Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia
Frederick VI of Hohenstaufen was duke of Swabia from 1170 to his death at the siege of Acre. He was born in Modigliana, the son of Frederick I Barbarossa and Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy and brother of Henry VI. Frederick was betrothed to the princess Constance of Hungary, but they never married and he died, aged 24, at Acre
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary, known by various titles and honorifics, was a 1st-century Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin, the miraculous birth took place when she was already betrothed to Joseph and was awaiting the concluding rite of marriage, the formal home-taking ceremony. She married Joseph and accompanied him to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born, the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Marys life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to her and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to the Catholic and Orthodox teaching, at the end of her life her body was assumed directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since Early Christianity, and is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion and she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries.
The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, there is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Roman Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, many Protestants minimize Marys role within Christianity, based on the argued brevity of biblical references. Mary has a position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Marys name in the manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name ܡܪܝܡ. The English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, which is a form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament, in Christianity, Mary is commonly referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husbands involvement. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions.
For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelos Pietà, the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. However, this phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication commonly attached to her image in Byzantine icons. The Council stated that the Church Fathers did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God, some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis. For instance, the title Queen Mother has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, the scriptural basis for the term Queen can be seen in Luke 1,32 and the Isaiah 9,6. Queen Mother can be found in 1 Kings 2, 19-20 and Jeremiah 13, other titles have arisen from reported miracles, special appeals or occasions for calling on Mary
Minerva was the Roman goddess of wisdom and sponsor of arts and strategy. She was born with weapons from the head of Jupiter, after impregnating the titaness Metis, Jupiter recalled a prophecy that his own child would overthrow him. Fearing that their child would grow stronger than he and rule the Heavens in his place, the titaness forged weapons and armor for her child while within the father-god, and the constant pounding and ringing gave him a headache. To relieve the pain, Vulcan used a hammer to split Jupiters head and, from the cleft, Minerva emerged, adult, from the 2nd century BC onwards, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the goddess of music, medicine, commerce, weaving. She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the owl of Minerva, stemming from an Italic moon goddess *Meneswā, the Etruscans adopted the inherited Old Latin name, *Menerwā, thereby calling her Menrva. It is assumed that her Roman name, Minerva, is based on this Etruscan mythology, Minerva was the goddess of wisdom, art and commerce.
She was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena, like Athena, Minerva was born from the head of her father, Jupiter. The word mens is built from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- mind, the Etruscan Menrva was part of a holy triad with Tinia and Uni, equivalent to the Roman Capitoline Triad of Jupiter-Juno-Minerva. Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter, as Minerva Medica, she was the goddess of medicine and doctors. As Minerva Achaea, she was worshipped at Lucera in Apulia where votive gifts, in Fasti III, Ovid called her the goddess of a thousand works. Minerva was worshipped throughout Italy, and when she eventually became equated with the Greek goddess Athena, unlike Mars, god of war, she was sometimes portrayed with sword lowered, in sympathy for the recent dead, rather than raised in triumph. In Rome her bellicose nature was emphasized less than elsewhere and her worship was spread throughout the empire—in Britain, for example, she was syncretized with the local goddess Sulis, who was often invoked for restitution for theft.
The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to March 23 during the day which is called, in the plural, the fifth after the Ides of March, the nineteenth. A lesser version, the Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of June, June 13, by the flute-players, in 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was formed to meet and make votive offerings at the temple of Minerva on the Aventine Hill. Among others, its members included Livius Andronicus, the Aventine sanctuary of Minerva continued to be an important center of the arts for much of the middle Roman Republic. When it was founded, the emperor himself was present and was believed to be of divine nature as a result of its construction, Minerva is featured on the coinage of different Roman Emperors. She is often represented on the side of a coin holding an owl
William I, Count of Burgundy
William I, called the Great, was Count of Burgundy from 1057 to 1087 and Mâcon from 1078 to 1087. He was a son of Renaud I and Alice of Normandy, daughter of Richard II, william was the father of several notable children, including Pope Callixtus II. In 1057, he succeeded his father and reigned over a larger than that of the Franche-Comté itself. In 1087, he died in Besançon, Prince-Archbishopric of Besançon and he was buried in Besançons Cathedral of St John. William married a woman named Stephanie and she married secondly Godfrey I, Count of Leuven and was possibly the mother of Joscelin of Louvain
Baudolino is a 2000 novel by Umberto Eco about the adventures of a young man named Baudolino in the known and mythical Christian world of the 12th century. Baudolino was translated into English in 2001 by William Weaver, in the year of 1204, Baudolino of Alessandria enters Constantinople, unaware of the Fourth Crusade that has thrown the city into chaos. In the confusion, he meets Niketas Choniates and saves his life, Niketas is amazed by his language genius, speaking many languages he has never heard, and on the question, if he is not part of the crusade, who is he. Baudolino begins to recount his story to Niketas. His story begins in 1155, when Baudolino - a highly talented Italian peasant boy - is sold to, at court and on the battlefield, he is educated in reading and writing Latin and learns about the power struggles and battles of northern Italy at the time. He is sent to Paris to become a scholar, in Paris, he gains friends and learns about the legendary kingdom of Prester John. From this event onward, Baudolino dreams of reaching this fabled land, the incident of the death of Emperor Frederick, while on the Second Crusade, is a key element of the plot.
