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Bearsden

Bearsden is a town in East Dunbartonshire, Scotland, on the northwestern fringe of Greater Glasgow. 6 miles from Glasgow City Centre, the town is a suburb, its housing development coincided with the 1863 introduction of a railway line. The town was named after Bearsden railway station, named after a nearby cottage. Bearsden was ranked the seventh-wealthiest area in Britain in a 2005 survey and has the least social housing of any town in Scotland; the Roman Antonine Wall runs through the town, the remains of a military bath house can be seen near the town centre. In 1649, the first New Kilpatrick parish church was built, which became the centre of administration for the area; the town's official Gaelic name Cille. By the early 20th century, a town had grown up with large townhouses occupied by wealthy commuter business workers. Further development of more affordable housing has increased the population of the town to 28,000. A burgh, the town now has local government being the responsibility of East Dunbartonshire Council, but until 2011, the council had some departmental offices at Boclair House in Bearsden.

The first known settlement on the site of present-day Bearsden was a 2.5 acres Roman fort in the second century AD. Between 142 and 144 AD, under Emperor Antoninus Pius, the Romans built a stone and turf fortification, called the Antonine Wall, between the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth, they built the Military Way, a road that ran parallel, to the south of the wall. The fort was positioned at the intersection of the Military Way, the north-south road between Glasgow and Loch Lomond. A video reconstruction of the site has been produced. In 164 AD, after only 20 years, the Romans withdrew to Hadrian's Wall. Little of the fort remains today. However, close to the fort was a Roman bath-house, built in 142–143 AD; the bath-house's remains were discovered by builders digging foundations for a housing development in 1973. The site was donated to the government, today the remains lie, well-preserved, 150 metres from the town centre. Two further stretches of the Antonine Wall's stone base can be seen in the New Kilpatrick Cemetery on Boclair Road.

Prior to 1649, the area formed. One part was called West, or Old Kilpatrick, covered Dumbarton and areas of west Dunbartonshire, such as Clydebank; the remaining part was named East or New Kilpatrick, covering a much greater area than Bearsden, from the River Clyde at Whiteinch and Yoker to Duntocher and Baldernock. Modern Bearsden began in an agricultural area as a small hamlet called New Kirk close to New Kilpatrick Parish Church, first built in 1649. Close landmarks included Canniesburn Toll, a water mill at Garscube; the present-day church was built in 1807. The size and style of the community prior to urbanisation is recorded in Rambles Round Glasgow, first published in 1854; the author describes a route from Maryhill, crossing the River Kelvin at Garscube Mill to Canniesburn. At that point, the route takes the road to Drymen, rather than the alternative to Milngavie. Of particular note are the woods and gardens surrounding the fine houses of Killermont and Garscube, which are contrasted with a small shop at Canniesburn with nothing left for sale.

The kirk-toun is described as consisting of about a dozen cottages of idyllic rural beauty, isolated from the noise and dirt of Glasgow. The account includes one of the earliest references to "Bear's Den", although the location is not clear, a traditional belief is recorded that it was a Roman burial site; the New Kirk settlement grew from the middle of the nineteenth century when Glaswegian businessmen built houses at a commutable distance from the city. In 1863, the Glasgow and Milngavie Junction Railway opened, with a station near New Kirk called Bearsden; this was soon adopted as the name of the community. The opening of the railway led to considerable development of Bearsden, with many large Victorian houses built in what is now known as Old Bearsden Conservation Area; the Glasgow Reformatory for Girls at East Chapelton moved from Rottenrow to Bearsden in the late 1860s. Managed by Glasgow Corporation, the countryside location moved the girls away from any malign influences to be found in the city and allowed the institution to be self-supporting with livestock and a vegetable garden.

The girls washed those of local residents in the Reformatory's large laundry. In addition to girls who had fallen foul of the courts, others with problems such as malnourishment and learning difficulties were housed at Chapelton. In 1949, around 360 girls passed through the school annually and were taken to New Kilpatrick Parish church on Sundays; the school closed in the early 1970s and after a brief period as a hall of residence for the Nautical College, the building was demolished to make way for a shopping centre with an Asda supermarket. Buchanan Retreat was built in 1890 by the Buchanan sisters of Bellfield, near Kilmarnock, in Ayrshire, it was taken over by Bearsden Burgh in 1962 and, known as Boclair House, used as council offices. Latterly used by East Dunbartonshire council, it was placed on the market in 2012 following council cost-cutting measures and staff redistribution. In 2016 the building opened as Boclair House Hotel, a hotel, wedding venue, restaurant, which has since won several awards.

The Schaw Home was built in 1895 by Miss Marjory Shanks Schaw in memory of her brother and gifted to Glasgow

Pulau Semakau

Pulau Semakau is located to the south of the main island of Singapore, off the Straits of Singapore. The Semakau Landfill is located on the eastern side of the island, was created by the amalgamation of Pulau Sakeng, "anchored" to Pulau Semakau; the Semakau Landfill is Singapore's first offshore landfill and now the only remaining landfill in Singapore. Pulau Semakau was home to a small fishing village, as was the nearby island of Pulau Sakeng, known as Pulau Seking. Houses built on both islands were perched on stilts as most of the villagers were subsistence fishermen, making a living off the nearby coral reefs. Both islands had a few provision shops but the community centre was located on Pulau Semakau while the Pulau Sakeng Police Post was situated on Pulau Sakeng. In 1987, the Singapore government, after having acquired the land on both islands from the islanders, set about relocating the islanders to the mainland where they were resettled in the Bukit Merah and Telok Blangah housing estate areas by HDB.

