Bedworth is a market town in the borough of Nuneaton and Bedworth, England. It is situated between Coventry, 6 miles to the south, Nuneaton, 3.5 miles to the north. In the 2011 census the town had a population of 30,438. Bedworth lies 101 miles northwest of London, 19 miles east of Birmingham and 17 miles north northeast of the county town of Warwick. Bedworth has six main suburban districts, namely Collycroft, Mount Pleasant, Bedworth Heath, Coalpit Field, Goodyers End and Exhall. Exhall is a generic name for the area surrounding junction 3 of the M6 motorway, comprising parts of both Bedworth and Coventry. Much of what is now considered Exhall within south Bedworth is referred to as Hayes Green by locals and on older maps of the area; the River Sowe rises in Bedworth flowing through Exhall and eastern Coventry and Stoneleigh, before joining the River Avon south of Stoneleigh. A small market town with Saxon origins, Bedworth was mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086. Bedworth developed into an industrial town in the 18th and 19th centuries, due to coal mining and the overspill of ribbon weaving and textile industries from nearby Coventry.
The ribbon weaving industry had been introduced to the area by French Hugenot immigrants in the 18th century and thrived for nearly a century, until it was wiped out in the 1860s following the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty which removed tariffs on imported French silks, causing enormous hardship to the town. Hat making however grew and replaced the ribbon trade, lasted until the 1950s; the opening of the Coventry Canal in 1789 and the railway in 1850 enhanced the town's growth. Bedworth was for many years a coal mining town: Located on the Warwickshire Coalfield, coal mining in the area was recorded as early as the 13th century; the industry peaked in 1939 when there were 20 pits in the Bedworth area producing over 5.8 million tons of coal. The last colliery in Bedworth, Newdigate Colliery closed in 1982, Coventry Colliery on the edge of the town closed in 1991. In the middle of the 19th century, the large number of public houses, thirsty miners lead to the town being called'Black Bedworth'. From 1894 Bedworth was a civil parish within the Foleshill Rural District.
In 1928 Bedworth was incorporated as an urban district in its own right. In 1932 the urban district was enlarged by the addition of Exhall and parts of Foleshill and Walsgrave on Sowe parishes, it was further enlarged in 1938 by the addition of Bulkington. In 1974 the Bedworth Urban District was merged with the borough of Nuneaton to create the borough of Nuneaton and Bedworth; the most notable buildings in Bedworth are the Nicholas Chamberlaine Almshouses on All Saints' Square in the town centre, which are built in Tudor style and date from 1840, having been funded by a legacy from the local benefactor Nicholas Chamberlaine through his will. The almshouses were restored in the 1980s, are now Grade II* listed; the majority of the town centre was redeveloped in the 1960s and early-1970s, has the typical architecture of that period. The town centre itself contains some of the usual high street retail names as well as many charity shops, card shops and banks; the main venue in Bedworth is the Bedworth Civic Hall which opened in 1973 and has an attached arts centre.
South of the town centre is the Miners' Welfare Park, which opened in 1923 to provide a recreation space for miners and their families. Now managed by the local council it includes playing fields, sports facilities and gardens; the former Bedworth water tower is the most noticeable landmark building in Bedworth. It had a 60,000 gallon water tank, but became obsolete in 1988, when a new water mains was installed into Bedworth; the tower was home to a pair of peregrine falcons in 2006. In 2015 it was sold to be converted into six luxury apartments. Along Mill Street until were rows of former weavers' cottages which were once inhabited by Huguenot weavers; some of these were still used as shops. They have been demolished as part of the redevelopment of Tesco. Domestic appliance insurer Domestic & General has offices in the town centre and provides substantial employment for the community. Several years ago Bedworth Kwik Save, was redeveloped into a new Aldi store. Next to it is a Home Bargains store.
