click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Beaufort County, South Carolina

Beaufort County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 162,233, its county seat is Beaufort. Beaufort County is part of the Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort, SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Beaufort County is one of the South's fastest-growing counties because of development south of the Broad River clustered along the U. S. Highway 278 corridor; the county's northern portions have grown due in part to the strong federal military presence around the city of Beaufort. The county's two portions are connected by the Broad River Bridge, which carries South Carolina Highway 170. From the early days of plantations, African slaves outnumbered the European minority in the colony; the plantations on the Sea Islands had large concentrations of slaves, limited interaction with whites. The islands were sites of the development of the Gullah culture, which preserved elements from a variety of West African roots; the county was majority black nearly to the mid-20th century.

Union troops took control of Beaufort County and occupied the area beginning in 1861. Many slaves went to Union lines. In some cases, planters had moved inland for refuge. Slaves began to organize schools and other parts of their communities early in the war in this county on the islands; the Army founded Mitchellville on Hilton Head by March 1863 as a village where blacks could practice self-governance, in 1865 it had 1500 residents. After the war, the Drayton family reclaimed this land for their use. In some cases the Union Army allocated plots for blacks for housing and cultivating crops; when freedmen were granted citizenship and the franchise after the American Civil War by constitutional amendments, most joined the Republican Party. Although not the only black majority state, South Carolina was the only southern state during Reconstruction to elect a black majority of representatives to the state legislature. Beaufort County had many prominent black leaders, such as Robert Smalls, Jonathan Jasper Wright, William James Whipper, Julius I.

Washington, Thomas E. Miller. Increasing violence during election campaigns in the state from 1868 on was used by white insurgents and paramilitary groups to suppress black voting. In 1876, the Democrats regained control of the state legislature and governor's office, although results were disputed. While black Republicans continued to be elected to local office in Beaufort County and other areas through the next decades, in 1895 the Democrat-dominated state legislature passed a new constitution that disfranchised most blacks through making voter registration and voting more difficult, they were kept in second-class status for decades. In 1903 the county "was reported to have 3,434 literate black males to 927 whites," but due to the discriminatory practices, nearly all blacks were barred from voting. From 1900 through 1950, Beaufort County's economy suffered from the decline in agriculture, which together with oppressive social conditions of Jim Crow contributed to the blacks making a Great Migration out of the South.

African Americans went to northern and midwestern industrial cities for jobs and became an urbanized population. The total county population of 35,495 in 1900 dropped by more than one third to 1930, did not reach the 1900 population level again until well after 1950, when the population was 26,933. Southern Democrats in Congress helped gain the establishment of military installations in the county and state, which added more population and stimulated area jobs in the second half of the 20th century. In addition and resort areas were developed that attracted increasing numbers of tourists through the winter season, others all year-round as retirees. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 923 square miles, of which 576 square miles is land and 347 square miles is water. Colleton County - north Jasper County - west Hampton County - northwest Ernest F. Hollings ACE Basin National Wildlife Refuge Pinckney Island National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 120,937 people, 45,532 households, 33,056 families living in the county.

The population density was 206 people per square mile. There were 60,509 housing units at an average density of 103 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 70.66% White, 23.98% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.79% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.84% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. 6.79 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 45,532 households out of which 30.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.40% were non-families. 21.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.30% under the age of 18, 12.00% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 15.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.

For every 100 females, there were 102.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $46,992, the median income for a family was $52,704. Males had a median income of $30,541 versus $25,284 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,377. About 8.00% of families and 10.70% of the

Yaka people

The Yaka are an African ethnic group found in southwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo, with Angola border to their west. They are related to the Suku people, they live in the savanna region between the Kwango River and the Wamba River. Yaka is the surname, used in South Africa and Swaziland, including its clan-name called Dlunge, their oral tradition states that they migrated northwest into their current location from the Lunda plateau region, in the 16th century. The verb kuyaka; the Bayaka were those Kongo people said: "bayaka mbele. A term used to describe them; the colonial Portuguese called them Jagas, their name may be derived from the Kikongo verb yaka which means "grab, hold" referring to the invaders of the kingdom of Kongo. In the 17th century and onwards, the Portuguese used the word Jagas to refer to any rootless and vagabond peoples if peaceful, in their colonies. King Kasongo led the exodus of the Lunda westward around the 17th century, the most organized expedition towards the conquest of the Kwango region in the kingdom of Kongo.

