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Beat the Clock

Beat the Clock is a television game show that involves people trying to complete challenges to win prizes while faced with a time limit. The show was a creation of Mark Goodson-Bill Todman Productions and first premiered on March 23, 1950; the program has been revived several times over the years, the most recent revival premiered on Universal Kids on February 6, 2018. The first edition of Beat the Clock was a production of CBS and aired there until 1958; the show moved to American Broadcasting Company where it stayed until 1961. Bud Collyer emceed the original series. Contestants were required to perform tasks within a certain time limit, counted down on a large 60-second clock. If they succeeded, they were said to have "beaten the clock"—otherwise, "the clock beat them"; the show had several sponsors over its run, with the most longstanding being the electronics company Sylvania. Substitute hosts on the original version included Bill Hart, John Reed King, stunt creator Frank Wayne, Bob Kennedy, Win Elliot, Sonny Fox, who became Collyer's permanent substitute from 1957 to 1960.

Collyer was referred to in the introductions as "America's number one clockwatcher", the fill-in hosts were each named "America's number two clockwatcher". The show had several female on-air assistants; the original hostess was Roxanne. Roxanne was replaced by Beverly Bentley in August 1955. Bentley's departure in 1956 coincided with Hazel Bishop's sponsorship and a period of having no main assistant, she reappeared as one of the models on the original version of The Price Is Right for its entire run. The announcer for the show's run on CBS was Bernard Bennett until 1958. In October 1957, Beat the Clock ran a contest inviting viewers to submit drawings of what Bennett, never shown on camera, might look like. Over 20,000 viewers participated, winner Edward Darnell, of Columbus, was flown in to appear with Bennett on the December 2, 1957, show; when Beat the Clock moved to ABC, Dirk Fredericks became the announcer. Substitute announcers included Lee Vines, Bob Sheppard, Hal Simms, Dick Noel. Contestants were chosen from the studio audience and were married couples.

Other pairs were a familial relationship. Collyer would ask them general questions and asked if they had children, their ages and genders. Sometimes the couple would bring children on the show. Collyer would talk to the children, asking them what they wanted to be when they grew up, or, if the kids were not at the show, to have their parents wave to them on TV; the husbands on the show wore a business suit. Collyer would ask the husband to take off his coat for stunts to make it less cumbersome or Collyer would hold the coat. If there was going to be a messy stunt, the husband would come out dressed in a plastic jumpsuit. Wives would sometimes play in their "street clothes", but sometimes the women would appear in a jumpsuit because their own clothing might be too cumbersome or fragile; the women's jumpsuits, unlike the men's, which were rather plain, were patterned to look like a pair of overalls with a collared blouse underneath. The women would often be issued running shoes instead of their own high heels.

One couple competed against the clock to win a prize in stunts that required one or both members of the couple. The stunt was described and the time limit was set on a giant onstage clock; the time limit was always a multiple of 5 seconds at least 30 seconds. At one point Collyer said that a 55-second time limit was the maximum, but on, stunts had 60-second limits. On the primetime edition, the first stunt was called the $100 clock. If the couple beat the $100 clock, they moved on to the same rules applied. If they failed to beat the $100 clock, they received a consolation prize worth less than $100. If they failed to beat the $200 clock, they got a prize worth more than $100. On the daytime versions, couples continued playing as long. On the primetime version, if the couple beat the $200 clock, the wife would play the jackpot clock in which the words of a famous saying or quote were scrambled up on a magnetic board and that phrase had to be unscrambled in 20 seconds or less. If successful the couple won the Jackpot Prize.

If not, they got a prize worth more than $200. When the wife of the couple did not speak English well, the husband was allowed to perform the jackpot clock; the jackpot clock and the Bonus Stunt would provide the templates for the traditional quiz show bonus round, which would become a TV staple, starting in 1950 with the bonus question round on You Bet Your Life. In the show's earliest set design in available episodes, there was a round display near the contestants mirroring the clock; this display had three rings of light like a target. The outer ring would light during the $100 clock, the middle ring for the $200 clock, the center circle would light during the jackpot clock; this feature was removed in set designs. Some time during every episode, a bell would sound; the couple playing at the time would attempt the Bonus Stunt for the Bonus Prize that started at $100 in cash. If the stunt was not beaten, it would be attempted the next week with $100 added to the prize; when it was beaten, it was retired from the show and a new Bonus Stunt began the next week at $100.

