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Beeldenstorm

Beeldenstorm in Dutch, Bildersturm in German are terms used for outbreaks of destruction of religious images that occurred in Europe in the 16th century, known in English as the Great Iconoclasm or Iconoclastic Fury. During these spates of iconoclasm, Catholic art and many forms of church fittings and decoration were destroyed in unofficial or mob actions by Calvinist Protestant crowds as part of the Protestant Reformation. Most of the destruction was of art in public places; the Dutch term specifically refers to the wave of disorderly attacks in the summer of 1566 that spread through the Low Countries from south to north. Similar outbreaks of iconoclasm took place in other parts of Europe in Switzerland and the Holy Roman Empire in the period between 1522 and 1566, notably Zürich, Copenhagen, Münster and Augsburg. In England there was both government-sponsored removal of images and spontaneous attacks from 1535 onwards, in Scotland from 1559. In France there were several outbreaks as part of the French Wars of Religion from 1560 onwards.

In France unofficial episodes of large scale destruction of art in churches by Huguenot Calvinists had begun in 1560. In Anglican England much destruction had taken place in an organized fashion under orders from the government, while in Northern Europe, groups of Calvinists marched through churches and removed images, a move which "provoked reactive riots by Lutheran mobs" in Germany and "antagonized the neighbouring Eastern Orthodox" in the Baltic region. In Germany and England, conversion to Protestantism had been enforced on the whole population at the level of a city, principality or kingdom, with varying degrees of discrimination, persecution or expulsion applied to those who insisted on remaining Roman Catholic; the Low Countries, Flanders and Holland, were part of the inheritance of Philip II of Spain, a devout Catholic and self-proclaimed protector of the Counter-Reformation, suppressed Protestantism through his Governor-general or Regent, Margaret of Parma the illegitimate daughter of Emperor Charles V, herself more willing to compromise.

Although Protestants so far represented only a small proportion of the Netherlandish population, but including disproportionate numbers from the nobility and upper bourgeoisie, the Catholic Church had evidently lost the loyalty of the population, traditional Catholic anti-clericalism was now dominant. The region affected was the richest in Europe, but still seethed with economic discontent among parts of the population, had suffered a poor harvest and hard winter. However, recent historians are less inclined to see the movement as prompted by these factors than was the case a few decades ago; the Beeldenstorm grew out of a turn in the behaviour of Low Country Protestants starting around 1560, who became open in their religion, despite penal sanctions. Catholic preachers were interrupted in sermons, raids were organized to rescue Protestant prisoners from jail, who often fled into exile in France or England. Protestant views were spread by a large movement of "field sermons" or open-air sermons held outside towns, therefore out of the jurisdiction of the town authorities.

The first took place on the Cloostervelt near Hondschoote, in what is now the arrondissement of Dunkirk in French Flanders close to where the attacks began, the first one to be armed against disruption was held near Boeschepe on July 12, 1562, two months after religious war had broken out again over the French border just nearby. These open-air sermons by Anabaptist or Mennonite preachers, spread through the country, attracting huge crowds, though not of those leaning to Protestantism, in many places preceded the iconoclastic attacks of August 1566. Prosecutions for heresy continued in the south, although they were erratic, in some places clergy of heretical views were appointed to churches. By 1565 the authorities seem to have realized that persecution was not the answer, the level of prosecutions slackened, the Protestants became confident in the open. A letter of July 22, 1566, from local officials to the Regent, warned that "the scandalous pillage of churches and abbeys" was imminent. On August 10, 1566, the feast-day of Saint Lawrence, at the end of the pilgrimage from Hondschoote to Steenvoorde, the chapel of the Sint-Laurensklooster was defaced by a crowd who invaded the building.

It has been suggested that the rioters connected the saint with Philip II, whose monastery palace of the Escorial near Madrid was dedicated to Lawrence, was just nearing completion in 1566. Iconoclastic attacks spread northwards and resulted in the destruction of not only images but all sorts of decoration and fittings in churches and other church or clergy property. However, there was little loss of life, unlike similar outbreaks in France, where the clergy were killed, some iconoclasts too; the attacks reached the commercial centre of the Low Countries, Antwerp, on August 20, on August 22 Ghent, where the cathedral, eight churches, twenty-five monasteries and convents, ten hospitals and seven chapels were wrecked. From there, it further spread east and north, reaching Amsterdam a much smaller town, by August 23, continuing in the far north and east into October, although the main towns were attacked in August. Valenciennes ("Vale

Shimon Yaakov Gliksberg

Rabbi Shimon Yaakov Halevi Gliksberg was a scholar, preacher and one of the founding members of the Mizrachi Zionist movement. Born to a Hassidic family, Rabbi Gliksberg studied in a yeshiva in Miedzyrzec Podlaski and in the Tomchei Torah institution of Minsk, founded by The Great One of Minsk, he was ordained as a rabbi by the esteemed Rabbi Yosef Hacohen Ravitz, the rabbi of Rastovich, by Rabbi Haim Yehuda of Smorgan and Rabbi Moshe Shaul Shapira of Bobruysk. For several years, he assisted his father-in-law, Rabbi Mordechai Dovid Alpert, the head of a rabbinical court in the district of Minsk, known as "Yad Mordechai," the name of his most important book. In Minsk, Rabbi Gliksberg was one of the leaders of the Shlomei Emunei Zion group, which became the Mizrachi movement, he was among the delegates to the movement's founding meeting in Vilna in the winter of 1902 representing his home town of Miedzyrzec Podlaski. He became a member of the Central Committee and was chosen together with Rabbi Ze'ev Yavetz to draft an organizational plan, to choose a name for the movement and to outline a platform for the new Zionist religious party.

