Cork is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland, located in Cork. The university was founded in 1845 as one of three Queen’s Colleges located in Belfast and Galway, it became University College, under the Irish Universities Act of 1908. The Universities Act 1997 renamed the university as National University of Ireland, a Ministerial Order of 1998 renamed the university as University College Cork – National University of Ireland, though it continues to be universally known as University College Cork. Amongst other rankings and awards, the university was named Irish University of the Year by the Sunday Times on five occasions. In 2015, UCC was named as top performing university by the European Commission funded U-Multirank system, based on obtaining the highest number of "A" scores among a field of 1200 partaking universities. UCC became the first university to achieve the ISO 50001 standard in energy management in 2011.
Queen's College, was founded by the provisions of an act which enabled Queen Victoria to endow new colleges for the "Advancement of Learning in Ireland". Under the powers of this act, the three colleges of Belfast and Galway were incorporated on 30 December 1845; the college opened in 1849 with 181 students. A year the college became part of the Queen's University of Ireland; the original site chosen for the college was considered appropriate as it was believed to have had a connection with the patron saint of Cork, Saint Finbarr. His monastery and school of learning were close by at Gill Abbey Rock and the mill attached to the monastery is thought to have stood on the bank of the south channel of the River Lee, which runs through the College lower grounds; this association is reflected in the College motto "Where Finbarr Taught, Let Munster Learn", the university motto. Adjacent to Gillabbey and overlooking the valley of the river Lee, the site was selected in 1846; the Tudor Gothic quadrangle and early campus buildings were designed and built by Sir Thomas Deane and Benjamin Woodward.
Queen's College Cork opened its doors in 1849, with further buildings added including the Medical/Windle Building in the 1860s. In the following century, the Irish Universities Act formed the National University of Ireland, consisting of the three constituent colleges of Dublin and Galway, the college was given the status of a university college as University College, Cork; the Universities Act, 1997, made the university college a constituent university of the National University and made the constituent university a full university for all purposes except the awarding of degrees and diplomas which remains the sole remit of the National University. As of 2016, University College Cork had 21,000 students; these included 15,000 in undergraduate programmes, 4,400 in postgraduate study and research, 2,800 in adult continuing education across undergraduate and short courses. The student base is supported by 2,800 academic and administrative staff; as of 2017, UCC had 150,000 alumni worldwide. Student numbers, at over 21,000 in 2016, increased from the late 1980s, precipitating the expansion of the campus by the acquisition of adjacent buildings and lands.
This expansion continued with the opening of the Alfred O'Rahilly building in the late 1990s, the Cavanagh Pharmacy building, the Brookfield Health Sciences centre, the extended Áras na MacLéinn, the Lewis Glucksman Gallery in 2004, Experience UCC and an extension to the Boole Library – named for the first professor of mathematics at UCC, George Boole, who developed the algebra that would make computer programming possible. The University completed the Western Gateway Building in 2009 on the site of the former Cork Greyhound track on the Western Road as well as refurbishment to the Tyndall institute buildings at the Lee Maltings Complex. In 2016, UCC acquired the Cork Savings Bank building on Lapps Quay in the centre of Cork city; as of 2017, the university is rolling out a programme to increase the space across its campuses, with part of this development involving the creation of a'student hub' to support academic strategy, to add 600 new student accommodation spaces, to develop an outdoor sports facility.
In 2006, the University re-opened the Crawford Observatory, a structure built in 1880 on the grounds of the university by Sir Howard Grubb. Grubb, son of the Grubb telescope building family in Dublin, designed the observatory and built the astronomical instruments for the structure; the University paid for an extensive restoration and conservation of the building and the three main telescopes, the Equatorial, the Transit Circle and Sidereostatic telescopes. In November 2009, a number of UCC buildings were damaged by flooding; the floods affected other parts of Cork City, with many students being evacuated from accommodation. The college authorities postponed academic activities for a week, indicated that it would take until 2010 before all flood damaged property would be repaired. Impacted was the newly opened Western Gateway Building, with the main lecture theatre requiring a total refit just months after opening for classes; the university is one of Ireland’s leading research institutes, with among the highest research income in the state.