The bonus did not affect the regular game, win or lose the couple continued the regular clocks wherever th

Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell

Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, was a senior officer of the British Army. He served in the Second Boer War, the Bazar Valley Campaign and World War I, during which he was wounded in the Second Battle of Ypres, he served in the Second World War as Commander-in-Chief Middle East, in which role he led British forces to victory over the Italians in western Egypt and eastern Libya during Operation Compass in December 1940, only to be defeated by the German Army in the Western Desert in April 1941. He served as Commander-in-Chief, from July 1941 until June 1943 and served as Viceroy of India until his retirement in February 1947. Born the son of Archibald Graham Wavell and Lillie Wavell, Wavell attended Eaton House, followed by the leading preparatory boarding school Summer Fields near Oxford, Winchester College, where he was a scholar, the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, his headmaster, Dr. Fearon, had advised his father that there was no need to send him into the Army as he had "sufficient ability to make his way in other walks of life".

After graduating from Sandhurst, Wavell was commissioned into the British Army on 8 May 1901 as a second lieutenant in the Black Watch, joined the 2nd battalion of his regiment in South Africa to fight in the Second Boer War. The battalion stayed in South Africa throughout the war, which formally ended in June 1902 after the Peace of Vereeniging. Wavell was ill, did not join the battalion as it transferred to British India in October that year. In 1903 he was transferred to join the battalion in India and, having been promoted to lieutenant on 13 August 1904, he fought in the Bazar Valley Campaign of February 1908. In January 1909 was seconded from his regiment to be a student at the Staff College, he was one of only two in his class to graduate with an A grade. In 1911, he spent a year as a military observer with the Russian Army to learn Russian, returning to his regiment in December of that year. In April 1912 he became a General Staff Officer Grade 3 in the Russian Section of the War Office.

In July, he was granted the temporary rank of captain and became GSO3 at the Directorate of Military Training. On 20 March 1913 Wavell was promoted to the substantive rank of captain. After visiting manoeuvres at Kiev in summer 1913, he was arrested at the Russo-Polish border as a suspected spy, following a search of his Moscow hotel room by the secret police, but managed to remove from his papers an incriminating document listing the information wanted by the War Office. Wavell was working at the War Office during the Curragh incident, his letters to his father record his disgust at the Government's behaviour in giving an ultimatum to officers – he had little doubt that the Government had been planning to crush the Ulster Scots, whatever they claimed. However, he was concerned at the Army's intervening in politics, not least as there would be an greater appearance of bias when the Army was used against industrial unrest. Wavell was working as a staff officer; as a captain, he was sent to France to a posting at General HQ of the British Expeditionary Force as General Staff Officer Grade 2, but shortly afterwards, in November 1914, was appointed brigade major of 9th Infantry Brigade.

He was wounded in the Second Battle of Ypres of 1915, losing his left eye and winning the Military Cross. In October 1915 he became a GSO2 in the 64th Highland Division. In December 1915, after he had recovered, Wavell was returned to General HQ in France as a GSO2, he was promoted to the substantive rank of major on 8 May 1916. In October 1916 Wavell was graded General Staff Officer Grade 1 as an acting lieutenant colonel, was assigned as a liaison officer to the Russian Army in the Caucasus. In June 1917, he was promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel and continued to work as a staff officer, as liaison officer with the Egyptian Expeditionary Force headquarters. In January 1918 Wavell received a further staff appointment as Assistant Adjutant & Quartermaster General working at the Supreme War Council in Versailles. In March 1918 Wavell was made a temporary brigadier general and returned to Palestine where he served as the brigadier general of the General Staff with XX Corps, part of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force.

Wavell was given a number of assignments between the wars, though like many officers he had to accept a reduction in rank. In May 1920 he relinquished the temporary rank of Brigadier-General, reverting to brevet lieutenant colonel. In December 1921, still a brevet lieutenant colonel, he became an Assistant Adjutant General at the War Office and, having been promoted to full colonel on 3 June 1921, he became a GSO1 in the Directorate of Military Operations in July 1923. Apart from a short period unemployed on half pay in 1926, Wavell continued to hold GSO1 appointments, latterly in the 3rd Infantry Division, until July 1930 when he was once again granted the rank of temporary brigadier and was given command of 6th Infantry Brigade. In March 1932, he was appointed ADC to the King, a position he held until October 1933 when he was promoted to Major-General. However, there was a shortage of jobs for Major-Generals at this time and in January 1934, on relinquishing command of his brigade, he found himself unemployed on half pay once again.

