Beatles for Sale

Beatles for Sale is the fourth studio album by the English rock band the Beatles. It was released on 4 December 1964 in the United Kingdom on EMI's Parlophone label; the album marked a departure from the upbeat tone that had characterised the Beatles' previous work due to the band's exhaustion after a series of tours that had established them as a worldwide phenomenon in 1964. Beatles for Sale was not released in the US until 1987, when the Beatles' catalogue was standardised for release on CD. Instead, eight of the album's fourteen tracks appeared on Capitol Records' concurrent release, Beatles'65, issued in North America only; the Beatles recorded the album at EMI Studios in London in between their touring and radio engagements. The songs introduced darker musical moods and more introspective lyrics, with John Lennon adopting an autobiographical perspective in compositions such as "I'm a Loser" and "No Reply"; the album reflected the twin influences of country music and Bob Dylan, whom the Beatles met in New York in August 1964.

As a result of the group's hectic schedule, only eight of the tracks are original compositions, with cover versions of songs by artists such as Carl Perkins, Chuck Berry, Buddy Holly and Little Richard being used to complete the album. The sessions produced a non-album single, "I Feel Fine" backed by "She's a Woman". Beatles for Sale received favourable reviews in the UK musical press, where it held the number one spot for 11 of the 46 weeks that it spent in the top 20; the album was successful in Australia, where the band's cover of Berry's "Rock and Roll Music" topped the singles chart. One of the songs omitted from the US version of the album, "Eight Days a Week", became the Beatles' seventh number one in the US when issued as a single there in February 1965; when Beatles for Sale was being recorded, Beatlemania was at its peak. In early 1964, the Beatles had made waves with their television appearances in the US, sparking unprecedented demand for their records there. Over June and July, the band played concerts in Denmark, the Netherlands and Hong Kong, toured Australia and New Zealand, returned to Britain for a series of radio and television engagements and to promote their first feature film, A Hard Day's Night.

After performing further concerts in Sweden, they began recording the new album in London in mid August, only to depart for a month-long tour of North America. While in New York, the Beatles met American folk singer Bob Dylan, who introduced the band members to cannabis. Through Dylan's example, the Beatles John Lennon, were encouraged to write more introspective lyrics than before. For his part, Dylan said he recognised that the Beatles "were pointing the direction that music had to go", he soon began writing songs that embraced youth culture and recording with a rock backing. Beatles for Sale was the Beatles' fourth album release in the space of 21 months. Neil Aspinall, the band's road manager reflected: "No band today would come off a long US tour at the end of September, go into the studio and start a new album, still writing songs, go on a UK tour, finish the album in five weeks, still touring, have the album out in time for Christmas, but that's what the Beatles did at the end of 1964.

A lot of it was down to naiveté. If the record company needs another album, you go and make one." Noting the subdued and melancholy tone of much of the album, producer George Martin recalled: "They were rather war weary during Beatles for Sale. One must remember that they'd been battered like mad throughout 1964, much of 1963. Success is a wonderful thing but it is very tiring." Although prolific, the songwriting partnership of Lennon and Paul McCartney was unable to keep up with the demand for new material. To make up for the shortfall in output, the Beatles resorted to including several cover versions on the album; this had been their approach for their first two albums – Please Please Me and With the Beatles – but had been abandoned for A Hard Day's Night. McCartney said of the combination on Beatles for Sale: "Basically it was our stage show, with some new songs."The album features eight Lennon–McCartney compositions. In addition, the pair wrote both sides of the non-album single, "I Feel Fine" backed with "She's a Woman", which accompanied the LP's release.

At this stage in their partnership, Lennon and McCartney wrote together as before, but each would contribute key parts to songs for which the other was the primary author. Lennon's level of contribution to Beatles for Sale outweighed McCartney's, a situation that, as on A Hard Day's Night, author Ian MacDonald attributes to McCartney's commitment being temporarily sidetracked by his relationship with English actress Jane Asher. At the time, Lennon said of the album: "You could call our new one a Beatles country and western LP." Music critic Tim Riley views the album as a "country excursion", while MacDonald describes it as being "dominated by the idiom". The impetus for this new direction came from the band's exposure to US country radio stations while on tour. Lennon's "I'm a Loser". Author Jonathan Gould highlights the influence of blues and country-derived rockabilly on the album's original compositions and in the inclusion of songs by Carl Perkins and Buddy Holly, he comments that Dylan's acoustic folk sound was a style that the Beatles tended to identify as country music.