One of the oldest residents continued to live on the Pulau Sakeng despite his family having been resettled but he moved out as well in 1991, as the island's jetty fell into a sorry state of disrepair. The Singapore SPCA was tasked with rounding up the few cats that were left behind after his departure. Subsequently, Pulau Sakeng was subsumed by the land reclamation process of Pulau Semakau and the present day Semakau landfill receiving station was built directly on top of Pulau Sakeng after that process. Pulau Semakau and the neighbouring area is the home to the largest barramundi farm in Singapore, owned by Barramundi Asia; the location is chosen for its strong current and high oxygen content, necessary for strong growth of the fish. The Semakau Landfill is Singapore's first and only landfill situated offshore among the southern islands of Singapore, it covers a total area of 3.5 square kilometres and has a capacity of 63 million m³. To create the required landfill space, a 7 km perimeter rock bund was built to enclose a part of the sea between Pulau Semakau and Pulau Sakeng.

As of August 2011 it was estimated that the landfill, which began operations on 1 Apr 1999, will last until 2045. The Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, along with the National Environment Agency which manages the landfill, hopes this deadline will be extended through various waste minimisation and resource conservation initiatives. Semakau Landfill is filled with ash produced by Singapore's four incineration plants, which incinerate the country's waste, shipped there in a covered barge every night. Contrary to popular belief that Semakau Landfill would be another dirty and smelly landfill, the care put into the design and operational work at the landfill has ensured that the site is clean, free of smell and scenic. During construction, silt screens were installed to ensure that the corals were not affected during the reclamation works; the landfill is lined with an impermeable membrane, clay and any leachate produced is processed at a leachate treatment plant. Regular water testing is carried out to ensure the integrity of the impermeable liners.

A new REMEX Minerals facility at Tuas began operations in July 2015, recovering tens of thousands of tonnes of metal from the remains of incinerated rubbish using magnetic and eddy separators. This reduces the weight of incinerated rubbish by around 10%, hence benefiting the landfill that may run out of space in 2035. Terrestrial flora and fauna The terrestrial flora and fauna of the island has not been surveyed. At least 5 species of amphibians, 12 species of reptiles and 6 species mammals have been recorded on the island. Marine flora and fauna The coral reefs around Pulau Semakau have been monitored since the late 1980s to 2001, by the National University of Singapore, from 2005 to the present by the "Reef Friends" programme. Results of the surveys can be found at the'Coral Reefs of Singapore' webpage and Blue Water Volunteers webpage; the intertidal areas A survey of the coastal and inter-tidal areas of the island in 2005 revealed four plants listed as endangered in Singapore, including the Seashore Bat Lily which so far has only been recorded in one area of Singapore: Pulau Semakau.

Semakau has vast stretches of Tape seagrass, considered rare and vulnerable in Singapore. Semakau is the only known location in Singapore of the seagrass Syringodium isoetifolium; the seagrass meadow is being monitored by the set up'Team Seagrass'. The mangroves The construction of the perimeter bund of the Landfill affected mangroves on the eastern side of the island; the developers replanted two plots of mangroves totaling 136,000 square metres, just outside the perimeter bund. The two plots are doing well. Another design feature is the built-in channels that allow the flow of seawater into non-active cells, keeping the water fresh at all times. Today, after years of operation, the replanted mangrove, remaining natural habitats on the island are doing well; the closed cells, topped up with soil, are flourishing. Birds can be seen in the air and on the open landscape, fishes swim in and out of the lagoons, marine life continues to thrive in the mangrove mudflats and the western shorelines of Pulau Semakau.

A coral nursery was set up beside Pulau Semakau on 31 July 2007 to enhance hard coral cover and diversity in Singapore. This is a collaborative effort betwee

The Jazz Soul of Little Stevie

The Jazz Soul of Little Stevie is the debut studio album by Stevie Wonder released in September 1962 on the Tamla Motown label. The album showcases the 12-year-old Wonder's talents as a composer and instrumentalist and is one of two Wonder studio albums on which he does not sing. Wonder's mentors Clarence Paul and Henry Cosby wrote and produced the material on The Jazz Soul of Little Stevie Wonder, with the young Wonder himself co-writing two of the compositions; the original studio version of "Fingertips" is included on the album. "Fingertips" – 3:00 - Little Stevie on bongos "The Square" – 3:03 - Little Stevie on harmonica "Soul Bongo" – 2:20 - Little Stevie on bongos "Manhattan at Six" – 3:47 - Little Stevie on drums "Paulsby" – 2:47 - Little Stevie on organ and harmonica "Some Other Time" – 5:11 - Little Stevie on harmonica "Wondering" – 2:51 - Little Stevie on organ "Session Number 112" – 3:18 - Little Stevie on piano and harmonica "Bam" – 3:34 - Little Stevie on harmonica "The Jazz Soul Of Little Stevie" at Discogs