In 2016, UCC secured research funding of over €96 million, a 21% increase over a five-year period and a high for the university. The university had seven faculties: Arts and Celtic Studies, Commer
Glengarriff is a village of 800 people on the N71 national secondary road in the Beara Peninsula of County Cork, Ireland. Known internationally as a tourism venue, it boasts many natural attractions, it sits at the northern head of a smaller enclave of Bantry Bay. Located 20 km west of Bantry, 30 km east of Castletownbere, it is a popular stop along the routes around the area. In recent years, its importance as a waypoint along the Castletownbere to Cork fish-delivery route has declined as local infrastructure improves and vehicular traffic can now navigate its once-quaint thoroughfare at significant speed; the economy revolves around a combination of tourism and local services. Glengarriff is a small seaside village positioned on Ring of Beara surrounded by high rugged mountains pocked with old bogs being farmed for peat. Notable among local attractions are the Italian Gardens on Garnish Island, which may be visited by boat trip. Offering a broad view of the surrounding area, the round Martello tower on the island was built to guard against a threatened Napoleonic invasion that never materialized.
In the nearby Glengarriff Forest is the glen that gave Glengarriff its name, containing some of the oldest and most extensive oak and birch groves left in Ireland. A short but steep trail leads up to Lady Bantry's Lookout, offering a stunning vista of Glengarriff and the west Cork area. Of interest are the Bamboo Park behind Toad Hall, the local amenity area featuring a new child's playground and Blue Pool lagoon, nearby Barley Lake and the historic Eccles Hotel. Walking trails in the area are extensive, kayaking on the bay is scheduled, live music is available in the evenings at local pubs during the tourist season. Glengarriff offers shops, art galleries, restaurants & other services. Glengarriff harbour is a safe and sheltered anchorage and has visitors moorings for visiting yachts. Glengarriff Golf Club is a nine-hole course on the east side of the village, it is associated with the famous film actress, who had a home close by. Glengarriff GAA Club was founded in 1981 after breaking away from neighbouring Adrigole GFC.
It fields Gaelic football teams from Junior ‘A’ level to Under 6s. Teams compete in championships run by the Beara GAA division; the Dutch former RAF-pilot Jan Linzel (born December 7, 1915, who fought the Nazis in World War II lives just outside the village. Letitia Elizabeth Landon's poetical illustration, accompanies an engraving of a view over Garnish Island looking towards the mountains in the West. Ellen Hutchins Historic Cork Gardens Ilnacullin List of towns and villages in Ireland Official website Glengarriff.org Glengarriff on Facebook
County Kerry is a county in Ireland. It is located in the South-West Region and forms part of the province of Munster, it is named after the Ciarraige. Kerry County Council is the local authority for the county and Tralee serves as the county town; the population of the county was 147,707 at the 2016 census. Kerry is the fifth-largest of the 26 counties of the 15th-largest by population, it is the second-largest of Munster's six counties by area, the fourth-largest by population. Uniquely, it is bordered by only two other counties: County Limerick to the east and County Cork to the south-east; the county town is Tralee. The diocesan seat is Killarney, one of Ireland's most famous tourist destinations; the Lakes of Killarney, an area of outstanding natural beauty are located in Killarney National Park. The Reeks District is home to Carrauntoohil, Ireland's highest mountain at 1,039m; the tip of the Dingle Peninsula is the most westerly point of Ireland. There are nine historic baronies in the county.
While baronies continue to be defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units". Clanmaurice – Clann Mhuiris Corkaguiny – Corca Dhuibhne Dunkerron North – Dún Ciaráin Thuaidh Dunkerron South – Dún Ciaráin Theas Glanarought – Gleann na Ruachtaí Iraghticonnor – Oireacht Uí Chonchúir Iveragh Peninsula – Uíbh Ráthach Magunihy – Maigh gCoinchinn Trughanacmy – Triúcha an Aicme Coolgarriv – An Chúil Gharbh Aghadoe – Achadh Deo Maglass Ard na Caithne Sliabh Luachra Corca Dhuibhne Bounard Kerry faces the Atlantic Ocean and for an Eastern-Atlantic coastal region, features many peninsulas and inlets, principally the Dingle Peninsula, the Iveragh Peninsula, the Beara Peninsula; the county is bounded on the west on the north by the River Shannon. Kerry is one of the most mountainous regions of Ireland and its three highest mountains, Carrauntoohil and Caher, all part of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks range.