Tesco was in a similar type of building to Kwik Save, but in a brick-faced and arched windowed 1970s style, closed in January 2011, was redeveloped into a steel-framed Tesco Xtra store. Parking is at ground level, the store is on the first floor, with delivery access up a ramp to the first floor, it opened on 5 December 2011. Bedworth has many pubs and working men's clubs: among others, the Bear and Ragged Staff, the White Horse, the Miners Arms, the Mount Pleasant, the Black Horse, the Black Bank, Saunders Hall, Collycroft Working Men's Club, Bedworth Liberal Club, Bedworth Conservative Club, the Griffin Inn, the Newdigate Arms, the Cross Keys, the Royal Oak, the Prince of Wales, JB's and Littleworks. Several others have closed. Bedworth has a skate park built in the Miners' Welfare Park in 2001 after campaigning by local youngsters. Most youngsters would skate in the town centre, or in the market area, much to the annoyance of residents and the local police. A new play area, on the site of the previous aviary and paddling pool n
The Mitragliatrice Breda calibro 8 modello 37 was an Italian Medium machine gun produced by Breda and adopted in 1937 by the Royal Italian Army. It was the standard machine gun for the Royal Italian Army during World War II, continued to be used by the Italian Army after the conflict; the Breda 37 was meant as company/battalion support as compared to the more troublesome Breda 30 meant for squad/platoon support, proved far more effective in combat, though possessing some of the same problematic features of the Breda 30. The Breda M37 was a air-cooled medium machine gun; the Breda used a larger cartridge than its rivals, the 8x59mm RB Breda. Unlike other infantry machine guns, the Breda lacked a camming mechanism for initial extraction of the cartridge case after firing, this meant that each cartridge had to be oiled via an oiling mechanism before being fed into the chamber; this attracted dust and debris in desert environments such as found in the Royal Italian Army's World War II campaigns in Libya and the Western Desert.
Another drawback was. This limited continuous fire, as the gun could be fired only when a second crew member fed in one ammunition tray after another; the rounds still had to be oiled to stop the cases sticking in the chamber, with all the disadvantages this entailed. Another peculiarity of the design is that the spent cases were reinserted in the tray as each round was fired; the mechanical energy required to perform this function reduced the rate of fire, the weapon tended to jam whenever a case was reinserted slightly out of line. It meant that, in the event the metal clips had to be reused, the gunner's assistant first had to remove the empty cases from the trays. Although, this is a non-issue as the feed tray loading machine removes the empty cases from the trays as it refills them with fresh ammunition; this design flaw was intentional. Recycling cartridge cases for reloading was a common practice in some militaries of the time; the trays were supposed to be returned with the spent cartridges still inside to ammo supply points.
There the trays would be emptied and reloaded and the spent cartridges were reboxed and repacked for reloading. The realities of combat made this idea impractical. In service, the Breda 37 and 38 proved to be reliable medium machine guns; because the heavy support weapons received more attention from their crews, field reports were positive except for jams caused by desert sand and dust, which in the Western Desert affected all infantry machine guns to some extent. The Breda 37's slow rate of fire helped prevent overheating during prolonged fire, its powerful, heavy-bullet cartridge had excellent range and penetration. Still, this machine gun was twice as heavy as the German machine guns and heavier than weapons like the M1919. In fact, it was the heaviest World War II rifle-caliber machine gun, unnecessarily complex to use and deploy; this was another issue for Italians. The tripod added around 20 kg to the complex; the M37 was adopted by the Portuguese armed forces, who placed it into service as the Metralhadora pesada 7,92 mm m/938 Breda heavy machine gun.
The Breda saw extensive service in Portugal's African colonies during the early stages of the Portuguese Colonial Wars. The Breda Modello 38 was intended for vehicle use, was fed from a top-mounted box magazine; the Modello 38 used a pistol style grip, rather than the twin firing handles of the Modello 37. This was the main vehicle-mounted machine gun used in fighting vehicles by the Royal Italian Army. Production ended in 1943, it was still used as a standard machine gun after the war, until it was replaced by more modern machine guns. Italy The Breda modello 37 is the only version chambered in 8x59mm RB Breda. Spain Franco's Spain adopted the Breda M37 machinegun chambered in 7.92mm Mauser, their standard rifle round. Portugal Portugal's right-wing government adopted the Breda 37 in 7.92mm Mauser as the m/938 Breda not long after Spain did. Comando Supremo: Italy at War
The year 1973 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings. February 14 – Vicksburg Bridge over the Mississippi River, United States. April 4 – The World Trade Center in New York City, designed by Minoru Yamasaki. May 10 – General Belgrano Bridge, over the Paraná River, Argentina. June 29 – Clifton Cathedral in Bristol, designed by R. J. Weeks with F. S. Jennett and A. Poremba of the Percy Thomas Partnership. July 19 – National Stadium, Singapore. September – Kenyatta International Conference Centre in Nairobi, designed by Karl Henrik Nøstvik. October 20 – Sydney Opera House in Sydney, designed by Jørn Utzon. October 30 – Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey; the Aon Center in Chicago, United States known as the Standard Oil Building. Sears Tower in Chicago, United States, designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, becomes the tallest building in the world. Uris Hall at Cornell University, designed by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill May – Sears Tower, designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.
