Bede known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, Bede the Venerable, was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles. Born on lands belonging to the twin monastery of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow in present-day Tyne and Wear, Bede was sent to Monkwearmouth at the age of seven and joined Abbot Ceolfrith at Jarrow, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there. While he spent most of his life in the monastery, Bede travelled to several abbeys and monasteries across the British Isles visiting the archbishop of York and King Ceolwulf of Northumbria, he is well known as an author and scholar, his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, gained him the title "The Father of English History". His ecumenical writings were extensive and included a number of Biblical commentaries and other theological works of exegetical erudition. Another important area of study for Bede was the academic discipline of computus, otherwise known to his contemporaries as the science of calculating calendar dates.

One of the more important dates Bede tried to compute was Easter, an effort, mired with controversy. He helped establish the practice of dating forward from the birth of Christ, a practice which became commonplace in medieval Europe. Bede was one of the greatest teachers and writers of the Early Middle Ages and is considered by many historians to be the single most important scholar of antiquity for the period between the death of Pope Gregory I in 604 and the coronation of Charlemagne in 800. In 1899, Pope Leo XIII declared him a Doctor of the Church, he is the only native of Great Britain to achieve this designation. Bede was moreover a skilled linguist and translator, his work made the Latin and Greek writings of the early Church Fathers much more accessible to his fellow Anglo-Saxons, which contributed to English Christianity. Bede's monastery had access to an impressive library which included works by Eusebius and many others. Everything, known of Bede's life is contained in the last chapter of his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, a history of the church in England.

It was completed in about 731, Bede implies that he was in his fifty-ninth year, which would give a birth date in 672 or 673. A minor source of information is the letter by his disciple Cuthbert. Bede, in the Historia, gives his birthplace as "on the lands of this monastery", he is referring to the twinned monasteries of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, in modern-day Wearside and Tyneside respectively. Bede says nothing of his origins, but his connections with men of noble ancestry suggest that his own family was well-to-do. Bede's first abbot was Benedict Biscop, the names "Biscop" and "Beda" both appear in a king list of the kings of Lindsey from around 800, further suggesting that Bede came from a noble family. Bede's name reflects West Saxon Bīeda, it is an Anglo-Saxon short name formed on the root of bēodan "to bid, command". The name occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 501, as Bieda, one of the sons of the Saxon founder of Portsmouth. The Liber Vitae of Durham Cathedral names two priests with this name, one of whom is Bede himself.

Some manuscripts of the Life of Cuthbert, one of Bede's works, mention that Cuthbert's own priest was named Bede. At the age of seven, Bede was sent, as a puer oblatus, to the monastery of Monkwearmouth by his family to be educated by Benedict Biscop and by Ceolfrith. Bede does not say whether it was intended at that point that he would be a monk, it was common in Ireland at this time for young boys those of noble birth, to be fostered out as an oblate. Monkwearmouth's sister monastery at Jarrow was founded by Ceolfrith in 682, Bede transferred to Jarrow with Ceolfrith that year; the dedication stone for the church has survived to the present day. In 686, plague broke out at Jarrow; the Life of Ceolfrith, written in about 710, records that only two surviving monks were capable of singing the full offices. The two managed to do the entire service of the liturgy; the young boy was certainly Bede, who would have been about 14. When Bede was about 17 years old, Adomnán, the abbot of Iona Abbey, visited Monkwearmouth and Jarrow.

Bede would have met the abbot during this visit, it may be that Adomnan sparked Bede's interest in the Easter dating controversy. In about 692, in Bede's nineteenth year, Bede was ordained a deacon by his diocesan bishop, bishop of Hexham; the canonical age for the ordination of a deacon was 25.

Altera Enigma

Altera Enigma is a Christian metal band formed by Melbourne, Australia-based Jason De Ron, the former guitarist and front man of Paramaecium, Jakarta, Indonesia native Jefray Arwadi, former guitarist and front man of Kekal. Both of these musicians have a career that has seen them record and release nearly 20 albums between them. According to Jason De Ron, the name Altera Enigma was chosen because it represents something mysterious and unique. Kenny Cheong, a jazz fusion bassist, joined the project in 2005, Altera Enigma's first album was released in 2006. Jayson Sherlock, a former band-mate of De Ron in Paramecium and a former member of the band Mortification and the sole member of Horde, joined on drums in 2007. In 2009, Jeff Arwadi, having relocated from Indonesia to Canada in 2007, decided to step down from the project. Altera Enigma was formed as an outlet for Jason and Jeff to work together on music that would push their boundaries and challenge them musically. While both Jason and Jeff are more well known for playing metal music, both musicians claim a heavy influence from jazz and progressive music in all its forms.