Just off the coast are a number of islands, including the Blasket Islands, Valentia Island and the Skelligs. Skellig Michael is a World Heritage Site, famous for the medieval monastery clinging to the island's cliffs; the county contains the extreme west point of Ireland, Dunmore Head on the Dingle Peninsula, or including islands, Tearaght Island, part of the Blaskets. The most westerly inhabited area of Ireland is Dún Chaoin, on the Dingle Peninsula; the River Feale, the River Laune and the Roughty River flow into the Atlantic. The North Atlantic Current, part of the Gulf Stream, flows north past Kerry and the west coast of Ireland, resulting in milder temperatures than would otherwise be expected at the 52 North latitude; this means that subtropical plants such as the strawberry tree and tree ferns, not found in northern Europe, thrive in the area. Because of the mountainous area and the prevailing southwesterly winds, Kerry is among the regions with the highest rainfall in Ireland. Owing to its location, there has been a weather reporting station on Valentia for many centuries.
The Irish record for rainfall in one day is 243.5 mm, recorded at Cloore Lake in Kerry in 1993. In 1986 the remnants of Hurricane Charley crossed over Kerry as an extratropical storm causing extensive rainfall and damage. Kerry means the "people of Ciar", the name of the pre-Gaelic tribe who lived in part of the present county; the legendary founder of the tribe was son of Fergus mac Róich. In Old Irish "Ciar" meant black or dark brown, the word continues in use in modern Irish as an adjective describing a dark complexion; the suffix raighe, meaning people/tribe, is found in various -ry place names in Ireland, such as Osry—Osraighe Deer-People/Tribe. The county's nickname is the Kingdom. On 27 August 1329, by Letters Patent, Maurice FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Desmond was confirmed in the feudal seniority of the entire county palatine of Kerry, to him and his heirs male, to hold of the Crown by the service of one knight's fee. In the 15th century, the majority of the area now known as County Kerry was still part of the County Desmond, the west Munster seat of the Earl of Desmond, a branch of the Hiberno-Norman FitzGerald dynasty, known as the Geraldines.
In 1580, during the Second Desmond Rebellion, one of the most infamous massacres of the Sixteenth century, the Siege of Smerwick, took place at Dún an Óir near Ard na Caithne at the tip of the Dingle Peninsula. The 600-strong Italian and Irish papal invasion force of James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald was besieged by the English forces and massacred. In 1588, when the fleet of the Spanish Armada in Ireland were returning to Spain during stormy weather, many of its ships sought shelter at the Blasket Islands and some were wrecked. During the Nine Years' War, Kerry was again the scene of conflict, as the O'Sullivan Beare clan joined the rebellion. In 1602 their castle at Dunboy was taken by English troops. Donal O'Sullivan Beare, in an effort to escape English retribution and to reach his allies in Ulster, marched all the clan's members and dependants to the north of Ireland. Due to harassment by hostile forces and freezing weather few of the 1,000 O'Sullivans who set out reached their destination. In the aftermath of the War, much of the native owned land in Kerry was confiscated and given to English settlers or'planters'.
The head of the MacCarthy M
County Cork is a county in Ireland. It is the largest and southernmost county of Ireland, situated in the province of Munster and named after the city of Cork, Ireland's second-largest city; the Cork County Council is the local authority for the county. Its largest market towns are Mallow, Macroom and Skibbereen. In 2016, the county's population was 542,868. Notable Corkonians include Michael Collins, Jack Lynch, Sonia O'Sullivan. Cork borders four other counties; the county contains the Golden Vale pastureland and stretches from Kanturk in the north to Allihies in the south. The south-west region, including West Cork, is one of Ireland's main tourist destinations, known for its rugged coast, megalithic monuments, as the starting point for the Wild Atlantic Way; the county is known as the "Rebel county", a name given to them by King Henry VII of England for its support of a man claiming to be Richard, Duke of York in a futile attempt at a rebellion. The main third-level educator is University College Cork, founded in 1845, with a current undergraduate population around 15,000.
