History of Burnside
The history of Burnside, a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia, spans three centuries. Burnside was inhabited by the Kaurna Indigenous people prior to European settlement, living around the creeks of the River Torrens during the winter and in the Adelaide Hills during the summer; the area was first settled in 1839 by Peter Anderson, a Scots migrant, who named it Burnside after his property's location adjacent to Second Creek. The village of Burnside was established shortly after, the District Council of Burnside was gazetted in 1856, separating itself from the larger East Torrens Council; the mainstays of the early Burnside economy were viticulture and olive groves. The present council chambers were built in 1926 in Tusmore. With strong growth and development throughout the region, Burnside was proclaimed a city in 1943; the 1960s brought to Burnside a swimming centre. Today, Burnside is one of Adelaide's most upper-class and sought-after regions in; the village of Kensington was established in May 1839, only 29 months after the foundation of the colony.
The village was agricultural and had a close relationship with the nearby village of Norwood. The two villages formed one of Adelaide's first municipalities in 1853 as the Town of Norwood and Kensington, evolving into today's City of Norwood Payneham St Peters. Parts of Kensington that are now included in Burnside are the suburbs of Kensington Gardens and Kensington Park; the village of Makgill was first established as the 524-acre Makgill Estate, owned by two Scots—Robert Cock and William Ferguson—who met on board the Buffalo en route to the newly founded colony. It was named after David M Makgill. Ferguson, charged with farming the estate, built the estate's homestead in 1838. Soon after farming started, the two were short of funds, thus Magill became the first foothills village to be subdivided; the village of Glen Osmond was associated with the discovery of silver and lead on the slopes of Mount Osmond by two Cornish immigrants. Their discovery of minerals provided the colony with valuable export income, at a time when the early South Australian economy was not yet established and facing bankruptcy.
Governor Gawler visited the early discovery and the first mine, Wheal Gawler, was named in his honour. South Australia's first mine exported overseas throughout the 1840s, providing employment to early Cornish and German immigrants after several mines were bought by a German businessman; the early village assumed a strong Cornish, a German character. Mining declined after an exodus of workers when a gold rush began in 1851 in the neighbouring colony of Victoria; the Anderson family was the first to settle the land, to become the village of Burnside. They brought with them good character testimonials from Scotland, valuable farming experience and 3000 pounds; the Andersons moved on to Morphett Vale in 1847, abandoning their homestead. The buyer of the Anderson land, William Randell, soon decided to build a village in his new property in 1849, he hired planner Nathan Hailes to lay out the new village. Hailes was both surprised and disappointed when he found that it had been settled and left—especially since the growth and adaptation of European foliage to the area.
The first villages to be established in the region, those of Glen Osmond and Kensington had existed for some time when the new village of Burnside was proclaimed. The new village was in a good position to grow; the village was soon attracting residents. The village was described in advertisements by Hailes in 1850 as "Burnside the Beautiful" with advantages of "perpetual running water and diversified view, rich garden soil and good building stone..." with a "... direct, newly-opened and unblemished route to Adelaide". All the villages in what was to become the Burnside District Council were in the District Council of East Torrens of 159 km2. East Torrens bordered the River Torrens in the north, the Adelaide Hills to the east, Mount Barker Road to the south, the Adelaide Parklands to the west. East Torrens was gazetted in 1853 by the District Councils Act 1852. Dr David Wark, James Cobbledick, Charles Bonney, Daniel Ferguson and George Müller were the council's first representatives. Bonney, in addition to being a councillor, was the Commissioner of Crown Lands.
The councillors met for the first time at World's End Hotel in Magill on 12 June 1853. Initial plans were put in place to first survey and evaluate the council area and to collect licence fees and taxes as provided for by the Councils Act. TB Penfold of Magill, a former captain, was to become the first District Clerk and Collector on 1 January 1854. On 4 January 1854 there was a vote in which ratepayers decided on how much they would pay to the council.
