Jasper County, South Carolina
Jasper County is the southernmost county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,777, its county seat is Ridgeland. The county was formed in 1912 from portions of Beaufort County. Jasper County is included in the Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort, SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is located in the Lowcountry region of the state. For several decades, in contrast to neighboring Beaufort County, Jasper was one of the poorest counties in the state. Recent development from 2000 onwards has given the county new residents, expanded business opportunities, a wealthier tax base. Since 2010, Jasper County is the second-fastest-growing county by population in South Carolina, behind Horry County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 699 square miles, of which 655 square miles is land and 44 square miles is water. Hampton County - north Beaufort County - east Chatham County, Georgia - south Effingham County, Georgia - west Savannah National Wildlife Refuge Tybee National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 20,678 people, 7,042 households, 5,091 families residing in the county.
The population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 7,928 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 52.69% Black or African American, 42.39% White, 0.37% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 3.39% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races. 5.75% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,042 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 18.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.7% were non-families. 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 11.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females, there were 111.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.3 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,727, the median income for a family was $36,793. Males had a median income of $29,407 versus $21,055 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,161. About 15.4% of families and 20.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.3% of those under age 18 and 21.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 24,777 people, 8,517 households, 5,944 families residing in the county; the population density was 37.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,299 housing units at an average density of 15.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 46.0% black or African American, 43.0% white, 0.7% Asian, 0.5% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 8.3% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 15.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 7.1% were Irish, 2.5% were American.
Of the 8,517 households, 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 18.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families, 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.23. The median age was 34.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,393 and the median income for a family was $45,800. Males had a median income of $31,999 versus $24,859 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,997. About 14.2% of families and 21.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.2% of those under age 18 and 14.5% of those age 65 or over. Jasper County is governed by a five-member partisan county council, who are elected in staggered four year terms; the council appoints a county administrator, tasked with running the day-to-day operations of the county, with the exception of the Sheriff's Office. Mary Gordon Ellis, the first woman elected to the South Carolina legislature, represented Jasper County in the state senate for one term, from 1928 to 1932, after having served as state superintendent of schools.
Hardeeville Ridgeland National Register of Historic Places listings in Jasper County, South Carolina Jasper County Sheriff's Office Jasper Ocean Terminal Geographic data related to Jasper County, South Carolina at OpenStreetMap Jasper County History and Images
Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period; the laws were enforced until 1965. In practice, Jim Crow laws mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in the 1870s and 1880s, were upheld in 1896, by the U. S. Supreme Court's "separate but equal" legal doctrine for facilities for African Americans, established with the court's decision in the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson. Moreover, public education had been segregated since its establishment in most of the South, after the Civil War; the legal principle of "separate, but equal" racial segregation was extended to public facilities and transportation, including the coaches of interstate trains and buses. Facilities for African Americans and Native Americans were inferior and underfunded, compared to the facilities for white Americans.
As a body of law, Jim Crow institutionalized economic and social disadvantages for African Americans, other people of color living in the south. Legalized racial segregation principally existed in the Southern states, while Northern and Western racial segregation was a matter of fact — enforced in housing with private covenants in leases, bank lending-practices, employment-preference discrimination, including labor-union practices. Jim Crow laws—sometimes, as in Florida, part of state constitutions—mandated the segregation of public schools, public places, public transportation, the segregation of restrooms and drinking fountains for whites and blacks; the U. S. military was segregated. President Woodrow Wilson, a Southern Democrat, initiated segregation of federal workplaces in 1913; these Jim Crow laws revived principles of the 1865 and 1866 Black Codes, which had restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. Segregation of public schools was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education.
In some states it took many years to implement this decision. The remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but years of action and court challenges have been needed to unravel the many means of institutional discrimination; the phrase "Jim Crow Law" can be found as early as 1892 in the title of a New York Times article about Louisiana requiring segregated railroad cars. The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of blacks performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832 and was used to satirize Andrew Jackson's populist policies; as a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro". When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, these statutes became known as Jim Crow laws. In January 1865 an amendment to the Constitution to abolish slavery in the United States was proposed by Congress, on December 18, 1865, it was ratified as the Thirteenth Amendment formally abolishing slavery.
During the Reconstruction period of 1865–1877, federal laws provided civil rights protections in the U. S. South for freedmen, the African Americans, slaves, the minority of blacks, free before the war. In the 1870s, Democrats regained power in the Southern legislatures, having used insurgent paramilitary groups, such as the White League and the Red Shirts, to disrupt Republican organizing, run Republican officeholders out of town, intimidate blacks to suppress their voting. Extensive voter fraud was used. Gubernatorial elections were close and had been disputed in Louisiana for years, with increasing violence against blacks during campaigns from 1868 onward. In 1877, a national Democratic Party compromise to gain Southern support in the presidential election resulted in the government's withdrawing the last of the federal troops from the South. White Democrats had regained political power in every Southern state; these Southern, Democratic Redeemer governments legislated Jim Crow laws segregating black people from the white population.
