Bee Gees

The Bee Gees were a pop music group formed in 1958. Their lineup consisted of brothers Barry and Maurice Gibb; the trio were successful as a popular music act in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as prominent performers of the disco music era in the mid-to-late 1970s. The group sang recognisable three-part tight harmonies; the Bee Gees wrote all of their own hits, as well as writing and producing several major hits for other artists. Born on the Isle of Man to English parents, the Gibb brothers lived in Chorlton, England until the late 1950s. There, in 1955, they formed the roll group the Rattlesnakes; the family moved to Redcliffe, in the Moreton Bay Region, Australia, to Cribb Island. After achieving their first chart success in Australia as the Bee Gees with "Spicks and Specks", they returned to the UK in January 1967, when producer Robert Stigwood began promoting them to a worldwide audience; the Bee Gees have sold between 120 million to 220 million records worldwide, making them one of the world's best-selling artists of all time.

They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997. The Bee Gees' Hall of Fame citation says, "Only Elvis Presley, the Beatles, Michael Jackson, Garth Brooks and Paul McCartney have outsold the Bee Gees.". The Bee Gees are the third most successful band in Billboard charts history after The Beatles and The Supremes. Following Maurice's death in January 2003 at the age of 53, Barry and Robin retired the group's name after 45 years of activity. In 2009, Robin announced that he and Barry had agreed the Bee Gees would perform again. Robin died in May 2012, aged 62, after a prolonged struggle with cancer and other health problems, leaving Barry as the only surviving member of the group. Born on the Isle of Man during the 1940s, the Gibb brothers moved to their father Hugh Gibb's hometown of Chorlton-cum-Hardy, England in 1955, they formed a skiffle/rock-and-roll group, the Rattlesnakes, which consisted of Barry on guitar and vocals and Maurice on vocals and friends Paul Frost on drums and Kenny Horrocks on tea-chest bass.

In December 1957, the boys began to sing in harmony. The story is told that they were going to lip sync to a record in the local Gaumont cinema, but as they were running to the theatre, the fragile shellac 78-RPM record broke; the brothers had to sing live and received such a positive response from the audience that they decided to pursue a singing career. In May 1958, the Rattlesnakes were disbanded when Frost and Horrocks left, so the Gibb brothers formed Wee Johnny Hayes and the Blue Cats, with Barry as Johnny Hayes. In August 1958, the Gibb family, including older sister Lesley and infant brother Andy, emigrated to Redcliffe, just north-east of Brisbane in Queensland, Australia; the young brothers began performing to raise pocket money. They were introduced to Brisbane radio presenter jockey Bill Gates by speedway promoter and driver Bill Goode, who had hired the brothers to entertain the crowd at the Redcliffe Speedway in 1960; the crowd at the speedway would throw money onto the track for the boys, who performed during the interval of meetings and, in a deal with Goode, any money they collected from the crowd they were allowed to keep.

Gates renamed them the BGs after Goode's and Barry Gibb's initials. The name was not a reference to "Brothers Gibb", despite popular belief. By 1960, the Bee Gees were featured on television shows, including their performance of "Time Is Passing By". In the next few years they began working at resorts on the Queensland coast. For his songwriting, Barry sparked the interest of Australian star Col Joye, who helped them get a recording deal in 1963 with Festival Records subsidiary Leedon Records, under the name "Bee Gees"; the three released two or three singles a year, while Barry supplied additional songs to other Australian artists. In 1962, the Bee Gees were chosen as the supporting act for Chubby Checker's concert at the Sydney Stadium. From 1963 to 1966, the Gibb family lived at Maroubra, in Sydney. Just prior to his death, Robin Gibb recorded the song "Sydney," about the brothers' experience of living in that city, it was released on his posthumous album 50 St. Catherine's Drive; the house was demolished in 2016.