Some Lunda had preceded this. These Lunda conquerors were endowed with three major qualities: diplomacy and The organization, which enabled them to found the Yaka kingdom in the seventeenth century, harmoniously integrating the pre-established Kongo nations; the Lunda used this "soft power", more than fighting, to favour the union of the two peoples and Kongo, under the kingdom Yaka. Ethnologists and sociologists unanimously agree that, throughout Belgian colonial history, this kingdom was one of the best organized and Especially the most resistant to Western penetration; the name Yaka is a title. Upon the arrival of Lunda, the kingdom of Kongo was weakened by Portuguese incursions. Thus, the resistance that the Lunda find in the Kwango region is that of the isolated local tribes Kongo, including the Mbala, Hungana, Ngongo, rather than that of a United Kongo kingdom; the Lunda, these "biluwa", or foreigners, which Nothing resisted on their passage, capable of catching bullets and arrows, were called "Iluwa" or Bayaka.

Both the Lunda that arrived and the kongo warriors had similar traits, hence the exact titles being given to them. The Lunda, who had an interest in integrating into their political organization the local tribes who had not fled the invasion or who did not want to fight, had in turn adopted the identity "Yaka" which, in addition to conferring on them a title of nobility of the "invincible", integrated them better In their new country, they had gradually adopted the Kongo language. Much more, Lunda chiefs married Kongo women; the offspring identified themselves as Yaka rather than Lunda. Thus, the Yaka appellation had established itself as a generic identity Of the Lunda and Kongo inhabiting territories area under the authority of the Kiamvu Kasongo-Lunda, namely the territories of Kasongo-Lunda and Popokabaka; the Lunda of Nzofu came in the territory of Kahemba retain the Lunda identity and language. As for the territory of Feshi, they emigrated there in the middle of the 18th century from the Basuku, a group of Kongo, who disassociated themselves from the power of Kiamvu Kasongo-Lunda and whose leader "Meni Kongo" refused to submit to the authority of the latter.

Some other Kongo groups: the Mbala, Hungana and Ngongo, etc. Had emigrated to the Kwilu, leaving behind them and sisters who, together with the Lunda, composed the Yaka kingdom; the five territories that make up Kwango are therefore a binational space and Lunda. The reconciliation is thus the end of the wars of conquest between Kongo ethnic groups and the Lunda in Kwango was sealed by a ceremony and a particular ceremony in which the chief Meni Kongo representing Of the original Tsamba clans of Feshi and the Lunda chiefs were to share the parrot and cat raw meat. At the end of this ceremony, the representatives of two nations buried their war weapons and promised peaceful coexistence forever; the Kongo and the Lunda of Kwango have lived in perfect harmony since the beginning of the 19th century. When the administration of Leopold II arrived in Kwango after their establishment in Bas-Congo, Kwango Was an organized kingdom, it was well represented on the whole kingdom that stretched from Kasongo-Lunda to Popokabaka through the present territory of Kenge.

