Beatrix Potter was an English writer, natural scientist, conservationist best known for her children's books featuring animals, such as those in The Tale of Peter Rabbit. Born into an upper-middle-class household, Potter was educated by governesses and grew up isolated from other children, she had numerous pets and spent holidays in Scotland and the Lake District, developing a love of landscape and fauna, all of which she observed and painted. Potter's study and watercolours of fungi led to her being respected in the field of mycology. In her thirties, Potter self-published the successful children's book The Tale of Peter Rabbit. Following this, Potter began illustrating children's books full-time. In all, Potter wrote thirty books. With the proceeds from the books and a legacy from an aunt, in 1905 Potter bought Hill Top Farm in Near Sawrey, a village in the Lake District which at that time was in Lancashire. Over the following decades, she purchased additional farms to preserve the unique hill country landscape.
In 1913, at the age of 47, she married a respected local solicitor from Hawkshead. Potter was a prize-winning breeder of Herdwick sheep and a prosperous farmer keenly interested in land preservation, she continued to write and illustrate, to design spin-off merchandise based on her children's books for British publisher Warne until the duties of land management and her diminishing eyesight made it difficult to continue. Potter died of pneumonia and heart disease on 22 December 1943 at her home in Near Sawrey at the age of 77, leaving all her property to the National Trust, she is credited with preserving much of the land that now constitutes the Lake District National Park. Potter's books continue to sell throughout the world in many languages with her stories being retold in song, film and animation, her life depicted in a feature film and television film. Potter's paternal grandfather, Edmund Potter, from Glossop in Derbyshire, owned what was the largest calico printing works in England, served as a Member of Parliament.
Beatrix's father, Rupert William Potter, was educated at Manchester College by the Unitarian philosopher James Martineau. He trained as a barrister in London. Rupert practised law, conveyancing, he married Helen Leech on 8 August 1863 at Gee Cross. Helen was the daughter of Jane Ashton and John Leech, a wealthy cotton merchant and shipbuilder from Stalybridge. Helen's first cousins were 1st Baron Ashton of Hyde, it was reported in July 2014 that Beatrix had given a number of her own original hand-painted illustrations to the two daughters of Arthur and Harriet Lupton, who were cousins to both Beatrix and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge. Beatrix's parents lived comfortably at 2 Bolton Gardens, West Brompton, where Helen Beatrix was born on 28 July 1866 and her brother Walter Bertram on 14 March 1872. Beatrix lived in the house until her marriage in 1913; the house was destroyed in the Blitz. Bousfield Primary School now stands. A blue plaque on the school building testifies to the former site of The Potter home.
Both parents were artistically talented, Rupert was an adept amateur photographer. Rupert had invested in the stock market, by the early 1890s, he was wealthy. Potter's family on both sides were from the Manchester area, they were English Unitarians, associated with dissenting Protestant congregations, influential in 19th century England, that affirmed the oneness of God and that rejected the doctrine of the Trinity. Beatrix was educated by three able governesses, the last of whom was Annie Moore, just three years older than Beatrix, who tutored Beatrix in German as well as acting as lady's companion, she and Beatrix remained friends throughout their lives, Annie's eight children were the recipients of many of Potter's delightful picture letters. It was Annie who suggested that these letters might make good children's books, she and her younger brother Walter Bertram grew up with few friends outside their large extended family. Her parents were artistic, interested in nature, enjoyed the countryside.
As children and Bertram had numerous small animals as pets which they observed and drew endlessly. In their schoolroom and Bertram kept a variety of small pets, rabbits, a hedgehog and some bats, along with collections of butterflies and other insects which they drew and studied. Beatrix was devoted to the care of her small animals taking them with her on long holidays. In most of the first fifteen years of her life, Beatrix spent summer holidays at Dalguise, an estate on the River Tay in Perthshire, Scotland. There she explored an area that nourished her imagination and her observation. Beatrix and her brother were allowed great freedom in the country, both children became adept students of natural history. In 1882, when Dalguise was no longer available, the Potters took their first summer holiday in the Lake District, at Wray Castle near Lake Windermere. Here Beatrix met Hardwicke Rawnsley, vicar of Wray and the founding secretary of the National Trust, whose interest in the countryside and country life inspired the same in Beatrix and, to have a lasting impact on her life.
At about the age of 14, Beatrix began to keep a diary. It was written in a code of her own devising, a simple letter for letter substitution, her Journal was important to the development of her creativity, serving as both sketchbook and literary experiment: in tiny handwr
Aus den sieben Tagen is a collection of 15 text compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen, composed in May 1968, in reaction to a personal crisis, characterized as "Intuitive music"—music produced from the intuition rather than the intellect of the performer. It is Work Number 26 in the composer's catalog of works; the seven days of the title were 7–13 May 1968. Although this coincided with the beginning of the May 1968 protests and general strike in Paris, Stockhausen does not appear to have been aware of them at the time; these texts were written at Stockhausen's home in Kürten during the first five of those days, at night or late in the evening. During daylight hours, including the remaining two days, Stockhausen wrote “many poems,” as well as reading Satprem’s book on Sri Aurobindo, experienced “many extraordinary things”; some of the poems appear in Stockhausen 1971, 368–76. The first of the pieces to be premiered was Es, performed in Brussels on 15 December 1968 on a concert of the Rencontre de Musique Contemporaine, by the Stockhausen Group, joined by Michel Portal, Jean-Pierre Drouet, Jean-François Jenny-Clark.