A minor hit in 1965, "Wine and Women", led to the group's first LP, The Bee Gees Sing and Play 14 Barry Gibb Songs. By 1966 Festival was, however, on the verge of dropping them from the Leedon roster because of their perceived lack of commercial success, it was at this time that they met the American-born songwriter and entrepreneur Nat Kipner, who had just been appointed A&R manager of a new independent label, Spin Records. Kipner took over as the group's manager and negotiated their transfer to Spin in exchange for granting Festival the Australian distribution rights to the group's recordings. Through Kipner the Bee Gees met engineer-producer, Ossie Byrne, who produced many of the earlier Spin recordings, most of which were cut at his own small, self-built St Clair Studio in the Sydney suburb of Hurstville. Byrne gave the Gibb brothers unlimited access to St Clair Studio over a period of several months in mid-1966; the group acknowledge

Donna M. Brinton

Donna M. Brinton is an American applied linguist and global educational consultant on methods of second language teaching. Brinton was professor of TESOL at Soka University of America and a lecturer in applied linguistics and associate director of the Center for World Languages at the University of California, Los Angeles, where she worked for 27 years, she worked as senior lecturer in the Rossier School of Education at the University of Southern California designing an teaching online classes in the MAT-TESOL program. In addition to teaching numerous applied linguistics and TESOL classes, Brinton is a prolific author, she has made a name of herself as a Content and Language Integrated Learning expert and is best known to the wider applied linguistics community as a long-term editor of The CATESOL Journal, a publication of the California Teachers of Speakers to Other Languages organization. To undergraduates she is most known for her textbooks, the 2013 Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language and the 2010 The Linguistic Structure of Modern English which she co-authored with her sister, historical linguist Laurel J. Brinton.

Several of her works highlight an approach to language teaching known as content-based instruction, in which the new language is the medium of instruction, so that the language and content are taught at the same time, much as one learned in a first language. This takes advantage of the connectedness of the function of language; the Brinton sisters represent the first generation of female linguists that came to the fore in significant numbers, having been academically socialized in the 1970s. While singular women were working in the field earlier to the 1970s, the Brinton sisters' generation was the first to tip the balance more favourably for the women; the gender imbalance remains to a degree a problem in the field to this day, addressed by such groups as the Linguistic Society of America's Committee on the Status of Women in Linguistics. As a TESOL teacher educator, Brinton has worked across the globe as a U. S. Department of State English language specialist, assigned to such locations as the Philippines, Thailand, Laos, Singapore, Taiwan, Mexico, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Greece, Israel, Tunisia, Algeria, South Africa, Madagascar, Senegal, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Lebanon, Curaçao, as a visiting faculty member in Japan.

Celce-Murcia, Donna M. Brinton, Janet M. Gordon. 1996. Teaching pronunciation: A reference for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge Univ. Press. D Brinton, MA Snow, MB Wesche. 2003. Content-based second language instruction. University of Michigan Press. Brinton, Laurel J. and Donna M. Brinton. 2010. The Linguistic Structure of Modern English. 3rd ed. John Benjamins Publ. Co. Celce-Murcia, Donna M. Brinton, Marguerite Ann Snow and David Bohlke. 2013. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, 4th ed. Heinle Cengage. DM Brinton, O Kagan, S Bauckus. 2017. Heritage language education: A new field emerging. Routledge. Interview with Donna Brinton on The TEFLology Podcast, July 2017. Https://

Operations and Signals Bunker, Wulguru

Operations and Signals Bunker is a heritage-listed signal station off Stuart Drive, City of Townsville, Australia. It was built from 1942 to 1944, it is known as James Cook University, RAAF No.3 Fighter Sector Headquarters, Stuart Immigration Hostel. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 28 August 1998; the former Operations and Signals Bunker was constructed between 1942 and 1944 for No 3 Fighter Sector Headquarters of the Royal Australian Air Force. Soon after moving to the site in late 1944 the operations of No 3 Fighter Sector Headquarters was subsumed into Air Defence Headquarters operations; the increase in Japanese military activity in Asia in the late 1930s led the Australian Government to establish air bases in the north of Australia. The Department of Defence began negotiations with the Townsville City Council to transfer the Garbutt aerodrome to the Australian Government in early 1939; the acquisition was completed on 12 December 1940 and construction of three, 5,000 feet, sealed runways began in 1941.

