The Dinosaur Cove in Victoria, Australia is a fossil-bearing site in the south-east of the continent where the Otway Ranges meet the sea to the west of Cape Otway, adjacent to Great Otway National Park. The inaccessible ocean-front cliffs include fossil-bearing strata that date back to about 106 million years ago and has provided discoveries important in the research of the natural history of dinosaurs in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere as a whole. During the Early Cretaceous the location was a flood plain within a great rift valley that formed as Australia started to separate northward from Antarctica. Sand and silt deposits covered and sometimes preserved the remains of dead animals and plants; as the rift valley sank, the deposits were overlaid by sediment, which turned to rock under pressure. In the last 30 million years the sediments have been uplifted to form the Otway Ranges and Strzelecki Ranges, bringing them near the surface again; the richest find of petrified dinosaur bones is confined to narrow thin layers, most ancient stream beds serving as repositories of the bones of smaller animals.
In 1903, geologist William Hamilton Ferguson was mapping the rocky coastal outcrops a few kilometres west of Inverloch and uncovered the first dinosaur fossil discovered in Australia. 75 years the exploration and excavation of the Dinosaur Cove site was conducted by teams of volunteers overseen by Thomas H. Rich and Patricia Rich; the dinosaur taxa, Leaellynasaura amicagraphica and Timimus hermani, are named for the children of the Riches', Tim and Leaellyn. Heavy mining equipment and dynamite was used to blast away overlying strata to uncover the fossiliferous rock layers in the cliff face. Over geological time since, the rock was pushed so deep that heat and pressure hardened it much, before it came again to the surface; as a result, a common way to look for fossils in it was to break each lump with a sledgehammer, after each blow to examine all new broken surfaces for cross-sections of bone. Any pieces that showed bone were sent to the laboratory to extract the bone by careful preparation.
In the 1980s and 90s Dinosaur Cove yielded hypsilophodontid-like dinosaurs as Leaellynasaura amicagraphica and Atlascopcosaurus loadsi, a Coelurosaur, as well as fragments of what may be a caenagnathid. One fossil from this diverse taxa, collectively called the "polar dinosaurs of Australia", has been interpreted as showing possible adaptations to vision in low light conditions and were warm-blooded, it is worth noting that although these dinosaurs lived at polar latitudes, the Cretaceous climate was milder than today, so temperatures within the Antarctic and Arctic Circles were vastly different from the climate at these latitudes today, because the lopsided arrangements of the continents made sea currents and monsoon winds blow across the polar areas and not round and round them, so stopped cold pools from developing around the poles. An astragalus bone of an ancient relative of Allosaurus was discovered at the site, making it the first discovery in the southern hemisphere. Dinosaur Dreaming List of fossil sites
Frankston is an outer-suburb of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia, in the local government area of the City of Frankston. It is located 55 km south-east of the Melbourne city centre, north of the Mornington Peninsula. Due to its geographic location, it is referred to as "the gateway to the Mornington Peninsula". European settlement of Frankston began around the same time as the foundation of Melbourne in 1835—initially as an unofficial fishing village serving the early Melbourne township. Prior to its settlement, the Frankston area was inhabited by the Mayone-bulluk clan from the Bunurong tribe of the Kulin nation; the official village of Frankston was established in 1854, with its first land sales taking place on 29 May. It has subsequently given its name to the broader Frankston local government area since 1893, serves as both its activity and administrative centre. Situated on the eastern shoreline of Port Phillip, Frankston has been a popular seaside destination of Melbourne since the 1880s.
Frankston Beach is still one of the most frequented in Victoria, is recognised as one of the cleanest in Australia. It is home to one of the largest exhibitions of sand sculpting in the Southern Hemisphere. Localities in the suburb include: Frankston Central Business District, Frankston East, Frankston Heights, Long Island, Mount Erin and Olivers Hill; the independent suburb of Frankston South shares the same postcode as Frankston. At the 2016 Census the suburb of Frankston recorded a population of 36,097; the demonym for someone from Frankston is a Frankstonian. The toponymic origins of Frankston are subject to conjecture, of which there are four popular theories. One of the earliest of these theories is that it was named after one of its early European settlers, Frank Liardet, who became one of its first official land owners; the Liardets were prominent pioneers of early Melbourne and arrived aboard the William Metcalfe from England in 1839. Liardet's father, founded what is now the Melbourne inner suburb of Port Melbourne and the family established and managed hotels around Melbourne as well as the first mail service of the early township.