After the Emperors death and his friends set off on a journey, encompassing 15 years. Baudolino meets eunuchs, Blemmyes and pygmies, at one point, he falls in love with a female satyr-like creature who recounts to him the full Gnostic creation myth, Gnosticism is a pervasive presence in another of Ecos novels, Foucaults Pendulum. Philosophical debates are mixed with comedy, epic adventure and creatures drawn from the strangest medieval bestiaries, the wise and rather cynical Niketas Choniates helps Baudolino to at last discover the truth about how the Emperor Frederick died - with shattering results for Baudolino and his friends. Invented by Eco Baudolino – young man of Alessandria, the monopod Gavagai, a reference to Quines example of indeterminacy of translation. The putative successors of Hypatia of Alexandria Deacon John, leprous sub-ruler of Pndapetzim,2000, hardback 2001, Editora Record, Pub date. October 2002, audiobook 2003, Fabbri - RCS Libri, Pub date
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VI, a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death. From 1194 he was King of Sicily and he was the second son of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his consort Beatrix of Burgundy. In 1186 he was married to Constance of Sicily, the daughter of the Norman king Roger II of Sicily. Henry, still stuck in the Hohenstaufen conflict with the House of Welf, had to enforce the claims by his wife against her nephew Count Tancred of Lecce. Based on a ransom for the release of King Richard I of England, he conquered Sicily in 1194, however. Henry was born in autumn 1165 at the Valkhof pfalz of Nijmegen to Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, at the age of four, his father had him elected King of the Romans during the Hoftag in Bamberg at Pentecost 1169, and Henry was crowned on 15 August at Aachen Cathedral. Henry was fluent in Latin and, according to the chronicler Alberic of Trois-Fontaines, was distinguished by gifts of knowledge, wreathed in flowers of eloquence, and learned in canon and Roman law.
He was a patron of poets and poetry, and he almost certainly composed the song Kaiser Heinrich, in one of those he describes a romance that makes him forget all his earthly power, and neither riches nor royal dignity can outweigh his yearning for that lady. Having returned to Germany in 1178, Henry supported his father against insurgent Duke Henry the Lion and he and his younger brother Frederick received the knightly accolade at Mainz in 1184. The emperor had already entered negotiations with King William II of Sicily to betroth his son. He and Constance were married on 27 January 1186 in Milan, in the Hohenstaufen conflict with Pope Urban III, Henry moved to the March of Tuscany, and with the aid of his liensman Markward von Annweiler devastated the adjacent territory of the Papal States. Back in Germany, he took the reins of the Empire from his father, further difficulties arose when the exiled Welf duke Henry the Lion returned from England and began to subdue large estates in his former Duchy of Saxony.
A Hohenstaufen campaign to Saxony had to be abandoned when King Henry received the message of the death of King William II of Sicily on 18 November 1189, the Sicilian vice-chancellor Matthew of Ajello pursued the succession of Count Tancred of Lecce and gained the support of the Roman Curia. To assert his own rights in the dispute, Henry initially supported Tancreds rival Count Roger of Andria. While he sent an Imperial army to Italy, Henry initially stayed in Germany to settle the succession of Louis III, Landgrave of Thuringia and he had planned to seize the Thuringian landgraviate as a reverted fief, but Louis brother Hermann was able to reach his enfeoffment. The next year, the king followed his army across the Alps, in Lodi he negotiated with Eleanor of Aquitaine, widow of King Henry II of England, to break the engagement of her son King Richard with Alys, a daughter of late King Louis VII of France. He hoped to deteriorate English-French relations and to isolate Richard, who had offended him by backing Count Tancred in Sicily, Henry entered into further negotiations with the Lombard League cities and with Pope Celestine III on his Imperial coronation, and ceded Tusculum to the Pope.