Significant local industry and employers include technology company Dell EMC, the European headquarters of Apple, Dairygold, which own milk-processing factories in Mitchelstown and Mallow. Two local authorities have remits which collectively encompass the geographic area of the county and city of Cork; the county, excluding Cork city, is administered by Cork County Council, while the city is administered separately by Cork City Council. Both city and county are part of the South-West Region. For standardized European statistical purposes, both Cork County Council and Cork City Council rank as first-level local administrative units of the NUTS 3 South-West Region. Thirty-four such LAU 1 entities are in the Republic of Ireland. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is divided into five constituencies—Cork East, Cork North-Central, Cork North-West, Cork South-Central and Cork South-West. Together they return 18 deputies to the Dáil; the county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections.
For purposes other than local government, such as the formation of sporting teams, the term "County Cork" is taken to include both city and county. County Cork is located in the province of Munster, bordering Kerry to the west, Limerick to the north, Tipperary to the north-east and Waterford to the east, it is the largest county in Ireland by land area, the largest of Munster's six counties by population and area. At the last census in 2016, Cork city stood at 125,657; the population of the entire county is 542,868 making it the state's second-most populous county and the third-most populous county on the island of Ireland. The remit of Cork County Council includes some suburbs of the city not within the area of Cork City Council. Twenty-four historic baronies are in the county—the most of any county in Ireland. While baronies continue to be defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes, their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed.
The county has 253 civil parishes. Townlands are the smallest defined geographical divisions in Ireland, with about 5447 townlands in the county; the county's mountain rose during a period mountain formation some 374-360 million years ago and include the Slieve Miskish and Caha Mountains on the Beara Peninsula, the Ballyhoura Mountains on the border with Limerick and the Shehy Mountains which contain Knockboy, the highest point in Cork. The Shehy Mountains are on the border with Kerry and may be accessed from the area known as Priests Leap, near the village of Coomhola; the Galtee Mountains are located across parts of Tipperary and Cork and are Ireland's highest inland mountain range. The upland areas of the Ballyhoura, Boggeragh and Mullaghareirk Mountain ranges add to the range of habitats found in the county. Important habitats in the uplands include blanket bog, glacial lakes, upland grasslands. Cork has the 13th-highest county peak in Ireland. Three rivers, the Bandon and Lee, their valleys dominate central Cork.
Habitats of the valleys and floodplains include woodlands, marshes and species-rich limestone grasslands. The River Bandon flows through several towns, including Dunmanway to the west of the town of Bandon before draining into Kinsale Harbour on the south coast. Cork's sea loughs include Lough Hyne and Lough Mahon, the county has many small lakes. An area has formed where the River Lee breaks into a network of channels weaving through a series of wooded islands. About 85 hectares of swamp are around Cork's wooded area; the Environmental Protection Agency carried out a survey of surface waters in County Cork between 1995 and 1997, which identified 125 rivers and 32 lakes covered by the regulations. Cork has a flat landscape with many beaches and sea cliffs along its coast; the southwest of Ireland is known for its peninsulas and some in Cork include the Beara Peninsula, Sheep's Head, Mizen Head, Brow Head. Brow Head is the most southerly point of mainland Ireland. There are many islands off the coast in particular, off West Cork.
Carbery's Hundred Isles are the islands around Long Island Roaringwater Bay. Fastnet Rock lies in the Atlantic Ocean 11.3 km south of mainland Ireland, making it the most southerly point of Ireland. Many notable islands lie off Cork, including Bere, Great and Cape Clear. Cork has 1,094 km of coastline, the second-longest coastline of any county after Mayo
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Bronze itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze Age civilizations to gain a technological advantage. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic.
Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems; the overall period is characterized by widespread use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology were not universally synchronous. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be mined and smelted separately added to molten copper to make bronze alloy; the Bronze Age was a time of developing trade networks. A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik, although this culture is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age; the dating of the foil has been disputed. Western Asia and the Near East was the first region to enter the Bronze Age, which began with the rise of the Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer in the mid 4th millennium BC.