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
National Trust of Australia
The National Trust of Australia the Australian Council of National Trusts, is the Australian national peak body for community-based, non-government non-profit organisations committed to promoting and conserving Australia's indigenous and historic heritage. Incorporated in 1965, it federates the eight autonomous National Trusts in each Australian state and internal self-governing territory, providing them with a national secretariat and a national and international presence. Collectively, the constituent National Trusts own or manage over 300 heritage places, manage a volunteer workforce of 7,000 while employing about 350 people nationwide. Around 1,000,000 visitors experience the their collections in Australia each year. Modelled on the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty and inspired by local campaigns to conserve native bushland and preserve old buildings, the first Australian National Trusts were formed in New South Wales in 1945, South Australia in 1955 and Victoria in 1956.
The driving force behind the establishment of the National Trust in Australia was Annie Forsyth Wyatt. She lived for much of her life in a cottage in Gordon, New South Wales, still standing, she was living in the Sydney suburb of St Ives. In 1975, the National Trust moved into the former Fort Street High School building on Observatory Hill, after the girls' school moved to Petersham to be reunited with the boys' school, which had moved in 1916; the distinctive building, which retains its appearance from the time of its conversion to a school in 1849, is visible from the approaches to the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The constituent organisations are: List of National Trust properties in Australia List of Australian Living Treasures SAHANZ, the Society of Architectural Historians and New Zealand Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales Clark, Mary Rhyllis. In Trust. Recollections of the Victorian Trust pioneers Cosgrove, Carol. Challenging times: the National Trust of South Australia 1955–2005. Adelaide: National Trust of South Australia.
ISBN 0-909378-60-6 Hill, Robert. "Heritage: Yesterday and Tomorrow": Address to the Natural Trust Conference. Speeches of the Federal Minister for the Environment. Department of the Environment and Heritage. Archived from the original on 2006-09-11. Retrieved 2007-01-30. Wyatt, Ian. Ours in Trust. Covers the founding years of the NSW National Trust
Cleland, South Australia
Cleland is a suburb in South Australia located in the Adelaide metropolitan area about 10 kilometres south-east of the Adelaide city centre. Its boundaries were created in October 2001, with additional land being added in 2010 from the adjoining suburb of Crafers, its name is derived from the Cleland Conservation Park. The principal land use within the locality is conservation with the majority of its land area being occupied by the Cleland Conservation Park. Places within its extent include the summit of Mount Lofty. Cleland is located within the federal Division of Mayo, the state electoral district of Bragg and the local government areas of the Adelaide Hills Council and the City of Burnside. Cleland
Hazelwood Park, South Australia
Hazelwood Park is an upper class suburb in the City of Burnside, South Australia with a census area population of 1,717 people. The suburb is about 5 kilometres east of the Central business district. Hazelwood Park, a suburban park inside the suburb, is the major attraction in the suburb; this includes a popular site in the summer. Much of the remainder of the suburb is residential but there is a small shopping area along Glynburn Road on the eastern edge; the area has seen many community changes over the years. The suburb is split in half by Greenhill Road, to the north there are residential dwellings and the park. To the south and east are the foothills of the Mount Lofty Ranges with continued residential properties. Hazelwood Park is bounded to the north by Knightsbridge Road, to the east by Glynburn Road, to the south by Cooper Place and to the west by Devereux Road and a line along the back of the blocks between Hazelwood and Tusmore avenues. Prior to European settlement, the area, now Hazelwood Park was part of the traditional lands of the Kaurna people, that stretched from Port Broughton to Cape Jervis.
The surrounding area and Hazelwood Park, was known by the name Knightsbridge when a village was laid out under that name in 1848. The village was laid out in section 298 in the land between Second Creeks. Unlike other more brilliantly designed early villages Knightsbridge was laid out by a Captain Hall from Port Adelaide, he divided the land into eight blocks and ran Knightsbridge Road through them. Much of the land was sold to timber merchants, who made use of the suburb's thick bushland; the first house in the suburb, which remains to this day on 12 Hazelwood Avenue, was built by George Taylor, a local grocer, in 1854. Named Knightsbridge House, it was unique in having much of the ground floor situated half-underground to cope with the fierce Australian summers; the total property owned by Taylor amounted to thirty-three acres, which included much of today's suburb. He leased the property out. Notably, an orphanage was established on the land by the Sisters of St. Joseph, a Catholic Organisation.