Frank Liardet settled in the Frankston area in 1847, after taking out a 300-acre depasturing license for land, now the Frankston locality of Karingal. During this time, Liardet built the first wooden house in the Frankston area—which would become part of his Ballam Park estate after the formal land sales of 1854. Prior to settling in the area, Liardet had worked on the cattle run of the first Postmaster of the Port Phillip District, Captain Benjamin Baxter, located over what are now the City of Frankston suburbs of Langwarrin and Langwarrin South. By the time Liardet had taken out his depasturing license for the Frankston area in 1847 an unofficial fishing village was developing around its foreshore. Considering Frank Liardet's early presence in the Frankston area, his connections to the early mail services of Melbourne, it is plausible that "Frank's Town" became nomenclature for describing the area and its unofficial village; as a consequence it is possible that the name of "Frankston" was further adapted from it when naming the village for its formal land sales in 1854.
However, in a letter to the editor of The Argus newspaper a member of the Liardet family said that this was in fact not true. In the letter was excerpts of correspondence between the Liardet family and the Victorian state Department of Lands and Survey which refuted the theory. Instead, it puts forward the theory that Frankston was named after the Irish-born settler Charles Franks. Charles Franks arrived in Melbourne aboard the Champion from Van Diemen's Land in 1836 and made a squatter's claim to land on the western side of Port Phillip near Mount Cottrel. Franks' land neighboured that of the early Melbourne explorer and surveyor John Helder Wedge, managed by his nephew Charles Wedge—prior to him gaining a pre-emptive right to land license of his own for the Frankston area; the correspondence with the Department of Lands and Survey states that, at the time of surveying the area for the land sales of 1854, the name "Frankston" was suggested to honour the Wedge's deceased former neighbour. Another theory—that has become folklore—is that Frankston was named after a pub named "Frank Stone's Hotel".
In 1929 the author Don Charlwood, a student of Frankston High School at the time, compiled a history of Frankston using both local records and oral sources supporting the theory. The pub to which Charlwood refers was named the Cannanuke Inn and was the first permanent building in the Frankston area, it was built by the pre-emptive Frankston settler James Davey in the 1840s. The Victorian Heritage Database states that it was located on the present site of the Frankston Mechanics' Institute. According to Charlwood, it was purchased by a "Mr. Stone" in the early-1850s who, after the birth of his son, "Frank", renamed it "Frank Stone's Hotel" and around which the village developed and had its name adapted from for its formal land sales in 1854; as there appear to be no licensing records for the Cannanuke Inn, it is difficult to determine if this is in fact true. However, Charlwood does mention that Stone had purchased the Cannanuke Inn from "a man named Standring". Licensing records state that Benjamin Standring was the owner of the Frankston Ho
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Western Port but unofficially known as Western Port Bay, is a large tidal bay in southern Victoria, opening into Bass Strait. It is the second largest bay in the state. Geographically, it is dominated by the two large islands. Contrary to its name, it lies to the east of the larger Port Phillip, is separated from it by the Mornington Peninsula, it is visited by Australian fur seals and dolphins, as well as many migratory waders and seabirds. It is listed under the Ramsar Convention as a wetland of international significance; the area around the bay and the two main islands were part of the Boonwurrung nation's territory prior to European settlement. Western Port was first seen by Europeans in 1798 when an exploration crew in a whaleboat led by George Bass, journeyed south from Sydney to explore Australia's south eastern coastline. Due in most part to a lack of food, the expedition was halted, spending two weeks in Western Port before returning to Sydney; as it was the most westerly charted point at the time, it was named Western Port.
The bay is home to the three Marine National Parks—French Island, Churchill Island and Yaringa, while the land adjacent to the north is used for farming purposes including cattle and wineries. Today the bay is used for recreation. Western Port is around one hour from Melbourne by car and a small number of holiday villages with sandy swimming beaches lie on its shores. Prior to European settlement, the Bunurong people lived around Western Port living off shellfish, mutton birds and plant life; the bay was first explored by Europeans in 1797, when George Bass received permission from Governor Hunter in Sydney to sail a whaleboat along the unexplored section of coast south of Botany Bay. On such a rough stretch of water, Bass could not get more than halfway through the strait now known as Bass Strait; this voyage led to the recording of Western Port, so named because of its situation relative to every other known harbour on the coast at that time though it lies to the east of Port Phillip and the city of Melbourne.
Seal hunting was conducted here in the 19th century. In the year 1826 it was reported that the French had resolved to found a settlement at some Australian harbour – King George's Sound or Western Port; the British Government at once sent instructions to Sydney for Governor Darling to take possession of these places. As a result, Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, with orders to proceed to Western Port, on 18 November 1826, they took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of the bay near present-day Corinella, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the instance of Governor Darling about twelve months afterwards, as unfit for civilisation,Samuel Anderson established the third permanent European settlement in Victoria, after Portland and Melbourne, at Bass in 1835, it was only after the end of World War II that serious consideration was given to the development of the port, its flat shores north of Stony and Crib Points have become a centre for heavy industry.