Blacks were still elected to local offices throughout the 1880s, but their voting was suppressed for state and national elections. Democrats passed laws to make voter registration and electoral rules more restrictive, with the result that political participation by most blacks and many poor whites began to decrease. Between 1890 and 1910, ten of the eleven former Confederate states, starting with Mississippi, passed new constitutions or amendments that disenfranchised most blacks and tens of thousands of poor whites through a combination of poll taxes and comprehension tests, residency and record-keeping requirements. Grandfather clauses temporarily permitted some illiterate whites to vote but gave no relief to most blacks. Voter turnout dropped drastically through the South as a result of such measures. In Louisiana, by 1900, black voters were reduced to 5,320 on the rolls, although they comprised the majority of the state's population. By 1910, only 730 blacks were registered, less than 0.5% of eligible black men.
"In 27 of the state's 60 parishes, not a single black voter was registered any longer. The cumulative effect in North Carolina meant that black voters were eliminated from voter rolls during the period fro
Pinckney Island National Wildlife Refuge
The Pinckney Island National Wildlife Refuge is a 4,053-acre National Wildlife Refuge located in Beaufort County, South Carolina between the mainland and Hilton Head Island. Named after Major General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, it was established to provide a nature and forest preserve for aesthetic and conservation purposes; the refuge is one of seven refuges administered by the Savannah Coastal Refuges Complex in Savannah, Georgia. The complex has a combined staff of 31 with a fiscal year 2005 budget of $3,582,000. Pinckney Island NWR is archaeologically rich, with 115 historic sites identified. Analysis of the prehistoric sites indicate human occupation dating from the Archaic Period, with intensive use during the Mississippian Period. Historic artifacts indicate that small scale, impermanent settlements were made on Pinckney by French and Spanish groups in the 16th and 17th centuries. Permanent settlements did not occur until 1708 when Alexander Mackay, an Indian trader, obtained title to 200 acres of present-day Pinckney Island.
By 1715, Mackay had acquired the rest of the island, as well as most of the other islands which comprise the present refuge. In 1736, Mackay's widow sold the islands to Charles Pinckney, father of General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. General Pinckney was a commander during the Revolutionary War, a signer of the United States Constitution, and, in 1804 and 1808, a presidential candidate for the Federalist Party. After he inherited the islands from his father, Pinckney was an absentee landowner until 1804, when he moved to the island and began managing the property; the Pinckney family developed the islands into a plantation, removing much of the maritime forest and draining and tilling the fertile soil. By 1818, over 200 slaves labored to produce fine quality long-staple Sea Island Cotton on 297 acres; the plantation flourished until the American Civil War. Small skirmishes took place on Pinckney Island; the most significant incident occurred on August 21, 1862, when the Confederate Beaufort Light Artillery/11th Infantry attacked the camp of Company H, Third Regiment, New Hampshire Volunteers, killing four Union soldiers and wounding ten men.
US Army records reflect. Five military headstones are located in a cemetery on the northwest side of Pinckney Island, it is possible that the U. S. Army had recruited slaves from the Pinckney plantation. After the war and late century agricultural recession, the plantation did not prosper. By the 1930s, it was abandoned. In 1937, after more than 200 years of Pinckney family ownership, the plantation was sold to Ellen Bruce, wife of James Bruce, a New York banker who used the property as a hunting preserve; the Bruces planted hardwoods and pine, built ponds to attract waterfowl and provide for irrigation, placed 70 percent of the farm fields back into cultivation. In 1954 Edward Starr and James Madison Barker, a distinguished MIT alumnus and early leader in the field of international business, purchased the islands, they continued to manage them. In 1975, they donated the islands to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to be managed as a National Wildlife Refuge and as a nature and forest preserve for aesthetic and conservation purposes.
The Pinckney Island NWR was established on December 4, 1975. The 4,053-acre refuge includes Pinckney Island, Corn Island, Big Harry and Little Harry Islands, Buzzard Island and numerous small hammocks. Pinckney is the largest of the only one open to public use. Nearly 67 % of the refuge consists of tidal creeks. A wide variety of land types are found on Pinckney Island alone: saltmarsh, brushland, fallow field and freshwater ponds. In combination, these habitats support a diversity of plant life. Wildlife observed on Pinckney Island include waterfowl, wading birds, neo-tropical migrants, white-tailed deer, with large concentrations of white ibis and egrets. Other species include the American alligator, flatwoods salamander, nine-banded armadillo, bald eagle, the wood stork. There is no visitor center at the refuge. However, there are opportunities for hiking, cycling and wildlife observation; each year the refuge holds a one-day quota deer hunt to ensure that population numbers remain in balance with the surrounding habitat.