They cared for forty to sixty children on the property between the years 1875 and 1887. The orphanage was known for providing much care to the children, with the Adelaide daily the Register noting that'the good Sisters of St. Joseph were perfect slaves to these children'. With better accommodation provided at Woodville, the orphanage moved and the Knightsbridge farm attempted a sale, but was once again leased out. In the years 1888 to 1950 it was a large dairy farm under the Coote family; the remaining part of section 298, much of it owned by a Mr Debney and not part of Knightbridge Farm, was further subdivided in 1880 and became the village of Leabrook. The remainder of today's suburb of Hazelwood Park, south of Greenhill Road, was known as Linden, it lent its name to today's suburb of Linden Park, it is notable that Linden Park's name remained so after Linden became part of Hazelwood Park. Linden had some of the best arable land in the area, was a sought-after area. After World War II, with Adelaide expanding both in the metropolitan region and in the hills area various plans were laid out to replace the windy and dangerous Mount Barker Road.
One of these proposals was the Burnside-Crafers Highway, which envisioned leaving Greenhill Road once reaching Hazelwood Park. It was to pass through Hazelwood Park and Beaumont, wind around the hills of Waterfall Gully and go over Eagle On The Hill to Crafers; the Burnside Council put much effort into this proposal, widening Linden Avenue in preparation for the highway. The proposal was rejected in favour of upgrading Mount Barker Road and Linden Avenue remained a huge out-of-place road running through an otherwise peaceful suburb. After years of drivers racing down the 2 km long avenue, the Burnside Council constructed a large median strip in 2005; the actual Hazelwood Park was acquired by the State Government free of charge in July 1915, gazetted as a'pleasure resort'. This came from the old Hazelwood estate, owned by the Francis Clark family, they had acquired a residence and 50-acre estate named "Grove Cottage" from Thomas Burr in 1853 and re-named it "Hazelwood", which reflects the name of the school in Birmingham founded by Rowland Hill, a brother of Caroline Clark.
The Burnside Council sought to acquire the park from the State Government after finding notes from a government meeting in 1944 that were to see the park sold to a private owner. The Mayor of Burnside at the time, George Bolton, had a grand vision for what the park should become. After years of effort, the Burnside Council acquired the park in May 1963 after negotiations with the Premier, Sir Thomas Playford; as part of the acquisition, the Burnside Council was to retain the name'Hazelwood' and was to maintain the park at a level satisfactory to the State Government. The deed was transferred on 2 January 1964 for the 2.2 ha of Section 298, Hazelwood Park. In 1966, after much political wrangling, a 3-pool swimming center opened at Hazelwood Park, it was named after Mayor George Bolton, the leading voice in advocating its construction. The George Bolton Swimming Center remains open to this day, saw renovations in 1996 which added further facilities.. The park is a State Heritage Item; the SA State Heritage Reg
Waterfall Gully, South Australia
Waterfall Gully is an eastern suburb of the South Australian capital city of Adelaide. It is located in the foothills of the Mount Lofty Ranges around 5 km east-south-east of the Adelaide city centre. For the most part, the suburb encompasses one long gully with First Creek at its centre and Waterfall Gully Road running adjacent to the creek. At the southern end of the gully is First Falls, the waterfall for which the suburb was named. Part of the City of Burnside, Waterfall Gully is bounded to the north by the suburb of Burnside, from the north-east to south-east by Cleland Conservation Park, to the south by Crafers West, to the west by Leawood Gardens and Mount Osmond. Waterfall Gully was first explored by European settlers in the early-to-mid-19th century, became a popular location for tourists and picnickers; the government chose to retain control over portions of Waterfall Gully until 1884, when they agreed to place the land under the auspices of the City of Burnside. 28 years the government took back the management of the southern part of Waterfall Gully, designating it as South Australia's first National Pleasure Resort.
Today this area remains under State Government control, in 1972 the Waterfall Gully Reserve, as it was known, became part of the larger Cleland Conservation Park. Over the years Waterfall Gully has been extensively logged, early agricultural interests saw the cultivation of a variety of introduced species as crops, along with the development of local market gardens and nurseries. Attempts to mine the area were unsuccessful, but the region housed one of the state's earliest water-powered mills, a weir erected in the early 1880s provided for part of the City of Burnside's water supply. Today the suburb consists of private residences and parks; the Mount Lofty Ranges, which encompass Waterfall Gully, was first sighted by Matthew Flinders in 1802. The gully itself was discovered soon after the establishment of Adelaide, Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor General of South Australia, was said to have "decided on the site for Adelaide when viewing the plains from the hills near Waterfall Gully".