Peace between the Bayaka, their brothers, the Basuku of Meni Kongo in the Feshi and the Lunda of Nzofu in Kahemba. It was therefore not by default of hospitality that the agents of the Belgian administration came up against a refusal in Kwango, they represented a power that could not coexist with the existing political power. According to Crawford Young, the Lunda empires in Kwango and Katanga had understood that colonial occupation was an aggression to repel and fight; the other groups, apart from a few scattered revolts including that of Bapendé, had behaved as if the exploration and occupation of their spaces by strangers were normal.. By the year 1890, a skilled administrator named Dhanis came to negotiate his acceptance with King "Kiamvu" Tsiimba Nkumbi, it was not with his replacement of the name of Dussart who sought to impose the Leopold administration on Kwango

Gough Whitlam

Edward Gough Whitlam was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975. The Leader of the Labor Party from 1967 to 1977, Whitlam led his party to power for the first time in 23 years at the 1972 election, he won the 1974 election before being controversially dismissed by the Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, at the climax of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. Whitlam remains the only Australian prime minister to have been removed from office in this manner. Whitlam served as an air navigator in the Royal Australian Air Force for four years during World War II, worked as a barrister following the war, he was first elected to Parliament in 1952. Whitlam became Deputy Leader of the Labor Party in 1960, in 1967, after the retirement of Arthur Calwell, was elected Leader and became the Leader of the Opposition. After narrowly losing the 1969 election, Whitlam led Labor to victory at the 1972 election after 23 years of continuous Liberal-Country Coalition Government.

The Whitlam Government implemented a large number of new programs and policy changes, including the termination of military conscription, institution of universal health care and free university education, the implementation of legal aid programs. With the opposition-controlled Senate delaying passage of bills, Whitlam called a double dissolution election in 1974 in which he won a majority in the House of Representatives, albeit a reduced one, picked up three Senate seats; the Whitlam government instituted the first and only joint sitting enabled under s. 57 of the Constitution as part of the double dissolution process. Despite the government's second election victory, the opposition, reacting to government scandals and a flagging economy suffering from the 1973 oil crisis and the 1973–75 recession, continued to obstruct the government's program in the Senate. In late 1975, the Opposition Senators refused to allow a vote on the government's appropriation bills, returning them to the House of Representatives with a demand that the government go to an election, thus denying the government supply.

Whitlam refused to back down, arguing that his government, which held a clear majority in the House of Representatives, was being held to ransom by the Senate. The crisis ended on 11 November, when Whitlam arrived at a pre-arranged meeting with the Governor-General, Sir John Kerr, at Government House in order to call a half-Senate election. Kerr commissioned the opposition leader, Malcolm Fraser, as prime minister. Labor lost the subsequent election by a landslide. Whitlam stepped down after losing again at the 1977 election, retired from parliament in 1978. Upon the election of the Hawke Government in 1983, he was appointed as Ambassador to UNESCO, a position he filled with distinction, was elected a member of the UNESCO Executive Board, he remained active into his nineties. The propriety and circumstances of his dismissal and the legacy of his government have been debated in the decades after he left office. Edward Gough Whitlam was born on 11 July 1916 at the family home'Ngara', 46 Rowland Street, Kew, a suburb of Melbourne, the elder of two children, to Martha and Fred Whitlam.

His father was a federal public servant who served as Commonwealth Crown Solicitor, Whitlam senior's involvement in human rights issues was a powerful influence on his son. Since the boy's maternal grandfather was named Edward, from early childhood he was called by his middle name, which in turn had come from his paternal grandfather, named after the British soldier Field-Marshal Hugh Gough, 1st Viscount Gough. In 1918, Fred Whitlam was transferred to Sydney; the family lived first in the North Shore suburb of Mosman and in Turramurra. At age six, Gough began his education at Chatswood Church of England Girls' School. After a year there, he attended Mowbray House School and Knox Grammar School in the suburbs of Sydney. Fred Whitlam was promoted again in this time to Assistant Crown Solicitor; the position was located in the new national capital of Canberra, the Whitlam family moved there. Whitlam remains the only prime minister to have spent his formative years in Canberra. At the time, conditions remained primitive in what was dubbed "the bush capital" and "the land of the blowflies".

