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Beech marten

The beech marten known as the stone marten, house marten or white breasted marten, is a species of marten native to much of Europe and Central Asia, though it has established a feral population in North America. It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN on account of its wide distribution, its large population, its presence in a number of protected areas, it is superficially similar to the pine marten, but differs from it by its smaller size and habitat preferences. While the pine marten is a forest specialist, the beech marten is a more generalist and adaptable species, occurring in a number of open and forest habitats, its most ancestor is Martes vetus, which gave rise to the pine marten. The earliest M. vetus fossils were found in deposits dated to the Würm glaciation in Lebanon and Israel. The beech marten originated in the Near East or southwestern Asia, may have arrived in Europe by the Late Pleistocene or the early Holocene. Thus, the beech marten differs from most other European mustelids of the Quaternary, as all other species appeared during the Middle Pleistocene.

Comparisons between fossil animals and their descendants indicate that the beech marten underwent a decrease in size beginning in the Würm period. Beech martens indigenous to the Aegean Islands represent a relic population with primitive Asiatic affinities; the skull of the beech marten suggests a higher adaptation than the pine marten toward hypercarnivory, as indicated by its smaller head, shorter snout and its narrower post-orbital constriction and lesser emphasis on cheek teeth. Selective pressures must have acted to increase the beech marten's bite force at the expense of gape; these traits acted on male beech martens as a mechanism to avoid both intraspecific competition with females and interspecific competition with the ecologically overlapping pine marten. As of 2005, eleven subspecies are recognised; the beech marten is superficially similar to the pine marten, but has a somewhat longer tail, a more elongated and angular head and has shorter, more rounded and spaced ears. Its nose is of a light peach or grey colour, whereas that of the pine marten is dark black or greyish-black.

Its feet are not as densely furred as those of the pine marten, thus making them look less broad, with the paw pads remaining visible in winter. Because of its shorter limbs, the beech marten's manner of locomotion differs from that of the pine marten; the weight load per 1 cm2 of the supporting surface of the beech marten's foot is double that of the pine marten, thus it is obliged to avoid snowy regions. Its skull is similar to that of the pine marten, but differs in its shorter facial region, more convex profile, its larger carnassials and smaller molars; the beech marten's penis is larger than the pine marten's, with the bacula of young beech martens outsizing those of old pine martens. Males measure 430–590 mm in body length, while females measure 380–470 mm; the tail measures 250–320 mm in males and 230–275 mm in females. Males weigh 1.7–1.8 kg in winter and 2–2.1 kg in summer, while females weigh 1.1–1.3 kg in winter and 1.4–1.5 kg in summer. The beech marten's fur is coarser than the pine marten's, with elastic guard hairs and less dense underfur.

Its summer coat is short and coarse, the tail is sparsely furred. The colour tone is lighter than the pine marten's. Unlike the pine marten, its underfur is whitish, rather than greyish; the tail is dark-brown. The throat patch of the beech marten is always white; the patch is large and has two projections extending backwards to the base of the forelegs and upward on the legs. The dark colour of the belly juts out between the forelegs as a line into the white colour of the chest and sometimes into the neck. In the pine marten, by contrast, the white colour between the forelegs juts backwards as a protrusion into the belly colour; the beech marten is a crepuscular and nocturnal animal, though to a much lesser extent than the European polecat. It is active during moonlit nights. Being a more terrestrial animal than the pine marten, the beech marten is less arboreal in its habits, though it can be a skilled climber in forested areas, it is a skilled swimmer, may be active during daytime hours in the summer, when nights are short.

It hunts on the ground. During heavy snowfalls, the beech marten moves through paths made by skis. In an area of northeastern Spain, where the beech marten still lives in unmodified habitats, one specimen was recorded to have had a home range of 52.5 ha with two centres of activity. Its period of maximum activity occurred between midnight. Between 9 AM and 6 PM, the animal was found to be inactive. In urban areas, beech martens den entirely in buildings during winter; the beech marten does not dig burrows, nor does it occupy those of other animals. Instead, it nests in occurring fissures and clefts in rocks, spaces between stones in rock slides and inhabited or uninhabited stone structures, it may live in tree holes at a height of up to 9 metres. Estrus and copulation occur at the same time as in the pine marten. Copulation can last longer than 1 hour. Mating occurs in the June–July period, takes place in the morning or in moonlit nights on the ground or on the roofs of houses; the gestation period lasts as long as the pine marten's, lasting 236–237 days in the wild, 254–275 days in fur farms.