Japanese military activity in the Pacific region increased after the bombing of Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Faced with the threat of invasion the Australian and American Governments began to develop a major military base in the Townsville Region; the Garbutt runways, designed for B17 bombers, were completed in February 1942, just prior to the arrival of units of the 5th Air Force, United States Army Air Force. Additional bomber bases were established at Charters Towers and Cloncurry and a number of airstrips for fighter aircraft were constructed between Townsville and Charters Towers.3FSHQ was first established in temporary accommodation at Townsville Grammar School on 25 February 1942. 3FSHQ Townsville was formed to support airborne units located in the North Queensland area. As the war extended to the islands north of New Guinea, its operational area enlarged to cover the area stretching from Rockhampton in the south to Mount Isa in the west and New Guinea in the north. 3FSHQ coordinated anti-aircraft defences.

Radio watches for bomber and reconnaissance aircraft were maintained from the Operations Centre.3FSHQ was connected by telephone and radio to anti-aircraft guns and searchlights, with Radio direction finder stations and high frequency direction finding stations in the Townsville and Charters Towers area. The role of high frequency directional radio stations was to assist fighter pilots to get their bearings during airborne patrols; the station was linked by telephone to RAAF Headquarters in Melbourne and was responsible for keeping the RAAF Command informed of all developments. The Operations Centre was responsible for activating air raid warnings, it provided position plots for courier and civil aircraft operating between Brisbane and New Guinea. While 3FSHQ was located at the Grammar School from 1942 to 1944 the location was not ideal because it was vulnerable to air attack. Planning for the construction of a new Fighter Sector Headquarters began in 1942; the new complex was constructed on the lower, eastern slopes of Mount Stuart on 68 acres of land requisitioned by the Australian Government in August 1942.

The site was regarded as ideal as it was some distance from the main airfields and the public eye, but still close enough to the various other installations it liaised with. In the event of an enemy raid, its position was such that it would have been difficult to attack, the area's natural camouflage would have made it difficult to locate. Construction of the complex began in late 1942 with the Operations and Signals Bunker ready by early 1943. However, by November 1943 the bunker, identified as a semi-underground building because all cabling was laid underground, was not yet occupied because associated accommodation facilities had not been completed; the delay related to the fact that the complex was located some distance from the airfield and there was some question as to whether the facility could provide briefing to air crews in an adequate time frame. The site become operational in late 1944; the bunker itself was airconditioned and housed its own power plant. The interior had a steel mezzanine floor splitting it into two levels and was divided into 32 rooms and passageways by caneite partitions.

Located within the building was the Operations Room, Engine Room, RDF Filter Room, Voluntary Air Observer Corp Liaison Room, Main Operations Room Dais, Aircraft Movements Section, RDF Supervisors Room, Signal Officers Room, W/T Workshop and PMG Switch Room. The Administration Section was moved to the Stuart site and commenced functioning on 29 December 1944. On 25 January 1945 the Royal Australian Airforce established their Air Defence Headquarters in the Stuart complex; the complex, except for the bunker, was utilised after the war as an immigration depot and migrant hostel. Additional huts were placed on the site to provide more accommodation for migrants who arrived in large numbers after the war. Many of these migrants have made their homes in North Queensland. In 1961 James Cook University of North Queensland purchased the site for student accommodation while the residential halls at Douglas were under construction; the bunker was still furnished at the time the property was purchased by the university.

There was a large mapping table in the main room complete with maps and maps on the wall still had marker pins in them. The switchboards and other communication equipment were still intact. Photographs, taken at the time, were deposited with the university. Soon after, in 1962 or 1963, the interior of the bunker was destroyed by fire. In the early 1970s the site was vacated and the barracks either demolished or