In an interview with NekroBlog, Jason said that metal has limited emotional range, that Altera Enigma is an attempt to break that mold. Kenny Cheong, a jazz fusion bassist who plays a five string fretless, joined the band in 2005 and allowed Altera Enigma to further develop their signature sound; the band released its first album, Alteration, in 2006.2007 saw the addition of drummer Jayson Sherlock of Mortification and Horde. The band is in the process of creating a new album, but progress on the record has been slow due to various events in the band members lives; as of March, 2010, who now resides in Calgary, Canada, decided that he needed to step away from Altera Enigma, his contribution to the project is now minimal, although according to Jason DeRon the band will continue to take advantage of his creativity and inventiveness. As of May 2011, the band have announced that work on their second album is complete, with bass, guitars done, only drums left to record. Current membersJason De Ron - Guitar, keyboards Jayson Sherlock - Drums Kenny Cheong - Bass Former membersJefray Arwadi - Guitar, vocals Alteration Official Altera Enigma website Reverbnation Altera Enigma on Reverbnation

Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering

Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering is an approved telecommunications networking standard, IEEE 802.1Qay-2009. PBB-TE adapts Ethernet technology to carrier class transport networks, it is based on the layered VLAN tags and MAC-in-MAC encapsulation defined in IEEE 802.1ah, but it differs from PBB in eliminating flooding, dynamically created forwarding tables, spanning tree protocols. Compared to PBB and its predecessors, PBB-TE behaves more predictably and its behavior can be more controlled by the network operator, at the expense of requiring up-front connection configuration at each bridge along a forwarding path. PBB-TE Operations and Management is based on IEEE 802.1ag. It was based on Nortel's Provider Backbone Transport. PBB-TE's connection-oriented features and behaviors, as well as its OAM approach, are inspired by SDH/SONET. PBB-TE can provide path protection levels similar to the UPSR protection in SDH/SONET networks; the IEEE 802.1Qay PBB-TE standard extends the functionality of IEEE 802.1ah Provider Backbone Bridges, adding a connection-oriented mode using point-to-point trunks that deliver resiliency and configurable performance levels.

A service is identified by an I-SID and each service is associated with a PBB-TE trunk. Each PBB-TE trunk is identified by a triplet of B-SA, B-DA and B-VID; the B-SA and B-DA identify the source and destination bridges that are the endpoints of the trunk. The B-VID is a backbone VLAN identifier, used to distinguish different trunks to the same destination; the management system configures the PBB-TE trunks on all the edge and core bridges by creating static forwarding database entries. The backbone edge bridges map frames to and from an I-SID and perform the MAC header encapsulation and decapsulation functions; the core bridges act as transit nodes. The packets are forwarded based on outer VLAN Destination MAC address. Forwarding is based on the static forwarding database entries. Any incoming broadcast or multicast frames are either dropped or encapsulated as unicast within the trunk. All Destination Lookup Failure packets are dropped rather than flooded. By eliminating any broadcasting or flooding, by using only the loop-free forwarding paths configured by management, there is no longer any need to use a spanning tree protocol.

Path protection is provided by configuring one work and one protect B-VID for each backbone service instance. In case of work path failure the source bridge swaps the B-VID value to redirect the traffic onto the preconfigured protection path within 50 ms. PBB-TE equipment leverages economies of scale inherent in Ethernet, promising solutions that are 30% to 40% cheaper than T-MPLS networks with identical features and capabilities, giving PBB-TE a better overall return on investment. Traffic and resiliency Secure Service scalability Operational simplicity Ethernet tunneling with full MPLS interoperability Service and transport layer independence—the services inside the tunnel could be Ethernet, IP, MPLS pseudo-wires, or VPLS. Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering was developed in 2006 as a Nortel specific protocol named Provider Backbone Transport; the company championed the technology and brought it to the IEEE 802.1 committee where it was renamed to PBB-TE and a working group, P802.1Qay, was chartered on May 7, 2007.

802.1Qay was in sponsor ballot from January 2009 to April 2009. It was ratified by the IEEE Standards Association on June 18, 2009, it was published in August 2009. 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging Carrier Ethernet Connection-oriented Ethernet IEEE 802.1 IEEE 802.1ah-2008 Provider Backbone Bridges Metro Ethernet Provider Backbone Bridges IEEE 802.1Qay project page -Retrieved 29 July 2011