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WR 1

WR 1 is a Wolf-Rayet star located around 6,000 light years away from Earth in the constellation of Cassiopeia. It is only a third larger than the sun, but due to a temperature over 100,000 K it is 250,000 times as luminous as the sun. Although WR 1 has been recognised as a Wolf-Rayet star since the 19th century, the WR 1 designation does not indicate that it was the first to be discovered. Ordered by right ascension, WR 1 is the first star in the Sixth Catalogue of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars. WR 1 is a member of the nitrogen sequence of WR stars and has a spectrum with HeII lines much stronger than HeI lines, NV emission more than twice the strength of NIII, leading to the assignment of a WN4 spectral type; the spectrum has wide HeII, leading to the equivalent classifications of WN4-b or WN4-s. The spectrum includes CIV and NIV, but no hydrogen lines at all. WR 1 is variable and given the variable star designation V863 Cassiopeiae; the total amplitude of the variations is only 0.09 magnitudes at visual wavelengths.

The variations are well-defined with a period of 16.9 days, but the light curve is not sinusoidal and its shape may vary. The variations have been ascribed to a dense asymmetric stellar wind and co-rotating interacting regions in ejected material, it has been suggested that the variability and an infrared excess could be due to a cool companion, but WR 1 is now considered to be a single star. The WN-b subclass of Wolf-Rayet star are thought to be all single, in contrast with the WN-A subclass which have narrow emission on a stronger continuum and are thought to be binary systems with a more conventional hot luminous star. WR 1 is a possible member of the Cassiopeia OB7 association at a distance of around 1,800 pc, although its Gaia parallax suggests it is more distant. Interstellar extinction is calculated to be 2.1 magnitudes, at 1,820 pc the bolometric luminosity would be 250,000 L☉. A temperature of 112,200 K is derived from fitting the spectrum, giving a radius of 2.26 R☉

Underground hospital

An Underground Hospital is a building with facilities that can be moved into in order to protect its patients and medical personnel from attack during times of war. They were used during World War II but few now remain operational; the Ceppo Hospital of Pistoia was founded in 1277 in a labyrinth of tunnels under the city and is one of the oldest continuously operating hospitals in the world. “Carriere Suzanne“ was an underground hospital built during the First World War in a limestone quarry the “Carrieres de Montigny”, north of Compiègne. A hospital was built inside tunnels under Arras, named Carrière Wellington, with facilities for 700 beds. Hohlgangsanlage 8 was an artillery storage tunnel build by Organisation Todt workers for the Germans during World War II in St. Lawrence, converted to a hospital to deal with casualties after the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944; the tunnel complex is open to the public during the summer months. Hohlgangsanlage 7/40 two interconnected cave passage installations of 7,000m², were built in 1942-43 by German Fortress Engineer and Organisation Todt workers to store vehicles, food and equipment.

Part of Ho. 7/40 was equipped and used for a short while in 1944 as a hospital, as the planned hospital tunnel had not been built, however patients underground did not recuperate well. The tunnel complex is open to the public during the summer months. During the Second World War, the Mtarfa Hospital was reorganized as the 90th General Hospital and expanded to accommodate a maximum of 1200 beds. An underground hospital was excavated under the military hospital. RAF Little Rissington was believed by locals to have a nuclear-proof underground hospital built by the United States Air Force; this rumour was, never verified. Little Rissington became the largest military contingency hospital in Europe; the aerodrome was cleared for C-5 Galaxies. During the Gulf War, Little Rissington was held on its highest readiness state for several decades as it prepared for casualties; the USAF left Little Rissington in 1993 and it was handed back to the Royal Air Force. Israel has five hospitals dedicated with underground facilities.

2 of the hospitals have underground car parks which can be converted into hospital wards complete with operating rooms and Emergency Rooms at short notice. Two others have dedicated underground bunkers. During the 2006 Lebanon War, Northern Israel was bombarded by rockets in civilian populated areas as well as rockets landing in close proximity to hospitals in the area, during which the Emergency Rooms in Rambam Health Care Campus, continued treating over 7000 routine-emergency patients and war casualties while under fire, it was decided that Israel was in need of hospitals capable of withstanding attack against their facilities, while continuing with Patient Care. Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center is the main hospital serving Israel, it is the third-largest hospital complex in the country. In 2011, a 700-1,000 bed bombproof emergency facility was opened; the building, with 13 stories above ground and four stories underground, provides protection against conventional and biological attack. Construction began in 2008.

