The Beat Generation was a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-war era. The bulk of their work popularized throughout the 1950s; the central elements of Beat culture are the rejection of standard narrative values, making a spiritual quest, the exploration of American and Eastern religions, the rejection of economic materialism, explicit portrayals of the human condition, experimentation with psychedelic drugs, sexual liberation and exploration. Allen Ginsberg's Howl, William S. Burroughs' Naked Lunch and Jack Kerouac's On the Road are among the best known examples of Beat literature. Both Howl and Naked Lunch were the focus of obscenity trials that helped to liberalize publishing in the United States; the members of the Beat Generation developed a reputation as new bohemian hedonists, who celebrated non-conformity and spontaneous creativity. The core group of Beat Generation authors — Herbert Huncke, Burroughs, Lucien Carr, Kerouac — met in 1944 in and around the Columbia University campus in New York City.
In the mid-1950s, the central figures, with the exception of Burroughs and Carr, ended up together in San Francisco, where they met and became friends of figures associated with the San Francisco Renaissance. In the 1960s, elements of the expanding Beat movement were incorporated into the hippie and larger counterculture movements. Neal Cassady, as the driver for Ken Kesey's bus Further, was the primary bridge between these two generations. Ginsberg's work became an integral element of early 1960s hippie culture. Kerouac introduced the phrase "Beat Generation" in 1948 to characterize a perceived underground, anti-conformist youth movement in New York; the name arose in a conversation with writer John Clellon Holmes. Kerouac allows that it was Huncke, a street hustler, who used the phrase "beat", in an earlier discussion with him; the adjective "beat" could colloquially mean "tired" or "beaten down" within the African-American community of the period and had developed out of the image "beat to his socks", but Kerouac appropriated the image and altered the meaning to include the connotations "upbeat", "beatific", the musical association of being "on the beat", "the Beat to keep" from the Beat Generation poem.
The origins of the Beat Generation can be traced to Columbia University and the meeting of Kerouac, Carr, Hal Chase and others. Kerouac attended Columbia on a football scholarship. Though the beats are regarded as anti-academic, many of their ideas were formed in response to professors like Lionel Trilling and Mark Van Doren. Classmates Carr and Ginsberg discussed the need for a "New Vision", to counteract what they perceived as their teachers' conservative, formalistic literary ideals. Burroughs had an interest in criminal behavior and got involved in dealing stolen goods and narcotics, he was soon addicted to opiates. Burroughs' guide to the criminal underworld was a small-time criminal and drug-addict; the Beats were drawn to Huncke, who started to write himself, convinced that he possessed a vital worldly knowledge unavailable to them from their middle-class upbringings. Ginsberg was arrested in 1949; the police attempted to stop Ginsberg while he was driving with Huncke, his car filled with stolen items that Huncke planned to fence.
Ginsberg crashed the car while trying to flee and escaped on foot, but left incriminating notebooks behind. He was given the option to plead insanity to avoid a jail term, was committed for 90 days to Bellevue Hospital, where he met Carl Solomon. Solomon was arguably more eccentric than psychotic. A fan of Antonin Artaud, he indulged in self-consciously "crazy" behavior, like throwing potato salad at a college lecturer on Dadaism. Solomon was given shock treatments at Bellevue. Solomon became the publishing contact who agreed to publish Burroughs' first novel, Junkie, in 1953. Beat writers and artists flocked to Greenwich Village in New York City in the late 1950s because of low rent and the "small town" element of the scene. Folksongs and discussions took place in Washington Square Park. Allen Ginsberg was a big part of the scene in the Village, as was Burroughs, who lived at 69 Bedford Street. Burroughs, Ginsberg and other poets frequented many bars in the area, including the San Remo Cafe at 93 MacDougal Street on the northwest corner of Bleecker, Chumley's, Minetta Tavern.
Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, other abstract expressionists were frequent visitors of and collaborators with the Beats. Cultural critics have written about the transition of Beat culture in the Village into the Bohemian hippie culture of the 1960s. Ginsberg had visited Neal and Carolyn Cassady in San Jose, California in 1954 and moved to San Francisco in August, he began writing Howl. Lawrence Ferlinghetti, of the new City Lights Bookstore, started to publish the City Lights Pocket Poets Series in 1955. Kenneth Rexroth's apartment became a Friday night literary salon; when asked by Wally Hedrick to organize the Six Gallery reading, Ginsberg wanted Rexroth to serve as master of ceremonies, in a sense to bridge generations. Philip Lamantia, Michael McClure, Philip Whalen and Gary Snyder read on October 7, 1955, before 100 people. Lamantia read poems of his late friend John Hoffman. At his first public rea
Sliven Peak rises to 530 m in the east extremity of Melnik Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak has precipitous rocky southern slopes and ice-free northern slopes, overlooking Kaliakra Glacier to the northwest and Struma Glacier to the south and east; the feature is named after the Bulgarian town of Sliven. The peak is located at 62°36′03.5″S 60°07′42″W, 1.27 km east of Melnik Peak, 5.3 km southeast of Leslie Hill, 5.77 km south of Perperek Knoll, 2.95 km southwest of Sindel Point and 1.68 km north of Atanasoff Nunatak. South Shetland Islands. Scale 1:200000 topographic map. DOS 610 Sheet W 62 60. Tolworth, UK, 1968. Islas Livingston y Decepción. Mapa topográfico a escala 1:100000. Madrid: Servicio Geográfico del Ejército, 1991. S. Soccol, D. Gildea and J. Bath. Livingston Island, Antarctica. Scale 1:100000 satellite map; the Omega Foundation, USA, 2004. L. L. Ivanov et al. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands, 1:100000 scale topographic map, Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, Sofia, 2005 L.
L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich, Robert and Smith Islands. Scale 1:120000 topographic map. Troyan: Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2010. ISBN 978-954-92032-9-5 Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 updated. L. L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Smith Island. Scale 1:100000 topographic map. Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2017. ISBN 978-619-90008-3-0 Sliven Peak. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission. Sliven Peak. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission
Purger & Co. was a German printing house, based at Mozartstraße 13, Germany. The founder of the company was most named Adolf Purger; the company was known for the coloured postcards it produced in the beginning of the 20th century. The postcards were printed in three colour chromolithography, a system called photochrome, with the indication Photochromiekarte; the company was printing not only postcards for their own account, but for other companies, as was the case of the colour postcards of the Krikelli's series of Tinos, Greece. Purger & Co. was active at least during the period 1899-1920 and produced cards from all around Europe and the Mediterranean basin in photo-chromolithography. The cards of Purger & Co. were numbered at the bottom of the postcard's face, but on the reverse side. A review in 1907 mentions Purger & Co. as a specialized company for the production of cards of excellent quality and great variety and makes special note about their colours which are reproduced through such perfected process that the graduation of colour merit appreciative recognition.
Purger & Co. is mentioned as one of the influential publishers of postcards of the golden era of postcards 1901-1905, amongst the names of Hauser y Menet, Casa Laurent, Künzlies of Zurich, Römmler & Jonas and Stengel & Co of Dresden, Paul Trabert of Leipsig, Brunner & Co of Como, Knackstedt & Näther of Hamburg, E. Maass of Berlín and Dr. Trenkler Co. of Leipzig. Purger & Co. is considered one of the most important producers of coloured postcards worldwide of that era