However, fishing is prohibited from the land portions of the refuge. There are 10 miles of hiking trails on the refuge and nine recommended hikes: Ibis Pond - 1.2 miles, round trip.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave, released from slavery by legal means. Slaves were freed either by manumission or emancipation. A fugitive slave is one. Rome differed from Greek city-states in allowing freed slaves to become plebeian citizens; the act of freeing a slave was called manumissio, from manus, "hand", missio, the act of releasing. After manumission, a slave who had belonged to a Roman citizen enjoyed not only passive freedom from ownership, but active political freedom, including the right to vote. A slave who had acquired libertas was known as a libertus in relation to his former master, called his or her patron; as a social class, freed slaves were liberti, though Latin texts used the terms libertus and libertini interchangeably. Libertini were not entitled to hold public office or state priesthoods, nor could they achieve legitimate senatorial rank. During the early Empire, freedmen held key positions in the government bureaucracy, so much so that Hadrian limited their participation by law.
Any future children of a freedman would be born free, with full rights of citizenship. The Claudian Civil Service set a precedent whereby freedmen could be used as civil servants in the Roman bureaucracy. In addition, Claudius passed legislation concerning slaves, including a law stating that sick slaves abandoned by their owners became freedmen if they recovered; the emperor was criticized for using freedmen in the Imperial Courts. Some freedmen became quite wealthy; the brothers who owned House of the Vettii, one of the biggest and most magnificent houses in Pompeii, are thought to have been freedmen. A freedman who became rich and influential might still be looked down on by the traditional aristocracy as a vulgar nouveau riche. Trimalchio, a character in the Satyricon of Petronius, is a caricature of such a freedman. For centuries Arab slave traders took and transported an estimated 10 to 15 million sub-Saharan Africans to slavery in North Africa and the Middle East, they enslaved Europeans from coastal areas and the Balkans.
The slaves were predominately women. Many Arabs took women slaves as concubines in their harems. In the patrilineal Arab societies, the mixed-race children of concubines and Arab men were considered free, they were given inheritance rights related to their fathers' property. No studies have been done of the influence of African-Arab descendants in the societies. In the United States, the terms "freedmen" and "freedwomen" refer chiefly to former slaves emancipated during and after the American Civil War, by the Emancipation Proclamation and the 13th Amendment. Slaves freed before the war by individual manumissions in wills, were referred to as "Free Negroes" or free blacks. In addition, there was a population of black Americans born free; the great majority of families of free people of color in the first two decades after the Revolutionary War have been found to have descended from unions between white women and black men. According to laws in the slave colonies, children were born into the status of their mothers.
Such free families of color tended to migrate to the frontier of Virginia and other Upper South colonies, west into Kentucky, West Virginia and Tennessee with neighbors. In addition, during the first two decades after the Revolution, slaveholders freed thousands of slaves in the Upper South, inspired by revolutionary ideals. Most northern states abolished some on a gradual basis. In Louisiana and other areas of the former New France, free people of color were classified in French as gens de couleur libres, they were born to black mothers and white fathers of mixed-race black and French or other European ancestry. The fathers sometimes freed their children and sexual partners, the Creoles of color community became well-established in New Orleans before Louisiana became part of the US, they had more rights under the French than under the Americans after the Louisiana Purchase. In addition, there were sizable communities of free people of color in French Caribbean colonies, such as Saint-Domingue and Guadeloupe.
Due to the violence of the Haitian Revolution, many free people of color, who were part of the revolution, became exiles after being attacked by slave rebels in the north of the island. Some went first to Cuba, from where they immigrated to New Orleans in 1808 and 1809 after being expelled. Many brought slaves with them, their numbers strengthened the French-speaking community of enslaved black peoples, as well as the free people of color. Other refugees from Haiti settled in Charleston and New York. Although the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 declared all slaves in states not under the control of the Union to be free, it did not end slavery as an institution. Abolition of all slavery was achieved with the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; the Fourteenth Amendment gave ex-slaves full citizenship in the United States. The Fifteenth Amendment gave voting rights to adult males among the free people; the 13th, 14th, 15th amendments are known as the "civil rights amendments", the "post-Civil War amendments", the "Reconstruction
Colleton County, South Carolina
Colleton County is a county located in the Lowcountry region of the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 38,892, its county seat is Walterboro. The county is named after Sir John Colleton, 1st Baronet, one of the eight Lords Proprietor of the Province of Carolina. After two previous incarnations, the current Colleton County was created in 1800. In 1682, Colleton was created as one of the three original proprietary counties, located in the southwestern coastal portion of the new South Carolina Colony and bordering on the Combahee River. In 1706, the county was divided between the new Saint Saint Paul parishes; this area was developed for large plantations devoted to rice and indigo cultivation as commodity crops. The planters depended on the labor of African slaves transported to Charleston for that purpose. In the coastal areas, black slaves soon outnumbered white colonists, as they did across the colony by 1708. In 1734, most of the coastal portion of Saint Paul's Parish was separated to form the new Saint John's Colleton Parish.