A major river drainage system, it was inundated together with Port Phillip by the rising sea in the Holocene period. The waters of Western Port cover an area of 680 km² of which 270 km² are exposed as mud flats at low tide; the topography of Western Port is dominated by two large islands: Phillip Island. The coastline, including that of the islands, is some 263 km; the bay and its islands are criss-crossed by seven seismically active fault lines and experiences numerous minor earthquakes every year. In the northern reaches, several rivers and creeks drain into the bay and flow through extensive mangroves and sand banks before being channelled either side of French Island and into the open water in the southern reaches around Phillip Island. Several natural river paths and channels provide access for boats to the northern reaches; some of the major tributaries of Western Port are Bunyip River, Lang Lang River, Bass River, Cardinia Creek, Redbill Creek, Mosquito Creek, Brella Creek and Tankerton Creek.
Until the mid 20th century, the Koo-Wee-Rup Swamp adjoined the bay in the north, covering an area of 30–40 thousand hectares, extending inland to present-day Pakenham, prior to cultivation of the land by early settlers. The mangroves in the northern reaches are the only remnants of this swamp today. Western Port contains several small ones; the coastline around Phillip Island is of State significance because of its remnant coastal tussock grasslands and dune scrub, a rare vegetation community in Victoria. Western
Discovery Bay (Australia)
Discovery Bay is an open oceanic embayment lying along the coast of eastern South Australia and western Victoria in south-eastern Australia. Facing the Southern Ocean, Discovery Bay extends 70 kilometres from Cape Northumberland, near Port MacDonnell, South Australia in the northwest, to Cape Bridgewater in the southeast, 20 kilometres west of Portland in western Victoria. Cape Northumberland is the southernmost point of mainland South Australia; the Glenelg River enters the bay near the town of Nelson. The bay was named by explorer Thomas Mitchell when he came down the river on 20 August 1836; the South Australian section of the bay’s coastline is protected by the Lower South East Marine Park while the Victorian section of the coast is protected in the Discovery Bay Coastal Park. The waters at the eastern end of the bay, adjacent to Cape Bridgewater, are protected by the Discovery Bay Marine National Park. Discovery Bay Piccaninnie Ponds Conservation Park "Discovery Bay Parks Management Plan".
Parks Victoria. Government of Victoria. 2006. ISBN 0-7311-8335-5. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. "Discovery Bay Coastal Park". Parks Victoria. Government of Victoria. 23 December 2013. Parks Victoria. "Discovery Bay Marine National Park: Marine Natural Values Study Summary". Parks Victoria. Government of Victoria
Beaumaris is an affluent beachside suburb in Melbourne, Australia, 20 km south-east of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Bayside. At the 2011 Census, Beaumaris had a population of 12,829, it is located on Port Phillip. Beaumaris includes two early estates in the parish of Moorabbin developed by Josiah Holloway from 1852. Named Beaumaris Town and Beaumaris Estate, the lots comprising them were marketed by Mr Holloway's suggesting that the railway was imminent and a canal would be built; the township developed a Post Office opened on 1 March 1868, but was replaced next month by Gipsy Village office. Beaumaris Post Office did not reopen until 1925. In 1957 this was renamed Beaumaris South. In 1954 Cromer Post Office opened to the north of the suburb. From 1889 to 1914 the Beaumaris Tram Company conducted a horse-drawn tram service from Sandringham to Cheltenham through Beaumaris, it closed due to low patronage. There are no remains to be found of the line, but it is remembered by the name of the suburban street that it once used - Tramway Parade, Beaumaris.
Beaumaris High School, which opened in 1958, became the Beaumaris Campus of Sandringham College, catering to years 7-10, from 1988 until 2015. A new high school catering for years 7-12, Beaumaris Secondary College, was built on the same site at the corner of Reserve Road and Balcombe Road and opened in January 2018. There are three primary schools, Beaumaris Primary School, first opened in 1915 on the site of the Beaumaris Tennis Club on Bodley Street, moved to its current site in Dalgetty Road as the population of the school grew. Beaumaris Campus burned down in 1958. Beaumaris Primary School Administration and some of the classrooms were burnt down in 1994. Major thoroughfares in Beaumaris include Balcombe Road, Reserve Road, Beach Road, Haydens Road and Charman Road. Beaumaris is serviced by the following bus routes: 600 St Kilda – Southland SC via Brighton Beach RS, Sandringham RS, Cheltenham RS. Operated by Melbourne Bus Link. 825 Moorabbin – Southland SC via Black Rock, Mentone RS. Operated by Moorabbin Transit.