Gough attended the government Telopea Park School. In 1932, Whitlam's father transferred him to Canberra Grammar School where, at the Speech Day ceremony that year, he was awarded a prize by the Governor-General, Sir Isaac Isaacs. Whitlam enrolled at St Paul's College at the University of Sydney at the age of 18, he earned his first wages by appearing, with several other "Paulines", in a cabaret scene in the film The Broken Melody—the students were chosen because St Paul's requires formal wear at dinner, they could therefore supply their own costumes. After receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree with second-class honours in classics, Whitlam remained at St Paul's to begin his law studies, he had contemplated an academic career, but his lacklustre marks made that unlikely. Dropping out of Greek classes, he professed himself unable to care for the "dry as dust" lectures of Enoch Powell. Soon after the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Whitlam enlisted in the Sydney University Regiment, part of the Militia.

In late 1941, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, with a year remaining in his legal studies, he volunteered for the Royal Australian Air Force. In 1942, while awaiting entry into the service, Whitlam met and married Mar

Stillwater River (Nashua River tributary)

The Stillwater River is part of the Nashua River watershed. This river is part of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority system that supplies drinking water to the greater Boston area; the Stillwater River rises in Princeton, the watershed known as the Upper Worcester Plateau, or the Monadnock Upland. This watershed tops at the highest feature in the area. Water flowing east from this high ground feeds the Nashua River Watershed, water flowing west feeds the Ware River or the Millers River, both heading to the Connecticut River; the Stillwater flows 8.1 miles through Princeton and Sterling before joining the Quinapoxet River at the Wachusett Reservoir in West Boylston to form the south branch of the Nashua River. The Stillwater and Quinapoxet rivers are the two major tributaries to the Wachusett Reservoir, which serves as the primary source of water for 2.5 million consumers in 43 communities of central and eastern Massachusetts. The U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, operates stream-flow monitoring gages near the mouths of both rivers.

This and other continuous monitoring serves to maintain the overall quality of water within the reservoir. The water of these tributaries to the Wachusett Reservoir has been of high quality for decades. About 47% of the Stillwater sub-basin is permanently protected open space; the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority owns much of the land. The Town of Holden owns over 600 acres as the Trout Brook Conservation Area, the Massachusetts Audubon Society owns several hundred acres in the Wachusett Meadow Wildlife Sanctuary in addition to other properties within this sub-basin. List of rivers of Massachusetts Stillwater River information Nashua River watershed, Stillwater River information Stream-flow gage at Sterling, MA Court order and statement of facts about MWRA facilities

1976–77 S.L. Benfica season

The 1976–77 season was Sport Lisboa e Benfica's 73rd season in existence and the club's 43rd consecutive season in the top flight of Portuguese football, covering the period from 1 July 1976 to 30 June 1977. Benfica competed domestically in the Primeira Divisão and the Taça de Portugal, participated in the European Cup after winning the previous league. In the new season, Benfica replaced Mário Wilson by a foreigner. After a long saga, John Mortimore was chosen. In the transfer window, the club sold Rui Jordão. A complicated pre-season predicted a troubled start. In September, Benfica lost in the opening round with Sporting and drew the next two with Estoril Praia and Académica de Coimbra. At the same time, they were eliminated from the European Cup by Dynamo Dresden without scoring a goal. In October, another loss, now with Boavista, with Benfica sitting in 13th place, six points from the top. However, they won the following six matches. In January, while his rival Sporting was dropping points, Benfica gained five points and reduce their deficit to one.

They passed them in February and despite a loss for the Portuguese Cup against them, Benfica kept on winning in the Primeira Divisão. Two away draws did not cause harm with Benfica securing their third title in a row in early May, it was their 14th title since 1960. In the off-season, Benfica changed managers again. After guiding Benfica to their 22nd league title, Mário Wilson contract was not renewed and he moved to Boavista, his assistant Fernando Cabrita followed him. The press speculated such as John Mortimore, Bill McGarry and Dario Gradi. Signing a British manager was an obvious goal, Gradi was first choice, landing in Lisbon on 22 June to discuss terms. However, he left the following day, as Director of Football, Romão Martins, several key players did not approve him; as alternative, Benfica thought of Peres Bandeira, who days before was offered the job of assistant to Gradi. An offer he rejected. Without manager, Benfica started their pre-season on 2 July with assistant Rui Silva in charge.