The gully had seen human visitors long before the arrival of the Europeans, as the native population had lived in the area for up to 40,000 years prior to Flinders' appearance off the South Australian coast. In Australian Aboriginal mythology, Waterfall Gully and the surrounding Mount Lofty Ranges are part of the story of the ancestor-creator Nganno. Travelling across the land of the native Kaurna people, Nganno was wounded in a battle and laid down to die, forming the Mount Lofty Ranges; the ears of Nganno formed the peaks of Mount Lofty and Mount Bonython, the region was referred to as Yur-e-billa, or "the place of the ears". The name of the Greater Mount Lofty Parklands, was derived from this term, while the nearby town of Uraidla employs a more corrupted form. Although Hardy states that the Kaurna people did not live in the ranges themselves, they did live on the lower slopes. An early settler of the neighbouring suburb of Beaumont, James Milne Young, described the local Kaurnas: "At every creek and gully you would see their wurlies and their fires at night... as many as 500 to 600 would be camped in various places... some behind the Botanic Gardens on the banks of the river.
Their main presence, demarcated by the use of fire against purchasers of land, was on the River Torrens and the creeks that flowed into it, including Waterfall Gully's First Creek. The land around Waterfall Gully provided the original inhabitants with a number of resources; the bark from the local stringybark trees was used in the construction of winter huts, stones and native timbers were used to form tools. Food was present, cossid moth larvae along with other species of plants and animals were collected. There were only a few resources that could only be found on the slopes, "both hunting and food gathering would in general have been easier on the rich plains". One of the earliest accounts of Waterfall Gully comes from a "Mr Kent" who, along with Captain Collet Barker and Barker's servant, climbed Mount Lofty in 1831. In making their ascent the party skirted a ravine—described by Mr Kent as possessing "smooth and grassy sides"—which is believed by Anne Hardy to have been Waterfall Gully. Subsequent to Barker's ascent, the first settlers who were recorded as having climbed Mount Lofty were Bingham Hutchinson and his servant, William Burt.
The pair made three attempts to scale the mount before succeeding, for their first attempt they attempted to traverse Waterfall Gully. The attempt was unsuccessful, but in July 1837, Hutchinson wrote about the gully through which they had travelled. Waterfall Gully he wrote, had proven difficult, as the plants were so thickly grown as to provide a significant barrier to their progress. Near the point of surrender, Hutchinson described how they were "agreeably surprised by seeing a wall of rock about fifty or sixty feet high, which stretched across the ravine, from the top of it leapt the brook which had so long been companion"; the brook was First Creek, the waterfall they sighted is today known as First Falls. Hutchinson was not the first to see First Falls; the first known recorded sighting of the waterfall by a colonial was that of John William Adams, an emigrant of HMS Buffalo in early January 1837, who named it "Adams' Waterfall". He was traveling with his wife, Susanna and a party consisting of Nicholson's and Breaker's who had the use of a dray to go into the hills.
Adams states "
Division of Sturt
The Division of Sturt is an Australian electoral division in South Australia. It was proclaimed at the South Australian redistribution of 11 May 1949. Sturt was named for Captain Charles Sturt, nineteenth century explorer and the first European to discover the Murray River. Stretching from Adelaide's mortgage belt suburbs in the centre-east to the wealthy south-eastern suburbs, boundaries at the seat's creation saw it take in suburbs as far west as Port Adelaide and as far north as Virginia until 1955, after which it began to occupy the eastern area of Adelaide. Current boundaries see Sturt covering an area of 85 km² east of the city, from Oakden and Hope Valley in the north to Glen Osmond in the south, taking in the foothills of the Mount Lofty Ranges. Suburbs include Athelstone, Campbelltown, Frewville, Gilles Plains, Glenside, Highbury, Holden Hill, Klemzig, Marden, Paradise and parts of Payneham and Rostrevor. Sturt was first created for the 1949 election as a safe Labor seat with a notional 6.1 percent two-party margin.
