Beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion involving the art of mimicking drum machines, using one's mouth, lips and voice. It may involve vocal imitation of turntablism, other musical instruments. Beatboxing today is connected with hip-hop culture referred to as "the fifth element" of hip-hop, although it is not limited to hip-hop music; the term "beatboxing" is sometimes used to refer to vocal percussion in general. Techniques similar to beatboxing have been present in many American musical genres since the 19th century, such as early rural music, both black and white, religious songs, ragtime and hokum. Examples include the Appalachian technique of eefing and the blues song Bye bye bird by Sonny Boy Williamson II. Additional influences may include forms of African traditional music, in which performers utilize their bodies as percussion instruments and produce sounds with their mouths by breathing loudly in and out, a technique used in beatboxing today. Vocal percussion, "the imitation or approximation of percussion instruments," and beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion but can be described as, "music with your mouth... beatboxing is making and being the music, not just rhythm."...

Beatboxing is both the rhythm — predominantely through the bass and snare drums as well as hi-hat — while incorporating various sound effects such as DJ scratching and bass lines. Using the mouth, lips and voice to make music is thus the beatboxer's equivalent to a pianist's fingers and arms. Many well-known performers used vocal percussion even though this was not directly connected to the cultural tradition that came to be known as beatboxing. Paul McCartney's. Pink Floyd's "Pow R. Toc H." includes vocal percussion performed by the group's lead vocalist, Syd Barrett. Jazz singers Bobby McFerrin and Al Jarreau were well known for their vocal styles and techniques, which have had great impact on techniques beatboxers use today. Michael Jackson was known to record himself beatboxing on a dictation tape recorder as a demo and scratch recording to compose several of his songs, including "Billie Jean", "The Girl Is Mine", others. Gert Fröbe, a German actor most known for playing Auric Goldfinger in the James Bond film Goldfinger, "beatboxes" as Colonel Manfred von Holstein in Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines, a 1965 British comedy film.

The term "beatboxing" is derived from the mimicry of early drum machines known as beatboxes the Roland TR-808. The term "beatbox" was used to refer to earlier Roland drum machines such as the TR-55 and CR-78 in the 1970s, they were followed by the TR-808, released in 1980, which became central to hip hop music and electronic dance music. It is the TR-808 that human beatboxing is modeled after."Human beatboxing" in hip-hop originated in the 1980s. Its early pioneers include Doug E. Fresh, the self-proclaimed first "human beatbox". Wise inspired an entire new fan base of human beatboxers with his human turntable technique. Other pioneers of beatboxing include Rahzel well known for his realistic robotic sounds and for his ability to sing and beatbox Scratch a beatboxer and musician well known for further revolutionizing the use of vocal scratching in beatboxing, Kenny Muhammad The Human Orchestra, a beatboxer known for his technicality and outstanding rhythmic precision, who pioneered the inward k snare, a beatbox technique that imitates a snare drum by breathing inward.

The Internet has played a large part in the popularity of modern beatboxing. Alex Tew started the first online community of beatboxers in 2000 under the banner of HUMANBEATBOX. COM. An early example of modern beatboxing was seen in the 2001 South Korean romantic comedy film My Sassy Girl. In 2001, Gavin Tyte, a member of this community created the world's first tutorials and video tutorials on beatboxing. In 2003, the community held the world's first Human Beatbox Convention in London featuring beatbox artists from all over the world. Beatboxing's current popularity is due in part to releases from artists such as Rahzel, RoxorLoops, Reeps One, Alem. In the Pacific, Jason Tom perpetuates the art of beatboxing through blogging and motivational speaking in Honolulu, the westernmost and southernmost major U. S. city of the 50th U. S. state of Hawaii. Sometimes, modern beatboxers will use their hand or another part of their body to extend the spectrum of sound effects and rhythm; some have developed a technique that involves blowing and sucking air around their fingers to produce a realistic record scratching noise, known as the "crab scratch."

Another hand technique includes the "throat tap," which involves beatboxers tapping their fingers against their throats as they throat sing or hum. Beat boxers these days can produce up to 8 different sounds at the same time. Today there is an increase in the variety. People have gone as far as adding beatboxing in with different instruments to create a different sound unlike any other. Artist Greg Patillo goes as far as adding in beatboxing while playing the flute to iconic songs. Beatbox has become modernized and has been seen in popular movies such as Pitch Perfect and Pitch Perfect 2; these movies showcase classical songs performed with a cappella covers in which all of t

2012–13 Ayr United F.C. season

The 2012–13 season was Ayr United's first season back in the Scottish Second Division, after being relegated from the Scottish First Division at the end of the 2011–12 season after their two legged semi final play-off defeat to Airdrie United. Ayr competed in the Challenge Cup, League Cup and the Scottish Cup. Ayr United finished Seventh in the Scottish Second Division, they reached the first round of the Challenge Cup, the second round of the League Cup and the fourth round of the Scottish Cup. Ayr will be managed by Mark Roberts for the 2012–13 season, following the departure of Brian Reid whose contract with the club had expired. Win Draw Loss Postponed Last updated 12 May 2013 Includes all competitive matches. Last updated 12 May 2013