At Easter Monday on 15 April 1191, in Rome and his consort Constance were crowned Emperor, the crown of Sicily, was harder to gain, as the Sicilian nobility had chosen Count Tancred of Lecce as their king
Juno is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. She is a daughter of Saturn and sister of the chief god Jupiter, Juno looked after the women of Rome. As the patron goddess of Rome and the Roman Empire, Juno was called Regina and, together with Jupiter, Junos own warlike aspect among the Romans is apparent in her attire. She often appeared sitting pictured with an armed and wearing a goatskin cloak. The traditional depiction of this aspect was assimilated from the Greek goddess Athena. The name Juno was thought to be connected to Iove, originally as Diuno. At the beginning of the 20th century, a derivation was proposed from iuven- and this etymology became widely accepted after it was endorsed by Georg Wissowa. Iuuen- is related to Latin aevum and Greek aion through a common Indo-European root referring to a concept of energy or fertile time. The iuvenis is he who has the fullness of vital force, in some inscriptions Jupiter himself is called Iuuntus, and one of the epithets of Jupiter is Ioviste, a superlative form of iuuen- meaning the youngest.
Iuventas, was one of two deities who refused to leave the Capitol when the building of the new Temple of Capitoline Jove required the exauguration of deities who already occupied the site, Juno is the equivalent to Hera, the Greek goddess for love and marriage. Juno is the Roman goddess of love and marriage, Junos theology is one of the most complex and disputed issues in Roman religion. Even more than other major Roman deities, Juno held a number of significant and diverse epithets and titles representing various aspects. In accordance with her role as a goddess of marriage. However, other epithets of Juno have wider implications and are thematically linked. Juno is certainly the divine protectress of the community, who shows both a sovereign and a fertility character, often associated with a military one and she is attested at Praeneste, Ardea, Gabii. In five Latin towns a month was named after Juno, outside Latium in Campania at Teanum she was Populona, in Umbria at Pisaurum Lucina, at Terventum in Samnium Regina, at Pisarum Regina Matrona, at Aesernia in Samnium Regina Populona.
In Rome she was since the most ancient times named Lucina, Mater and it is debated whether she was known as Curitis before the evocatio of the Juno of Falerii, this though seems probable. Her various epithets thus show a complex of mutually interrelated functions that in the view of G, the ancient called her Covella in her function of helper in the labours of the new moon
Dole is a commune in the Jura department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France, of which it is a subprefecture. Dole was the capital of Franche-Comté until Louis XIV conquered the region, the university, founded by Duke Philippe le Bon of Burgundy in 1422, was transferred to Besançon at that time. In January 1573, Gilles Garnier was put to death after being found guilty of lycanthropy and he had confessed of murdering and cannibalizing four young children. The 1995 film, Happiness Is in the Field, was set in Dole, Dole is located on the Doubs River. The commune has an area of 38.38 km2. It is the largest commune in Jura, although the préfecture is Lons-le-Saunier, Dole – Jura Airport is located in the commune of Tavaux,7 km southwest of Dole. Simon Bernard - Napoleonic aide de camp and notable engineer in the United States
Vienne is a department in the French region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It takes its name from the river Vienne, established on March 4,1790 during the French Revolution, Vienne is one of the original 83 departments. It was created from parts of the provinces of Poitou and Berry. The original Acadians, who settled in and around what is now Nova Scotia, kennedy argues that the emigrants carried to Canada their customs and social structure. They were frontier peoples, who dispersed their settlements based on kinship and they optimized use of farmland and emphasized trading for a profit. They were hierarchical and politically active, Édith Cresson, Frances first woman Prime Minister from 1991-1992, was a deputy for the department. It has three arrondissements, the prefecture, and the subprefectures Châtellerault and Montmorillon, the capital Poitiers is the see of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Poitiers, which pastorally serves the department. Goat cheese making is an important industry of Vienne
The cathedral, which is dedicated to St. Mary, patron saint of Speyer and St. Stephen is generally known as Kaiserdom zu Speyer. Pope Pius XI raised Speyer Cathedral to the rank of a basilica of the Roman Catholic Church in 1925. As the burial site for Salian and Habsburg emperors, with the Abbey of Cluny in ruins, it remains the largest Romanesque church. It is considered to be a point in European architecture, one of the most important architectural monuments of its time. In 1981, the cathedral was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List of culturally important sites as a monument of Romanesque art in the German Empire. In 1025, Conrad II ordered the construction of the Christian Western worlds largest church in Speyer which was supposed to be his last resting place. Construction began 1030 on the site of a basilica which stood on an elevated plateau right by the Rhine. Along with Santiago de Compostela, Cluny Abbey, and Durham Cathedral, neither Conrad II, nor his son Henry III, were to see the cathedral completed.