Cultures in the ancient Near East practiced intensive year-round agriculture, developed a writing system, invented the potter's wheel, created a centralized government, written law codes and nation states and empires, embarked on advanced architectural projects, introduced social stratification and civil administration and practiced organized warfare and religion. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and astrology. Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The Ancient Near East Bronze Age can be divided as following: The Hittite Empire was established in Hattusa in northern Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Kingdom was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, southwestern Syria as far as Ugarit, upper Mesopotamia. After 1180 BC, amid general turmoil in the Levant conjectured to have been associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples, the kingdom disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until as late as the 8th century BC.
Arzawa in Western Anatolia during the second half of the second millennium BC extended along southern Anatolia in a belt that reaches from near the Turkish Lakes Region to the Aegean coast. Arzawa was the western neighbor – sometimes a rival and sometimes a vassal – of the Middle and New Hittite Kingdoms; the Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia, defeated by the Hittites under an earlier Tudhaliya I, around 1400 BC. Arzawa has been associated with the much more obscure Assuwa located to its north, it bordered it, may be an alternative term for it. In Ancient Egypt the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC. The archaic early Bronze Age of Egypt, known as the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt, c. 3100 BC. It is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Abydos to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king.
Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic period. Memphis in the Early Bronze Age was the largest city of the time; the Old Kingdom of the regional Bronze Age is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley. The First Intermediate Period of Egypt described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned about 100 years after the end of the Old Kingdom from about 2181 to 2055 BC. Little monumental evidence survives from this period from the early part of it; the First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time when the rule of Egypt was divided between two competing power bases: Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt and Thebes in Upper Egypt. These two kingdoms would come into conflict, with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in the reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part of the 11th Dynasty.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt laste
The Hag of Beara
The Hag of Beara is a mythic Irish Goddess (a Cailleach or a divine hag, crone, or creator deity. She is best known as the narrator of the medieval Irish poem "The Lament of the Hag of Beara", in which she bitterly laments the passing of her youth and her decrepit old age; the Hag of Beara is said to have been born in Dingle, County Kerry, at "Teach Mor" or the Great House, described as "the house farthest west in Ireland", today identified as Tivore on the Dingle promontory. In some telligs, she lived several lives, is said to have been a mother or foster mother to the ancestors of a number of prominent clans, including the Corca Dhuibhne and Corca Loighdhe. According to legend, the hag had seven successive periods of youth, during which her sons and their sons rose some of the regions most prominent clans, she is said to have worn veil, given to her by Saint Cummine, for a hundred years. The first exant written mention of the hag is in the 12th century "Vision of Mac Conglinne", in which she is named as the "White Nun of Beare".
The long Irish language medieval poem, "The Lament of the Hag of Beara", which she narrates, has been described by folklorist Eleanor Hull as "a beautiful example of the wide-spread idea that human life is ruled by the flow and ebb of the sea-tide, with the turn of which life will dwindle, as with the on-coming tide it waxes to its full powers and energy". The narrator is unhappy with her lot, remembers that in her youth she used to drink "mead and wine" with kings, she now lives a lonely life amid "the gloom of a prayer" and "shriveled old hags"; the following verses are excerpts from a 1919 translation by Lady Augusta Gregory. The manuscript in which the poem is found is held in Trinity College Dublin; the verses are preceded by a passage that identifies her original names as "Dirri", connects her with three other poetesses: Brigit, Uallach. Another old Irish poem translated by Lady Gregory, reads A number of pre-historic archaeological and geographical features in Munster are associated with her, in particular the "Hag of Beara" rock chair, in reality a natural boulder, in Kilcatherine, Bhéara, County Cork, said to be either her fossilized remains, or the chair of which she sits waiting for Manannán mac Lir, the god of the sea, variously described as her husband or father.
She is sometimes associated with the Hag's Head rock formation on the southerly most point of the Cliffs of Moher in County Clare. Cailleach - a broader examination of the different versions of this type of deity in Scottish mythology