922 St Kilda – Southland SC via North Brighton RS, Sandringham RS, Cheltenham RS. Operated by Melbourne Bus Link. 923 St Kilda – Southland SC via Brighton Beach RS, Sandringham RS, Cheltenham RS. Operated by Melbourne Bus Link; these routes connect with the Cheltenham and Sandringham railway stations. Bayside's bike path runs alongside Beach Road; the most prominent landmarks of this suburb are on its coastline, include the Beaumaris Cliff, from Charman Road to Table Rock, of international importance as a site for marine and terrestrial fossils, Ricketts Point, next to a 115 hectare Marine Sanctuary and popular beach area. The coastal waters from Table Rock Point in Beaumaris to Quiet Corner in Black Rock and 500 metres to seaward formally became the Ricketts Point Marine Sanctuary under state legislation passed in June 2002. Marine Care Ricketts Point Inc. a volunteer organisation concerned with the preservation of the marine sanctuary, is active at Ricketts Point. Beaumaris Conservation Society Inc. was founded in 1953 as the Beaumaris Tree Preservation Society and has been active since in championing the conservation of the substantial amount of remaining indigenous vegetation in Beaumaris and its other significant environmental qualities.
It is campaigning against a proposal for a large private marina proposed for the Beaumaris Bay Fossil Site. Ricketts Point is home to the Beaumaris Life Saving Club, which holds yearly Life Saving Carnivals in the summer. Near Ricketts Point, there is a monument commemorating the first encounter of Arthur Streeton and Heidelberg school artists Tom Roberts and Fred McCubbin, their paintings of Beaumaris are part of the City of Bayside Coastal Art Trail. Clarice Beckett painted many landscapes of the area. Hugh Gemmell Lamb-Smith, Australian educator who landed at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915, son of former President of the Moorabbin Shire Council, was born at Mrs Ricketts' Dinas Bran, in Wells Road, Beaumaris on 31 March 1889. At the 2011 census, the suburb of Beaumaris recorded a population of 12,829 people. Of these: Age distribution: Residents tend to be somewhat older than the country overall; the median age was 44 years, compared to the national median of 37 years. Children aged under 15 years made up 19.7% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 18.4% of the population.
The difference is most marked in the age group 24-34, which accounts for 5.5% of residents, compared to 13.8% nationally. Ethnic diversity: 75% were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 70%. At home, 89% of residents only spoke English. Finances: The median household weekly income was $1,907, compared to the national median of $1,234; this difference is reflected in real estate, with the median mortgage payment being $2,383 per month, compared to the national median of $1,800. Transport: On the day of the Census, 9.5% of employed people travelled to work on public transport, 67.5% by car (either as driver or as pa
Geoscience Australia is an agency of the Australian Government. It carries out geoscientific research; the agency is the government's technical adviser on all aspects of geoscience, custodian of the geographic and geological data and knowledge of the nation. On a user pays basis it produces geospatial products such as satellite imagery, it is a major contributor to the Australian Government's free, open data collections such as data.gov.au. The agency has six strategic priority areas: building Australia's resource wealth in order to maximise benefits from Australia's minerals and energy resources and into the future. Geoscience Australia came into being in 2001 when the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group merged with the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, its history dates back to Federation in 1901 when it was decided to set aside land for the national capital. This decision led to the establishment of the Australian Survey Office in 1910, when surveying began for the Australian Capital Territory.
AUSLIG's main function was to provide national geographic information. It was formed in 1987, when the Australian Survey Office joined with the Division of National Mapping, formed in 1947. Another important component of AUSLIG was the provision of satellite imagery to industry and government, started by the Australian Landsat Station in 1979, renamed the Australian Centre for Remote Sensing in 1986. AGSO's predecessor organisation the Bureau of Mineral Resources and Geophysics was established in 1946; the BMR was a geological survey with the main objective was the systematic geological and geophysical mapping of the continent as the basis for informed mineral exploration. Geoscience Australia's activities have expanded and today it has responsibility for meeting the Australian Government's geoscience requirements; this role takes the Agency well beyond its historic focus on resource development and topographic mapping to topics as diverse as natural hazards such as tsunami and earthquakes, environmental issues, including the impacts of climate change, groundwater research and coastal research, carbon capture and storage and vegetation monitoring as well as Earth observations from space.
Geoscience Australia's remit extends beyond the Australian landmass to Australia's vast marine jurisdiction. It has a free place name search and its earthquake monitoring services can be accessed; the Library is the premier geoscience library in Australia providing services to geoscience organisations, research centres, the mining and petroleum industries and the public. Geological Survey of South Australia Geological Survey of Western Australia List of national mapping agencies Geoscience Australia home page. Geoscience Australia in Google Cultural Institute As the cocky flies distance calculator International Map of the World XNATMAP's home page preserving NATMAP's history and maintaining contact with the people who were part of that history