September 4 – First Wisconsin Center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Date unknown Alpha Tower, England, designed by George Marsh of Richard Seifert & Partners; the Carlton Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa, becomes the tallest building in South Africa and in Africa. Großgaststätte Ahornblatt, Germany. Harvard Science Center at Harvard University, Massachusetts, designed by Josep Lluís Sert. IDS Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Boyana Residence, designed by Alexander Barov. Underhill, West Yorkshire, designed by Arthur Quarmby. 291⁄2 Lansdowne Crescent, designed by Jeremy Lever. Kiev TV Tower in Kiev, Ukraine. Mala Rijeka Viaduct, Montenegro. Royal Centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Empire Landmark Hotel in Vancouver Granville Square in Vancouver Tour Montparnasse in Paris, designed by Eugène Beaudouin, Urbain Cassan and Louis Hoym de Marien. Tower 2 of the Meritus Mandarin Singapore in Singapore. Cromwell Tower in London, England. Le Pyramide market in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, designed by Rinaldo Olivieri.
Zagreb TV Tower in Zagreb, Croatia.. Vladimir Somov designs the Fyodor Dostoyevsky Theater of Dramatic Art for Veliky Novgorod. American Academy of Arts and Letters Gold Medal – Louis Kahn Alvar Aalto Medal – Hakon Ahlberg Architecture Firm Award – Shepley Bulfinch Richardson and Abbott Prix de l'Académie d'Architecture de France – Kenzo Tange RAIA Gold Medal – Jørn Utzon RIBA Royal Gold Medal – Leslie Martin AIA Twenty-five Year Award – Taliesin West January 24 – Eero Endjärv, Estonian architect date unknown – Zahava Elenberg, Australian architect January 22 – Stanisław Staszewski, Polish architect and poet June 14 – Clifford Percy Evans, American architect June 27 – Odd Nansen, Norwegian architect and humanitarian September 20 – Leslie Wilkinson, Australian architect December 8 – Paul Bartholomew, American architect
Friederike Irina Bruning, now called Sudevi Mataji, is an animal rights activist. She was awarded India's fourth highest civilian award, the Padma Shri, for being the founder of Radha Surabhi Goshala in 1996. A German citizen, Sudevi Mataji has resided in Radha Kund for over 35 years, taking care of cows in need. At the age of 20, in 1978, she arrived in India as a tourist after completing her education in Berlin, Germany. In search of life's purpose, she went to Radha Kund in Uttar Pradesh, she became a disciple of guru Srila Tinkudi Gosvami. At a neighbour's request, she bought a cow, she taught herself Hindi, bought books related to cows and devoted herself to taking care of stray animals. She has been staying in India for more than 25 years, her way of life is influenced the teachings of Bhagavad Gita, Upanishads and the temples built there. Since this knowledge was not available in her country, she considers Indians as lucky, where children are taught through their tradition and mythology stories without having to search for it, it is imbibed in them.
She is a vegetarian and considers any form of activity that causes violence and hatred are bad for health. She believes. Food follows in three categories sattva and tamas. Meat falls in tama and hence she has given it up, she regards human consciousness as of highest value. According to her, people will be better without greed and selfishness, she believes in doing God's work and has thus devoted her life to selflessly helping cows in need by donating whatever she earns to her Gaushala. Friederike Irina Bruning landed in India from Berlin in 1978 as a tourist, she was moved by the plight of the stray animals and hence decided to care for them. German citizen Friederike Irina Bruning, now called Sudevi Mataji, started Radha Surabhi Gaushala Niketan in Radhakund in 1996; this Gaushala is spread across 3300 sq yards. It takes in sick, unable to walk and starved cows. Here, they are nursed back to health. Sudevi Mataji built the gaushala with minor detailing in mind; the gaushala is divided in such a manner where the cows needing special care have a place for themselves.