By the end of the year, although still on half pay, Wavell had been designated to command 2nd Division and appointed a CB. In March 1935, he took command of his division. In A

Western Clarion

The Western Clarion was a newspaper launched in January 1903 that became the official organ of the Socialist Party of Canada. At one time it was the leading left-wing newspaper in Canada, it lost influence after 1910–11 when various groups broke away from the SPC. The editors were unsympathetic to women's demands for the right to work for pay. During World War I the Western Clarion was internationalist and denounced a war in which workers fought while others profited. Following the Russian Revolution it adopted a pro-Bolshevik stance, The paper was banned in 1918, but allowed to resume publication in 1920, its circulation dwindled as SPC membership dwindled, the last issue appeared in 1925. In 1902 Richard Parmater Pettipiece, publishing the Lardeau Eagle, a miners' journal that supported the Socialist League, bought an interest in George Weston Wrigley's Citizen and Country. Starting in July 1902 the journal began appearing in Vancouver with Wrigley's help as the Canadian Socialist; the newspaper was aligned with the Canadian Socialist League.

In October 1902 Pettipiece renamed the paper the Western Socialist. The paper merged with the Clarion of Nanaimo and the Strike Bulletin of the United Brotherhood of Railway Employees and appeared as the Western Clarion on 8 May 1903; the paper was named after the Clarion published by Robert Blatchford in England. The Western Clarion had a guaranteed circulation of 6,000 three days a week. Although owned the paper expressed the views of the Socialist Party of British Columbia, but gave coverage to controversies among Canadian socialist groups; the provincial executive of the SPBC controlled the Western Clarion by late 1903, appointed E. T. Kingsley editor; the newspaper became one of the most prominent left wing publications in Canada before World War I. In 1905 Kingsley was one of the founders of the Socialist Party of Canada; the Western Clarion became the SPC organ. According to Alex Paterson, when the SPC was in its prime Kingsley, "pretty well ran the Western Clarion and the Party." He was editor until 1908, continue to finance the newspaper until 1912, going into debt as a result.

Donald Gorden McKenzie was editor from 1908 to 1911. The SPC saw itself as the preeminent socialist party in the world. McKenzie said, only in jest, "since Marx died nobody was capable of throwing light on matters except the editor of the Clarion, whoever we may happen to be."By 1910 the SPC was losing control of locals on the prairies, where eastern European immigrants resented the dominance of English speakers. The Social Democratic Party began to be organized to represent these groups and the moderate British socialists; the SDP became a national party in December 1911. The SPC lost much of its membership outside British Columbia, was weakened in its home province; the Western Clarion was published on an irregular schedule in the fall of 1911. On 2 December 1911 the Western Clarion reported that McKenzie had resigned as editor and party secretary. From November 1912 to March 1913 the Western Clarion ceased publication, other than in some space provided by the BC Federationist. In March 1913 J. H. Burrough, editor of the Clarion, wrote that the SPC as a whole was suffering from "the general malady of ‘laisser faire'".

Bertha Merrill Burns, a supporter of feminism and socialism, was the first woman to serve on the executive of the SPBC. In July 1903 she became editor of the women's column in the Western Clarion, she discussed women's suffrage, temperance, prostitution, child care, women in paid work and at home. She used these themes to present socialism favorably to women, to show the importance of the "women question" in socialism. Burn's column ended in 1903. McKenzie said the "average woman may desire a hat or a husband of some other trifle, but it cannot truthfully be said she is pining away for lack of a vote. In 1908 he refused to start a new women's column, he said he would not "cater" to women, that, "As a general rule, a woman, a Socialist is a Socialist because some man is." He said "If the Clarion's'Woman's Column' becomes like'woman's columns' in some other Socialist papers, which seem to be written for human dressmakers and cooks, the poor Scotchman will be turned loose with a meat-axe."The Western Clarion said, "Capitalism has torn women from the home, thrust her into the economic field in competition with the opposite sex, grinds her life into profits and forces her to sell her body in order to live.

Capitalism today is fast destroying the home, the palace, that we are told woman should occupy as her position in society." The basic message was. The party did not support World War I, but took an internationalist position. In the 24 October 1914 issue J. H. Burroughs published an editorial that expressed hope that Germany would soon be defeated; the editorial, titled "The Affirmation of German Culture", was written by E. T. Kingsley, he blamed the war on Germany's militaristic culture. This caused a storm of controversy, with a 4–1 vote by the Dominion Executive Committee to condemn the editorial. Burrough was replaced by William Arthur Pritchard as Party secretary and editor of the Western Clarion; the Western Clarion appeared weekly until 10 April 1915 monthly. In an editorial titled "Attrition" in January 1916 Pritchard noted the loss of millions of lives that had occurred, he said that when governments said they would fight to the last man, they meant they would fight to the last worker. In March 1916 Jack Kavanagh wrote, One of the most cherished delusions held by the workers resident in the British Empire

Peter MacGregor (Queensland politician)