The cost of the building was $110 million, with a donation of $45 million from Israeli billionaire Sammy Ofer. The architect was grandson of Arieh Sharon who designed the original facility. Rambam Health Care Campus the largest medical center in northern Israel and fifth largest in Israel, began in October 2010 work on a protected emergency underground hospital designed to withstand conventional and biological attacks; the project included a three-floor parking lot that could be transformed at short notice into a 2,000-bed hospital. The hospital can generate its own power and store enough oxygen, drinking water and medical supplies for up to three days. At the dedication, RHCC Director General Prof. Rafael Beyar said "The ER was filled with badly wounded. I looked at the nurses ignoring the missiles; the need for a modern, protected building was obvious, we at Rambam took it upon ourselves as a national mission." The 90 million shekel fortified emergency room at Beilinson Hospital in Petach Tikvah has gone operational, becoming Israel’s largest ER.

The 5,000 square meter facility is capable of treating 200,000 patients annually. The new facility offers the best medicine has to offer; each patient has his or her own room, unlike standard ERs in which patients are separated by a curtain which adds a measure of patient privacy. There is a trauma center capable of addressing numerous patients simultaneously. Included in the facility is dedicated imaging facilities, including X-ray, CT scan, Ultrasound. Shaare Zedek Medical Center has a three-story underground facility that can be activated in times of war. Hadassah Medical Center Ein Kerem campus has a five-floor underground facility; the hospital Södersjukhuset in Stockholm has an underground complex measuring 4,700 square meters called DEMC, completed and inaugurated on 25 November 1994. In peacetime the complex is used for scientific research. In case of disaster or war the complex is operational as a normal hospital, it has 270 beds in peacetime and 160 in wartime. Doctors and international N.

G. O.s have created an elaborate network of underground hospitals throughout Syria. Installing cameras in intensive-care units, so that doctors abroad can monitor patients by Skype and direct technicians to administer proper treatment. In 2016, because of the number of hospitals that have been damaged or destroyed in the city, hospitals have moved underground

2011–12 División de Honor B de Rugby

The 2011–12 División de Honor B began on October 2, 2011 and finished on February 19, 2012 with the Final. The regular season runs through 14 matchdays. Upon completion the regular season, the two top teams of each group play a promotion playoff consisting of semifinal and final; the two semifinal winners are directly promoted. The two semifinalists defeated play a final tie with the winner being earning the last spot in División de Honor. Teams in 7th & 8th position play the relegation playoff to Primera Nacional; each win means 4 points to winning team. A draw means 2 points for each team. 1 bonus point for a team that achieves 4 tries in a match. A defeat by 7 or less points means 1 bonus point for defeated team. Teams from northern part of Spain Source: Federación Española de Rugby Teams from southern part of Spain Source: Federación Española de Rugby Polideportivos & Fitness CRC and Complutense Cisneros. Hernani play the relegation/promotion playoff versus Sanitas Alcobendas. División de Honor B de Rugby División de Honor de Rugby Rugby union in Spain Past seasons at ferugby.com

Casablanca–Marrakesh expressway

The Casablanca–Marrakesh expressway is an expressway in Morocco. It has been designated A3 as its identity marker. Total length is 220 km: 17 km Casablanca bypass, 57 km Casablanca-Settat and 146 km Settat-MarrakeshThe expressway takes its origins south of the residential area of Casablanca, at the interchange with the A1 Casablanca bypass, it serves the Mohamed V airport with an exit. A toll station is placed just south of there; the road circumvales the town of Berrechid serving it with an exit north of it for south-bound traffic and one south of it for north-bound traffic. The road was opened in 2002 to Settat, construction on the remaining part started in 2003 reaching Marrakesh in 2007. In 2005 the 17 km bypass of Settat opened; when the Marrakech-Agadir expressway opened in 2009 it was directly connected to this A3. The Casablanca-Marrakesh highway was completed and opened to traffic on April 17, 2007. Toll-revenues of this road, including the Casablanca bypass, totaled 219 million dirhams, reaching 3rd spot of top earners.