At that point, the possible choices were either a Portuguese managers like Peres Bandeira and José Augusto or foreigners like Aymoré Moreira and Miguel Muñoz. Six days players agreed that a foreign manager was the best option and on 10 July, John Mortimore was selected, he arrived on 12 July to discuss his contract. He took over the team on 26 July. Contrasting with the troubled signing of a manager, Benfica made few squad adjustments, notably just Pietra and Carlos Alhinho. Biggest departure was Rui Jordão, who had his move to Spain. Benfica's first preparation games were in Brazil on 13 and 15 August, with the team competing in the Trofeo Cidade de Vigo shortly after; the pre-season ended with two games in Cameroon. After three losses in the preparation games, Toni worriedly said: "I am afraid of this team; the members will demand the league, but...". The league began on 4 September with a visit to Estádio de Alvalade to play Sporting, with Benfica losing 3–0. A week another poor result in a home draw with Braga.

On the opening night of the European Cup, Benfica lost to Dynamo Dresden by 2–0. A confident Mortimore predict the return leg: "70,000 fans will score one and the team will score two". On 19 September, Benfica visited Estádio António Coimbra da Mota to play Estoril Praia, dropping another point in a 1–1 draw, putting them in the 14th place; the first win only arrived a week with Académica de Coimbra at home. The first month of the season ended with a home draw with Dresden, which eliminated Benfica on the first round. Going out in the first round of the European Cup without scoring was unprecedented until then. October began with a game on the road against Vitória de Setúbal, which Benfica lost by 2–1; this put the team in 13th place, six points away from leaders Sporting. Mortimore was feeling the pressure and his work began to be questioned. Romão Martins responded with "With Hagan in 1970–71, we were six points from first place at match-day 15 and still won the league...". An members meet was brought up to discuss the club signing policy, which blocked signing foreigners.

It was rejected. Nonetheless, Benfica performance improved and with a win against Boavista, they started a winning run that extended until January. However, this wins did not reduce the distance to top. With a draw on 5 January, against Eusébio's Beira-Mar, that distance returned to six points. In the following two match-days, Sporting first lost with Setúbal, drew with Boavista, while Benfica won both matches, thus reducing the distance between them to three points. Sporting with 26 and Benfica with 23 points. On the final match in January, Benfica beat Sporting by 2–1 at home and cut the distance to a single point. Two weeks both teams were level at the top, when Benfica beat Estoril Praia and Sporting drew with Portimonense. Benfica concluded the month by taking the first place from Sporting, with a win in Coimbra against Académica, while his rivals drew at home. In March, Benfica visited Alvalade for the round of 16 of the Portuguese Cup, losing three-nil with a hat-trick from Manoel. In the Primeira Divisão, on 20 March, Benfica beat Boavista in Estádio do Bessa and secured their ninth consecutive league win.

They were stopped in the following week. Due to Sporting's loss at home with Porto, Benfica gained a point over his rival, they had a three-point lead. Benfica would drop points again on 17 April, in a 1–1 draw against Vitória de Guimarães, but it did not harm their lead, as Sporting drew in the same weekend. Three weeks on match-day

Judy's Bounce

Judy's Bounce is an album by American jazz saxophonist Jemeel Moondoc, recorded live in 1981 and released on the Italian Soul Note label. He leads a trio with drummer Ed Blackwell; the title track is dedicated to concert producer Judy Sneed. The Penguin Guide to Jazz notes "His early group, Ensemble Muntu, was much in the Taylor mould, but Moondoc remained open to other influences as well.'One for Ornette' accounts for only the most obvious. All compositions by Jemeel Moondoc"Judy's Bounce" - 8:43 "Echo in Blue" - 13:42 "One for Ornette" - 8:40 "Nimus" - 13:38 Jemeel Moondoc - alto sax Fred Hopkins - bass Ed Blackwell - drums