Peter Balderston MacGregor was a member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. MacGregor was born in Helidon, the son of Alexander Macgregor and his wife Frances Elizabeth, he attended East Ipswich State School, Ipswich Grammar School and Balliol College, Oxford where he studied law. He became a law clerk for Lilley & O'Sullivan before being employed by Samuel Griffith as an assistant. In 1894 he had his own practice and in 1900-1901 he was an acting district judge, he was an acting judge on the Queensland Supreme Court in 1932. In 1899 MacGregor married Mabel Newton and together had two daughters, he died in 1936 and his funeral proceeded from his New Farm residence to the Mt Thompson Crematorium. Representing the Nationalist Party, he won the seat of Merthyr in the Queensland Legislative Assembly in 1920, defeating the sitting member, Peter McLachlan of the Labor Party, he served one term before being defeated three years by McLachlan. MacGregor was the editor of the State Reporter and Law Journal, a member of the Queensland Club, president of the Women's College Council from 1914-1936.

He was a champion lawn tennis player

Donovan, Leisure, Newton & Irvine

Donovan, Newton & Irvine was a white-shoe, New York-based law firm. It was founded in 1929 by General William "Wild Bill" Donovan, referenced as the Father of the CIA; the firm dissolved in 1998. Its notable antitrust cases include a series of lawsuits involving American Cyanamid in the 1960s and Kodak; the firm was ruined by a scandal due to a senior partner, Mahlon F. Perkins Jr. having concealed documents from an adversary in a major antitrust case. Lloyd Blankfein, the current CEO and Chairman of Goldman Sachs. William Egan Colby, Director of Central Intelligence. Paul A. Crotty, a federal judge for the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Nelson Denis, film director, former member of the New York State Assembly Roderick M. Hills, a former chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Theodore S. Hope Jr. professor and co-author of many corporate law theories. Edward F. Cox, Chairman of the New York Republican State Committee. Wilkinson, John H.. Donovan Leisure Newton & Irvine ADR Practice Book.

Wiley Law Publications. ISBN 0-471-50687-7. Stewart, James B.. The Partners: Inside America's Most Powerful Law Firms. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-42023-2. Hoffman, Paul. Lions in the Street: The Inside Story of the Great Wall Street Law Firms. New York: Saturday Review Press. ISBN 0-841-50235-8; the New York Times. Donovan, Old-Line Law Firm, to Shut Its Doors Donovan, Leisure and Irvine Books issued by the firm Consent of Donovan Leisure Newton & Irvine The New York Times

Cauchy elastic material

In physics, a Cauchy-elastic material is one in which the stress at each point is determined only by the current state of deformation with respect to an arbitrary reference configuration. A Cauchy-elastic material is called a simple elastic material, it follows from this definition that the stress in a Cauchy-elastic material does not depend on the path of deformation or the history of deformation, or on the time taken to achieve that deformation or the rate at which the state of deformation is reached. The definition implies that the constitutive equations are spatially local, it implies that body forces, inertial forces cannot affect the properties of the material. A Cauchy-elastic material must satisfy the requirements of material objectivity. Cauchy-elastic materials are mathematical abstractions, no real material fits this definition perfectly. However, many elastic materials of practical interest, such as steel, plastic and concrete, can be assumed to be Cauchy-elastic for the purposes of stress analysis.

Formally, a material is said to be Cauchy-elastic if the Cauchy stress tensor σ is a function of the strain tensor F alone: σ = G This definition assumes that the effect of temperature can be ignored, the body is homogeneous. This is the constitutive equation for a Cauchy-elastic material. Note that the function G depends on the choice of reference configuration; the reference configuration is taken as the relaxed configuration, but need not be. Material frame-indifference requires that the constitutive relation G should not change when the location of the observer changes; therefore the constitutive equation for another arbitrary observer can be written σ ∗ = G. Knowing that the Cauchy stress tensor σ and the deformation gradient F are objective quantities, one can write: σ ∗ = G ⇒ R ⋅ σ ⋅ R T = G ⇒ R ⋅ G ⋅ R T = G where R is a proper orthogonal tensor; the above is a condition that the constitutive law G has to respect to make sure that the response of the material will be independent of the observer.

Similar conditions can be derived for constitutive laws relating the deformation gradient to the first or second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor. For an isotropic material the Cauchy stress tensor σ can be expressed as a function of the left Cauchy-Green tensor B = F ⋅ F T; the constitutive equation may be written: σ = H. In order to find the restriction on h which will ensure the principle of material frame-indifference, one can write: σ ∗ = H ⇒ R ⋅ σ ⋅ R T = H ⇒ R ⋅ H ⋅ R T = H ( R ⋅ F ⋅ F T ⋅