Opening of completed road by king

Hock Lee bus riots

The Hock Lee bus workers' strike began on April 23, 1955. The incident was a result of failed negotiations between the Hock Lee Amalgamated Bus Company and its bus workers; the workers wanted better working conditions while the employers wanted to protect their business interests. The strikes escalated and resulted in a clash among the Singapore Bus Workers Union, Hock Lee Employee's Union, the Singapore Chinese Middle Schools Student Union and law enforcement on May 12, 1955; the event has been understood as a violent confrontation between colonialists and communists. The event was however born out of the conditions of colonial society as well as being part of a necessary modernisation trajectory that Singapore was embarking on. Post War Conditions and the rise of trade unions The global trend of decolonisation, led the way for the liberalisation of Singaporean politics; the 1948 constitution that reformed the political and judicial systems in Singapore paved the way for Singapore's first elections in 1948.

This partial liberalisation was impeded as the British saw their strategic interests in Southeast Asia being challenged by peasant uprisings in Malaya. Role of the British To maintain their control, the British tried to construct a narrative of communist insurgencies and militarism which could be threatening to the security of the region. On the premise of containing communist activities, emergency regulations were implemented in 1948; these emergency regulations increased restriction on civil society meetings in Singapore. A turning point came as the Rendel Constitution was accepted by the British government and resulted in elections that brought David Marshall and the Labour Front party into power; this new constitution led to the provisional easing of restrictions under Emergency regulations, which in its turn sparked off much interest in politics among the people living in Singapore. This renewed liberalisation led to the establishment of many trade unions during this period which would have alarmed many employers that were worried about their business interests.

Oppressive colonial educational and labour policies discriminated against Chinese students and workers. Perceived unjust colonial policies led to various episodes of labour unrests in 1954 and 1955. In 1954 there was The May 13 National Service Ordinance, and in 1955, there were three notable strikes namely the Hock Lee Bus workers' strike, the Singapore Traction Company strike and the Singapore Harbour Board strike. Role of Americans in Singapore's Labour Movement American officials were alarmed by both the rise of social unrest in Singapore and the Singapore's Labour Front inability to control labour radicalism, it was estimated that 31,000 workers were involved in 129 official and sympathy strikes between March and June 1955. Some work has been done to study the significance of certain figures that arose from United States government sources; the seeds of a communist discourse was being sown by American diplomats, pressuring the British government to take subversive actions against student and labour movements in post 1954 Singapore.

Thus leading to the construction of events like the Hock Lee incident as a violent event instigated by communists. Ramakrishna's latest work on the communist threat in Singapore necessitates the polarisation of the scholarship on Singapore history and suggests that historians should take sides. Conventional historical narratives have represented the workers and students actions as violent and conceived out of communism; the emerging work on the Hock Lee incident have foregrounded the experiences of the people through the provision of accounts that focus on the social and economic anxieties that were felt by both the students and the workers due to life in colonial society. Bilveer Singh stated that the Hock Lee riots revealed "the ability of the communists to mobilise other elements of the, such as the students." Singh's reconstruction of the Hock Lee riots rely on the works of Bloodworth and Lee. His analysis agrees with the colonial perspective and concludes that the students' involvement in the Hock Lee incident was part of a larger plan of communist subversion.

Bloodworth starts his narrative by accusing the'communist' students of being at the centre of the violence that occurred in the Hock Lee event. He attributes the cause of the unrest to union leader, Fong Swee Suan and takes on a perspective which favours the actions of the bus company; the above conventional accounts attribute the student involvement to be one of communist action and again do not give the students any form of political consciousness. The students who were involved in the riots were part of the Singapore Chinese Middle School Student Union; the relationship between the workers and the students is one, overlooked in many accounts of history and thus leading to the common conclusion that students' involvement was part of a violent extremist movement. The British adopted a substitution strategy to replace Chinese schools with English institution. A ten-year education plan unveiled by the colonial administration in 1949 sought to decrease student enrolment in Chinese vernacular schools.

Chinese students were faced with the implementation of high school exams that served little purpose in ensuring the students' path into university. The National Service Ordinance act disrupted the education of Chinese students as the colonial government was unwilling to allow them to defer if they had to sit for examinations; this led to the May 13 incident in 1954. In January 1955, the students' application to register the SCMSSU was rejected and subsequently met with many obstacles which the students felt were unreasonable demands by the colonial government to prevent the set up