Conrad II died in 1039 and was buried in the cathedral while it was still under construction, the graves were placed in the central aisle in front of the altar. Nearly completed, the cathedral was consecrated in 1061 and this phase of construction, called Speyer I, consists of a Westwerk, a nave with two aisles and an adjoining transept. The choir was flanked by two towers, the original apse was round inside but rectangular on the outside. The nave was covered with a wooden ceiling but the aisles were vaulted. Around 1090, Conrads grandson, Emperor Henry IV, conducted a reconstruction in order to enlarge the cathedral. He had the eastern sections demolished and the foundations enforced to a depth of up to eight metres, only the lower floors and the crypt of Speyer I remained intact. The nave was elevated by five metres and the wooden ceiling replaced with a groin vault of square bays. Each vault extends over two bays of the elevation, every second pier was enlarged by adding a broad pilaster or dosseret, which formed a system of interior buttressing.
Engaged shafts had appeared around 1030 in buildings along the Loire from where the spread to Normandy. The only other example of such a bay system is in the church of San Vincente, Cardona
Philip of Swabia
Philip of Swabia was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208. In the long-time struggle for the German throne upon the death of Emperor Henry VI between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dynasties, he was the first German king to be assassinated. Philips great uncle Conrad III was the first scion of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty to be elected King of the Romans in 1138, the newborn was probably named after Fredericks valued ally and confidant Archbishop Philip of Cologne. In 1190 or 1191 Philip was elected Prince-bishop of Würzburg, though without being consecrated and his brother Henry had expanded the Hohenstaufen domains by marrying Queen Constance of Sicily in 1186, suspiciously eyed by the Roman Curia. In his retinue in Italy was the Minnesinger Bernger von Horheim, on 26 December 1194, Queen Constance finally gave birth to a son, the Emperor Frederick II. To secure his succession, his father Henry had the two-year-old elected King of the Romans before he prepared for the Crusade of 1197, in early 1195, Philip was made Duke of Tuscany and received the disputed Matildine lands.
His rule there earned him the enmity of Pope Celestine III, in 1196 his brother Conrad died and he succeeded him as Duke of Swabia. His marriage to Irene took place in 1197 near Augsburg, Philip enjoyed his brothers confidence to a very great extent, and appears to have been designated as guardian of Henrys minor son Frederick II, in case of his fathers early death. In September 1197 he had set out to fetch Frederick from Apulia for his coronation as German king, while staying in Montefiascone, he heard of the emperors sudden death in Messina and returned at once to Germany. He appears to have desired to protect the interests of his nephew and to quell the disorder which arose on Henrys death, but was overtaken by events. The hostility to the kingship of a child was growing, nevertheless, he knew that he had to settle the conflict with Otto and his supporters. A first attempt to mediate by the Mainz archbishop Conrad of Wittelsbach in 1199 was rejected by the Welf, both sides strived for the coronation as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III.
The pope himself acted tactically, trying to wrest the affirmation of the sovereignty of his Papal States, the pope began to work energetically in favour of Otto, who beforehand had solemnly renounced any intentions to affiliate the Sicilian kingdom with the Holy Roman Empire. The festival was rendered in a poem by Walther von der Vogelweide in order to spread the reputation of King Philip as a capable ruler. Again in Magdeburg Cathedral, Philip celebrated the elevation of Saint Cunigunde of Luxembourg on 9 September 1201, in 1201, Philip was visited by his cousin Boniface of Montferrat, the leader of the Fourth Crusade. Although Bonifaces exact reasons for meeting with Philip are unknown, while at Philips court he met Alexius Angelus, the two succeeding years were still more unfavourable to Philip. The Přemyslid ruler Ottokar I, though he had received the hereditary Bohemian regality, another former ally, Landgrave Hermann of Thuringia, drove him from northern Germany, thus compelling him to seek by abject concessions, but without success, reconciliation with Innocent.
Philip was soon joined by Archbishop Adolph of Cologne, though against the will of the Cologne citizens, by Duke Henry of Brabant and even by Ottos brother Count Palatine Henry V