McCartney said that Beatles for Sale inaugurated a more mature phase for the band, whereby: "We got more and more free to get into ourselves. Our student selves rather than'

James Heywood Markland

James Heywood Markland was an English solicitor and antiquary. Born at Ardwick Green, Manchester, 7 December 1788, he was the fourth and youngest son of Robert Markland, a textile manufacturer there. At age 11 he was sent for his education to the house of the headmaster of Chester school. Markland was trained in 1808 roved to London and practised there. In 1814 he was appointed by the West India planters their parliamentary agent, in the same year entered as a student at the Inner Temple, he remained in London in practice, being the head partner in the firm of Markland & Wright, until 1839, when he retired to Malvern. In 1841 he moved to Bath and spent the rest of his life there. Markland was elected Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1809, from 1827 to April 1829, when he resigned the post, acted as its director, he joined the Roxburghe Club at its second meeting, when it was enlarged to 24 members, in 1816 became Fellow of the Royal Society, on 21 June 1849 was created D. C. L. of the University of Oxford.

Markland co-owned with Thomas Hibbert four sugar plantations in Jamaica and Barbados. When the British government emancipated the slaves in the 1830s, Markland and his partners received compensation to the tune of over £25,000 each for the liberation of over 400 slaves in their ownership. A supporter of church societies, Markland was entrusted by Mrs. Ramsden with the foundation of mission sermons in Cambridge and Oxford, while he was resident in Bath three ladies, the Misses Mitford of Somerset Place, selected him for the distribution of £14,000 in charitable works in England and the colonies. Markland died at his house, Lansdown Crescent, Bath, on 28 December 1864, was buried in the new Walcot cemetery on 3 January 1866, the first window in Bath Abbey west of the transept being filled with glass to his memory, his library was dispersed at his death. Markland wrote: A Few Plain Reasons for Adhering to the Church, 1807. A Letter to Lord Aberdeen, President of the Society of Antiquaries, on the expediency of Establishing a Museum of Antiquities, 1828.

It was reprinted in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1828, pt. i. pp. 61–64. A Few Words on the Sin of Lying, 1834. Sketch of the Life and Character of George Hibbert, printed for private distribution, 1837. Remarks on Sepulchral Memorials, with Suggestions for Improving the Condition of our Churches, 1840. 1843. On the Reverence due to Holy Places. By the Author of "Remarks on English Churches" 1845. An abridgment was published in 1862 by the Rev. S. Fox of Derbyshire. Prayers for Persons coming to the Baths of Bath. By Bishop Ken. With a Life of the Author, 1848. Preface signed M.. Diligence and Sloth. By a Layman, 1858. Advertisement signed J. H. M; the Offertory the best way of Contributing Money for Christian Purposes. 1862. Markland edited for the Roxburghe Club in 1818 a volume of Chester Mysteries, de deluvio Noe, de occisione innocentium. Markland's assistance was acknowledged in John Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, he supplied Alexander Chalmers with some particulars of Jeremiah Markland's life. He wrote in the Archæological Journal, Archæologia.

On 24 September 1821 Markland married, at Marylebone Church, eldest daughter of Sir Francis Freeling, who died on 9 October 1867. They had a daughter, Elizabeth Jane, who married in 1853 Charles Ranken Conybeare, vicar of Itchen Stoke, Hampshire. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Markland, James Heywood". Dictionary of National Biography. 36. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Athletics at the 2020 Summer Paralympics

Athletics events at the 2020 Summer Paralympics will be held in the Olympic Stadium in Tokyo. There will be 168 medal events: 93 for 74 for women and one mixed event, it will be the largest contest of the Games programme regarding athlete numbers and medal events to be scheduled. Participating athletes are given a classification depending on their disabilities, they are categorised into seven different classifications: T/F11-13: Blind and visually impaired athletes. T/F20: Athletes who have an intellectual impairment. T/F 31-38: Athletes who have cerebral palsy or other coordination impairments. 31-34 for wheelchair events and 35-38 for running events. F40-41: Les Autres - for athletes who have dwarfism. T/F 42-47: Athletes who are amputees. In field events, some athletes would compete in seated events. T/F 51-58: Athletes who have a spinal cord injury or disability. In field events, most athletes would compete in seated events. T/F 61-64: Athletes who have a prosthesis affected by limb deficiency and leg length difference.

As of November 2019. Athletics at the 2020 Summer Olympics