Setz die Segel zur Sonne followed, as part of a concert at the Théâtre National Populaire, Palais de Chaillot in Paris, on 30 May 1969. However, an earlier, unofficial performance of both Es and Treffpunkt, by the Arts Laboratory Ensemble with Hugh Davies and trombonist Vinko Globokar with Stockhausen at the potentiometers, took place on 25 November 1968 in London, as part of the Macnaghten Concerts. Unbegrenzt was first given 26 July 1969 during the Nuits de la Fondation Maeght in St Paul de Vence, by Guy Arnaud, Harald Bojé, Jean-François Jenny-Clark, Jean-Pierre Drouet, Johannes G. Fritsch, Roy Hart, Diego Masson, Michel Portal, Michael Vetter, the composer. An "ill-fated" performance of the theatre piece Oben und Unten was attempted in Amsterdam at the Holland Festival on 22 June 1969; the three actors were Sigrid Koetse, Jan Retèl, Keesjan van Deelen, with the instrumentalists of the Stockhausen Group and the composer doing the sound projection. Goldstaub was only performed for the first time for the DG recording made at Stockhausen’s house in Kürten on 20 August 1972, by Péter Eötvös, Herbert Henck, Michael Vetter, the composer.
Stockhausen described as "crucial" an orchestral performance in London of Set sail for the Sun on 14 January 1970, in which the BBC Symphony Orchestra, rehearsed by the composer, was distributed around the audience in four groups, each with a "core player" from the Stockhausen Group. Other notable performances include the 1969 Darmstädter Ferienkurse, when the groups that had just finished the recordings for DG performed eleven of the texts in four public seminars, on 1–4 September in the Städtische Sporthalle am Böllenfalltor (Kurtz 1992, 173; the fifteen constituent pieces are: Richtige Dauern, for ca. 4 players Unbegrenzt, for ensemble Verbindung, for ensemble Treffpunkt, for ensemble Nachtmusik, for ensemble Abwärts, for ensemble Aufwärts, for ensemble Oben und Unten, theater piece, for a man, a woman, a child, 4 instrumentalists Intensität, for ensemble Setz die Segel zur Sonne, for ensemble Kommunion, for ensemble Litanei, for speaker or choir Es, for ensemble Goldstaub, for ensemble Ankunft, for speaker or speaking choir Often regarded as meditation exercises or prayers, all but two of these texts nonetheless describe in words specific musical events: "I don't want some spiritistic sitting—I want music!
I don't mean something mystical, but rather everything direct, from concrete experience". Despite the manner of notation, Stockhausen's approach remains serial:In his cycle FROM THE SEVEN DAYS Stockhausen attempts to find musical answers to such fundamental questions regarding the conditions of a harmonious interplay of spirit and matter, which correspond to his serial process thinking and to the maxims of the experimental production of the sound material by composing temporally ordered pulses.... As a composer he wants to mediate between the extremes rather than to just follow the preconception of a linear development from the fragmentary and dissonant to the whole and harmonious; each text focuses on one or several of Stockhausen's main artistic concerns, such as extending the listener's perceptions of time and pitch, reconciling opposing tendencies, or shifting awareness from one perceptual area to another. Specific earlier works may be reflected in certain of the texts. Intensität, for example, suggests a passage from Kontakte
Madina Nalwanga is a Ugandan actress famous for her lead role Phiona in Disney's Queen of Katwe. The film depicts the life of Phiona Mutesi, a Ugandan girl living in a slum in Katwe who learns to play chess and becomes a Woman Candidate Master; this role earned her the Most Promising Actor award at 2017 Africa Movie Academy Awards in Lagos, Nigeria. She won an NAACP Image Award, a Women Film Critics Circle Award, was nominated for a Critic's Choice Award. Madina was born in the poor Katwe neighborhood in Kampala and spent her childhood selling corn on the streets. Nalwanga was discovered by a casting director at a community dance class in the Kabalagala neighborhood of Kampala, Uganda, a slum known for prostitution. During the filming of Queen of Katwe, David Oyelowo took Nalwanga to see Jurassic World with other kids from the set, discovered she'd never seen a movie when she asked, "Is that what we are doing?" When she watched Queen of Katwe, it was only the second time. She has said her young life mirrored that of her character Phiona in Queen of Katwe.
At 17 years old, Forbes named her the youngest person on their 2018 "30 Under 30" list. According to a University of Oxford study from their department of Economics, students in Uganda who watched Queen of Katwe before taking their national exams received better grades than those who didn't