In 1769, the three parishes were absorbed into the Charleston Judicial District, the southwestern portion of, referred to as Saint Bartholomew's. In 1800, the new Colleton District was formed from the western half of the Charleston District. In 1816, it annexed a small portion of northwestern Charleston District. In 1868, under the Reconstruction era new state constitution, South Carolina districts were reorganized as counties. Officials were to be elected by the resident voters rather than by state officials, as was done thus giving more democratic power to local residents. In 1897, the northeastern portion of the county was separated to form the new Dorchester County, with its seat at Saint George. In 1911, the portion of the county east of the Edisto River was annexed by Charleston County. In 1919 and again in 1920, tiny portions of northwestern Colleton County were annexed to Bamberg County. In March 1975, the town of Edisto Beach was annexed to Colleton County from Charleston County, thus bringing the county to its present size.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,133 square miles, of which 1,056 square miles is land and 77 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county in fourth-largest by total area. Orangeburg County - north Dorchester County - northeast Charleston County - east Beaufort County - south Hampton County - west Allendale County - west Bamberg County - northwest Ernest F. Hollings ACE Basin National Wildlife Refuge Colleton State Park Edisto Beach State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 38,264 people, 14,470 households, 10,490 families residing in the county; the population density was 36 people per square mile. There were 18,129 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 55.52% White, 42.18% Black or African American, 0.63% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 1.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,470 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.10% were married couples living together, 16.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.50% were non-families.
24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.50% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 24.70% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 91.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,733, the median income for a family was $34,169. Males had a median income of $28,518 versus $19,228 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,831. About 17.30% of families and 21.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.70% of those under age 18 and 19.10% of those age 65 or over. According to the 2000 Census, the Colleton County population is nearly 75% rural, with the exception of the Walterboro Urban Cluster.
The total county population is designated as the Walterboro Micropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 38,892 people, 15,131 households, 10,449 families residing in the county; the population density was 36.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 19,901 housing units at an average density of 18.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 57.0% white, 39.0% black or African American, 0.8% American Indian, 0.3% Asian, 1.3% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.0% were American, 7.3% were English, 6.5% were German, 5.2% were Irish. Of the 15,131 households, 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.9% were married couples living together, 18.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.9% were non-families, 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.07.
The median age was 40.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $33,263 and the median income for a family was $40,955. Males had a median income of $36,622 versus $25,898 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,842. About 17.7% of families and 21.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.3% of those under age 18 and 17
Jonathan Jasper Wright
Jonathan Jasper Wright was an African-American lawyer who served as a judge on the Supreme Court of the State of South Carolina during Reconstruction from 1870 to 1877. Wright was born on February 1840, in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania; when he was about six years old his parents removed to Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. He attended the district school during the winter months, working for the neighboring farmers the rest of the year. Having saved up a small sum of money, he entered the Lancasterian University, at Ithaca, in New York State. After a thorough course of study there, he returned to the village, he entered the office of a law firm, where he read law for two years, supporting himself by teaching. He subsequently entered the office of Judge Collins, in Wilkes-Barre, with whom he read law for another year, he applied for admission to the Bar but the committee refused to examine him because of racial prejudice. In April 1865, Wright was sent by the American Missionary Society to Beaufort, South Carolina, as a teacher and laborer among the freed slaves.
He remained in Beaufort. He returned to Montrose and demanded an examination for the Bar; the Committee found him qualified, recommended his admission to the Bar. He was admitted August 13, 1865, was the first African American admitted to practice law in Pennsylvania. In April 1866, Wright was appointed by General Oliver Otis Howard as head of the Freedmen's Bureau in Beaufort, to be the legal adviser for the freedmen. In July 1868 he was elected to the Constitutional Convention of South Carolina, he was the convention vice-president and helped draft the judiciary section of the State Constitution, which remains today. Wright was soon afterward elected state senator from Beaufort County. On February 1, 1870, he was elected to the South Carolina Supreme Court, he served for seven years, until the white Democrats regained control of state government in 1877. Wright entered into private practice in Charleston, he died of tuberculosis in 1885. Hine, William C. "Wright, Jonathan Jasper", in Garraty, John A..
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Woody, R. H. "Jonathan Jasper Wright, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of South Carolina, 1870–77", The Journal of Negro History, 18: 114–31, doi:10.2307/2714290, ISSN 0022-2992, JSTOR 2714290, OCLC 30061380. The Jonathan Jasper Wright Award at the Law School of the University of South Carolina