Parturition takes place in late March-early April, with the average litter consisting of 3-7 kits. The kits

Arnold Chang

Arnold Chang is a Chinese American artist and art historian. He specializes in Chinese literati-style landscape paintings, he was the founder of the Chinese painting department at Sotheby's. Chang was born in New York City; the youngest of three brothers, Chang says he knew he wanted to become a painter from the age of nine when he first saw paintings by the great twentieth-century Chinese painter Zhang Daqian. His father arranged for him to begin painting and calligraphy lessons with a local painter from Shanghai, Wang Jiyuan. Chang was fascinated by Chinese calligraphy and began to study Chinese language. Majoring in East Asian Studies and Chinese language in college, Chang was able to spend time in Taiwan, where he studied traditional landscape painting under Guo Yanqiao. After college, Chang went on to graduate school at the University of California, where he studied under art historian James Cahill, it was through Cahill that Chang met the eminent Chinese painter and art collector C. C. Wang.

Chang followed Wang to New York, where he studied both connoisseurship. In New York, Chang was hired by Sotheby's to help with a Chinese art auction, afterward was hired to head a brand new Chinese painting department at the auction house. Chang worked at Sotheby's from 1978 to 1993, at the same time continuing to paint and study under C. C. Wang. After leaving Sotheby's, Chang worked as Chinese painting specialist at Kaikodo in New York City from 1996 to 2006; this new job allowed him more time in the studio to focus on his own art. Arnold Chang paints in the traditional literati style of ink landscapes and his paintings are known for the commitment to Chinese art conventions, with special attention to brushwork. Chang identifies with the literati way of life, with its focus on self-expression and painting as a means of self-cultivation; when asked what he hopes to achieve in his art, Chang explained: The challenge I've set for myself is to create landscapes in classical mode, using techniques and materials that would have been available to Chinese painters as early as the tenth century.

I don't include specific references to time, such as figures, only include generic houses, purposely wanting to make them non-specific in time. The response I seek from the viewer is that the work has the look and feel of an old master painting, and yet, one can't point to artist that I am copying. In other words, my paintings are based on traditional brushwork, composition, techniques I've learned through years and years of studying old paintings, but I'm now taking all of that experience and melding it into my personal vision of landscape. Bridge to Heaven is his best-known painting. Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, A Century in Crisis: Modernity and Tradition in the Art of Twentieth-Century China, February – May 1998. Princeton University Art Museum, Outside-In, March – June 2009. Museum of Fine Arts, Fresh Ink: Ten Takes on Chinese Tradition, November 2010 to February 2011. Asian Art Museum, San Francisco, From 2 Arises 3: The Collaborative Works of Arnold Chang and Michael Cherney, 2009-2014, July 2014 – March 2015.

Cleveland Museum of Art, Chinese Landscape Duets of Arnold Chang and Michael Cherney, July 15, 2015 – February 7, 2016. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York and Mountains with our End: Landscape Traditions of China, Aug 26, 2017 – Aug 4, 2019. Arnold Chang’s personal website Embracing Tradition Fresh Ink Exhibition Mindscapes:Arnold Chang Solo Exhibition Plum Blossoms Gallery Portland Art Museum Lecture and Demo

Gustav A. Sundquist

Gustav Adolf Sundquist was an ordinary seaman serving in the United States Navy during the Spanish–American War who received the Medal of Honor for bravery. Sundquist was born June 4, 1879, in Sweden and after immigrating to the United States he entered the navy, he was sent to fight in the Spanish–American War aboard the U. S. S. Nashville as an ordinary seaman. After receiving the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Spanish–American War he retired from the navy in 1900, but rejoined it in 1918 and participated in World War I, he drowned on August 25, 1918 and has a cenotaph in Brookwood American Cemetery and Memorial Brookwood Surrey, England. Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U. S. Navy. Born: 4 June 1879, Sweden. Accredited to: New York. G. O. No.: 529, 2 November 1899. Citation: On board the U. S. S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, 11 May 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Sundquist displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.

List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Spanish–American War "Gustav A. Sundquist". Hall of Valor. Military Times. Retrieved July 21, 2010. "Arlington National Cemetery". Retrieved September 29, 2010. "Encyclopedia of Cleveland history". Retrieved September 29, 2010. "CASUALTIES of the UNITED STATES NAVY and COAST GUARD". Retrieved September 29, 2010