Otokar Otomotiv ve Savunma Sanayi A.Ş. known as Otokar, is a Turkish buses and military vehicles manufacturer headquartered in Sakarya, Turkey and a subsidiary of Koç Holding. It is using Jaguar Land Rover license. Otokar began business in 1963 as Turkey's first intercity bus manufacturing company under the license of Saviem of Istanbul. Otokar was noted for manufacturing the most modern buses and modern intercity vehicles for that period. In the early 1980s, Otokar started production of RVI vehicles with local components. During this period, Turkey's largest conglomerate Koç Holding purchased the majority of Otokar shares. Within its mass transportation strategies, in the early 1980s, Otokar added the inner-city bus to its product line. In the early 1980s, Otokar began inner-city bus production and in the mid-1980s, Otokar manufactured the first Turkish armored vehicle as an armored car. In 1987, the Turkish Armed Forces had Otokar manufacture military Land Rover Defenders in Turkey in agreement with Land Rover.

In the early 1990s, Otokar developed the Otokar Armored Personnel Carrier, Otokar Akrep, Otokar Cobra. In 1997, Otokar moved to its new plant in Arifiye. In 2002, Otokar acquired a trailer and semi-trailer production company from Koç Group Company of Istanbul Fruehauf A. S. In 2002, with its experience in public transportation Otokar developed the small bus called the Navigo, marketed in Turkey with Sultan brand. In 2003, Otokar initiated a cooperation with Singapore Technologies Kinetics for the new 8x8 tactical armored vehicle Otokar Yavuz. In 2004, Otokar ended production of Nissan vehicles. In 2005 Otokar widened its line of armored vehicles. In 2007, The Subsecretary for Defence Industries of Turkey launched negotiations with Otokar on the eventual contractual agreement to develop and produce Turkey's first indigenous tank. In 2011, Otokar achieved 890,000,000 TL turnover, 72% higher than 2010. Due to civil products, the sales were extended to European countries leading to the establishment of the Otokar Europe office.

The company introduced Arma 8x8 ACV, Arma 6x6 EOD, Mizrak RCT and exhibited Altay MBT's early prototype in 2011. Otokar produces the famous M-series minibuses, which have had the largest percentage by far among all dolmus's in Istanbul and Ankara since its introduction in 70s; these 14-seat minibuses are known for their cubic shape, long life expectancy and low operation costs. M-2000, M-3000, M-2010 are the most current vehicles from this series, which started long time ago under a different coding system; the vehicles were named after their engines as Magirus, but as the company built confidence among its customers, they started using their own brand. The last member of the series, M-2010 has an Iveco engine and this marks the first time in this series where they abandoned Deutz engines. Otokar manufactures several buses for civilian mass transit use, its line of Navigo buses range from the Navigo 125L with 25 seats and 6.3 m in length to the Navigo 160SE with 31 seats at 7.1 m in length. The smaller buses use a Deutz engine and the larger models use a Cummins 180 HP Euro VI diesel engine.

However the Turkish version of Navigo which name is Sultan has Euro V emission standards. The Navigo is marketed as the "Sultan" in Turkey; the larger more luxurious models have a 45-litre refrigerator, hostess seat, announcement system, optional additional heater and optional double layer glass, DVD, VCD, MP3 player and LCD TV systems. Since April 2007, Otokar has started to manufacture a new 9 meter, rear engined bus called Doruk in Turkey and Vectio in other markets. Otokar is the bus supplier for Inter Trust of Bulgaria. Otokar manufactures a wide variety of trailers and containers for carrying textiles, refrigerated foods, heavy mechanical goods, hazardous materials, motor vehicles. Otokar, under Land Rover license, produces several Land Rover models; these include the Land Rover Defender 90, Defender 110, Defender 130 for use as utility and rescue vehicles. Otokar produces wheeled military vehicles for the Turkish Armed Forces as well as other countries. Altay MBT - the Turkish national main battle tank Otokar Arma - 6x6 / 8x8 wheeled-armored vehicle.

Otokar Armored Internal Security Vehicle - for usage in urban and residential areas with variants equipped as command vehicles, personnel carriers, explosive ordnance disposal vehicles, reconnaissance/surveillance vehicles, water cannon vehicles. Otokar Armoured Patrol Vehicle - a versatile 4x4 armored vehicle adaptable to a wide range of military and security roles. Otokar Akrep - a 4x4 special attack/defense vehicle. Otokar Akrep II - an electric-drive 4x4 special attack/defense vehicle, fufrther development of Akrep. Otokar Cobra, Cobra II - 4x4 infantry mobility vehicles Otokar Discreetly Armored Station Wagon - looks like a standard vehicle but has an armored body structure that meets the military standards as well as superior road and cross country capabilities. Otokar Engerek - a fast attack vehicle based on Land Rover 110. Otokar Kale - a MRAP which provides enhanced mine and ballistic protection along with independent suspension system ensuring superior mobility in a wide range of demanding terrains under diverse climatic conditions.

Otokar Kaya - a MRAP specially designed to provide mine and ballistic protection for the troops on all terrain conditions. Tulpar - tracked armoured infantry fighting vehicle designed to provide ballistic and mine protection to support new generation main battle tanks in battlefield and to provide fire support for infantry. Otokar Ural - armoured personnel carrier with a versatile modular pl