Blind and injured cows, needing attention are kept in separate enclosure. She has 90 workers and 1800 sick cows. On the 71st Republic Day the government of India recognised her services and she was honoured with a Padma Shri. Getting funds has been one of the major challenges faced by Friederike Irina. To address this, she has been renting her native property in Berlin but all her funds get exhausted in taking care in running the Gaushala, she does not get any support from any government agencies. In 2019, she was facing issue about visa, resolved by Sushma Swaraj and Hema Malini. Padma Shri Award given by President, Ram Nath Kovind on Republic Day, 2019. In May 2018, Bruning's visa extension was denied, which prompted her to threaten to return her Padma Shri; the extension to her student visa was denied due to a technical problem which prevented her from converting her student visa to an employment visa. She publicly apologised and thanked Sushma Swaraj, the External Affairs Minister, for looking into the matter
Joe Junior Christensen was the president of Ricks College from 1985 to 1989 and has been a general authority in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since 1989. He was president of the San Diego California Temple from 1999 to 2002. Christensen served as an officer in the United States Air Force during the Korean War, from 1953 to 1955, he received a bachelor's degree from Brigham Young University and a Ph. D. from Washington State University. Christensen became an institute director for the Church Educational System, including at the University of Utah for a time. For a few months in 1970 Christensen served as president of the LDS Church's mission headquartered in Mexico City. However, he was appointed to work under Neal A. Maxwell, the Commissioner of Church Education, in running the church's seminaries and institutes and was replaced as mission president. Christensen was an associate commissioner in CES from 1970 to 1985, interrupted by a four-year term as president of the LDS Church's Missionary Training Center in Provo, Utah.
As associate commissioner he led the expansion of the seminaries and institutes program internationally in the 1970s. One major development he oversaw was recruiting local church members to lead the program in most countries. Starting in 1977, under the leadership of Henry B. Eyring, Christensen continued to oversee seminaries and institutes, while adding responsibility for continuing education programs and primary and secondary schools the church had in eight countries in Polynesia and Latin America. In 1985, Christensen became president of Ricks College in Idaho. In 1989, Christensen was called as a general authority in the LDS Church where, among other assignments, he served in the Presidency of the Seventy, he was designated as an emeritus general authority in 1999. "Resolutions" "Powerful Truths That Make a Difference in Our Lives" "On Making Revelation a Personal Reality" "The Responsibility of Our Heritage" Joe J. Christensen Official profile
Kentisuchus is an extinct genus of tomistomine crocodylian. It is considered one of the most basal members of the subfamily. Fossils have been found from France that date back to the early Eocene; the genus has been recorded from Ukraine, but it unclear whether specimens from Ukraine are referable to Kentisuchus. The genus Kentisuchus was erected by Charles Mook in 1955 for the basal tomistomine "Crocodylus" toliapicus, described by Richard Owen, in 1849. William Buckland named "Crocodylus" spenceri on the basis of a partial skull found from the Isle of Sheppey in Kent, England. In 1888 Richard Lydekker considered "C." toliapicus synonymous with "C." champsoides and "C." arduini, named by De Zigno, reapplied the name "C." spenceri to all of these species. The genus name Kentisuchus was constructed only after it was realized that these tomistomine specimens were distinct from the genus Crocodylus and that some specimens assigned to "C." spenceri belonged to different genera and species. "C." arduini was reassigned to the new genus Megadontosuchus in the same paper that Kentisuchus was first described in.
A 2007 review of European Eocene tomistomines synonymized K. toliapicus and K. champsoides with K. spenceri. K. spenceri is related to Megadontosuchus and Dollosuchoides. An apparent close relationship between K. spenceri and Eosuchus lerichei has been used to imply that the latter species was a tomistomine, while it is now thought that Eosuchus is a basal gavialoid, crownward to most other members of the superfamily. The close relation of Kentisuchus and Dollosuchoides, which are known from European localities that were on the mainland during the early Eocene, to Megadontosuchus, known from Italian localities that were once part of a Tethysian archipelago, suggests that it came to these islands after a tomistomine dispersal event south from mainland Europe rather than north from Africa. Kentisuchus in the Paleobiology Database