However, for all but four of its first 44 years, it was dominated by the Liberal political dynasty of Keith Wilson and his son, Ian. Keith Wilson won the seat in 1949 with a marginal 2.8 percent two-party vote from an 8.9 percent two-party swing as part of the massive Liberal victory of that year. He was unseated by Labor challenger Norman Makin at the 1954 election. However, ahead of the 1955 election, a redistribution transferred most of Sturt's Labor-friendly territory to the newly-created Division of Bonython, turning Sturt from a three percent marginal Labor seat to a 2.4 percent marginal Liberal seat. Makin opted to transfer to Bonython, Keith Wilson retook Sturt in 1955 with a healthy 7.9 percent two-party swing, turning it into a safe Liberal seat in one stroke. He was reelected without serious difficulty until handing Sturt to Ian in 1966. Norm Foster defeated Ian at the 1969 election, but Ian regained the seat at the 1972 election as Labor won government. Ian was a key early member of the progressive Liberal Movement faction within the Liberal Party.
However, he remained with the Liberals when the Liberal Movement became a separate party, served as a minister in the last term of the Fraser government. The Liberal Movement ran a candidate in Sturt in the 1974 election, polling 7.2 percent, much of which derived from Wilson’s vote. The Wilson dynasty ended at the 1993 election, when Ian was defeated for preselection by Christopher Pyne. Sturt was redistributed prior to the 1993 election, reducing the Liberal margin from a safe 7.7 percent two-party margin to a marginal notional 4.7 percent two-party margin. However, Pyne retained the seat with a small swing in his favour, has been returned at every election since; the Liberal Movement's successor party, the Australian Democrats, traditionally polled well in Sturt, highlighted by 13.5 percent at their first showing in the 1977 election and 15 percent in the 1990 election, the best result by a minor party in Sturt. However, the Democrats vote dropped they gained only 2.26 percent in the 2004 election.
The party was deregistered in 2015. Additionally, an independent Liberal contested Sturt at the 1993 election, polling a respectable 14.6 percent. Pyne came close to losing Sturt at the 2007 election to Labor candidate Mia Handshin, after suffering a 5.9 percent two-party swing to finish with a 0.9 percent two-party margin, which made Sturt the most marginal seat in South Australia. Prior to the pre-selection of Handshin, No Pokies MP Nick Xenophon had been considering running in the seat as an independent, before deciding to run for the Senate instead. At the 2010 election, Pyne increased his two-party vote to 53.4 percent, which saw neighbouring Boothby become South Australia's most marginal seat. Pyne increased his two-party margin to 10.1 percent in the 2013 election and was elevated to the Cabinet of Australia. Nick Xenophon confirmed in December 2014 that the Nick Xenophon Team party would field lower and upper house candidates around the country at the 2016 federal election, citing the government's ambiguity on the Collins-class submarine replacement project as the primary motivation.
Before the NXT candidate was announced, a ReachTEL opinion poll of 700 Sturt voters conducted during July 2015 put NXT on 38 percent, the Liberals on 30.8 percent and Labor on 17.4 percent. On the two-party vote, the Liberals were on 52 percent to Labor on 48 percent, with NXT leading the primary vote, the decisive two-candidate vote put NXT on a winning 62 percent to the Liberals on 38 percent. ABC psephologist Antony Green's 2016 federal election guide for South Australia stated NXT had a "strong chance of winning lower house seats and three or four Senate seats". In late 2015, NXT nominated Sturt as their top South Australian lower house target and announced Matthew Wright as their NXT candidate in Sturt. Wright is an emergency physician at the Flinders Medical Centre who has worked for humanitarian projects in the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea and East Timor. A ReachTEL opinion poll in Sturt of 762 voters conducted by robocall on 9 June during the 2016 election campaign found NXT and the Liberals neck-and-neck.
Pyne retained the seat for the Liberals with a 55.9 percent two-party vote from a 4.2 percent two-party swing, reducing the seat from a safe to marginal status. Australian federal election, 2016 Results of the Australian federal election, 2016 ABC profile for Sturt: 2016 Poll Bludger profile for Sturt: 2016 AEC profile for Sturt: 2016 SA boundary map, 2001: AEC SA boundary map, 1984: Atlas SA