From that moment on, he continued to act as an advocate for the Mizrahi. When Rabbi Gliksberg came back to Miedzyrzec Podlaski to present his report on the conference, an audience of thousands assembled to hear him in the large Beis Midrash, where he had studied as a youth. Rabbi Gliksberg accepted a position of a rabbi in Pinsk in 1902, he was a delegate to the Russian Zionist Conference in Minsk and to the Sixth Zionist Congress in Basel in 1903. After the death of Theodor Herzl he traveled to various large cities as a representative of Mizrahi to eulogize the visionary of the Jewish state. In 1906 Rabbi Gliksberg became a rabbi in Odessa, he devoted himself more than to Zionist activities and became the chair of the Mizrahi movement. He was an active member of the Hovevei Zion organization, he was renowned for his extensive knowledge of Judaism and Jewish literature, for being a brilliant interpreter and preacher. His sermons at the city's main synagogue and at the Zionist synagogue Yavneh drew crowds of young men who listened attentively to his every word as he spoke in a convincing and captivating manner that had much popular appeal.

In addition to his official duties as a rabbi he was active in the domains of education and social work. He was one of the founders of the Shomrei Torah yeshiva, his efforts led to the establishment of public schools for impoverished Jewish children in affiliation with various synagogues, he was a founder of the Ezrat Holim charitable organization. He published a pamphlet in Yiddish and Russian called Ezrat Holim about concepts of charity and about support for ailing members of the community; the pamphlet was distributed in thousands of copies. In 1917 Rabbi Gliksberg was a delegate to the National Congress of Ukrainian Jews; that same year he became a member of the Odessa City Council and was appointed as the city's chief rabbi. He continued to serve as Odessa's chief rabbi until 1937. In the 1920s Rabbi Gliksberg came to prominence in the course of seven “religious debates” with Anatoly Lunacharsky, members of Yevsektsiya, Russian religious leaders such as Alexander Vvedensky and others; the debates took place in theaters of Odessa with thousands of people present.

During one of the debates Anatoli Lunacharsky, the Commissar of Culture and Education, said, "My faith in collective redemption gives me such power in the future as cannot be given by any religion." Rabbi Gliksberg replied, "The faith you have is of the religious kind." During the debates Rabbi Gliksberg impressed the crowds with his erect posture, rhetorical talent, religious enthusiasm and apt remarks, as well as with his wide-ranging knowledge of philosophy and literature. Indeed, his power of conviction made him into what one of his opponents called a "dangerous debater." In 1937 Rabbi Gliksberg moved to Eretz Israel where he was the head of the Rabbinical court of Tel Aviv. A great scholar and virtuous man, pure in spirit and thought, he ruled the religious court in a moderate and pleasant manner, he was a member of the Mizrahi's court of honoraries. For several years he served as one of the judges. After Rabbi Gliksberg's death a street in Tel-Aviv was named after him and his son, artist Chaim Gliksberg.

Rabbi Gliksberg married Cypa Mejta Alpert, daughter of Rabbi Mordechai Dovid Alpert, A. B. D. Svisloch, a grandson of Aryeh Leib Epstein of Königsberg, they had 4 daughters and 3 sons. His son Chaim Gliksberg became a renowned artist and author; the rest of Rabbi Gliksberg's children lived in the Soviet Union. The oldest daughter Eneta taught at Yevrabmol experimental school in Odessa. Daughter Eugenia became a well-known physician and medical researcher who published an impressive volume of work and received a Doctoral degree based on those publications, she served in the medical corps during World War II becoming a Major of Medical Corps and earning two Orders of the Red Star for bravery. Daughter Judith became a prominent child care specialist and daughter Sulamith was an infectious disease specialist. Rabbi's son Shmuel died; the youngest son Benjamin, an engineer educated in Strelitz, was arrested in 1936 and spent 20 years of his life in Joseph Stalin's camps. After Stalin’s death he was still not allowed to live in Odessa with his family.

Ha-Derashah be-Yisrael, Be-Suye Mosad Ha-Rav Kuk Tel Aviv 1940 Musage ha-Hayyim,Be-Suye Mosad Ha

George Lord

George William Lord was an Australian pastoralist and politician. He was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council from 1877 until his death, he was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly between 1856 and 1877. Lord was the Colonial Treasurer in the third government of James Martin. Lord was the seventh child of the ex-convict and pioneering entrepreneur Simeon Lord. At the age of 20 he began to acquire squatting runs in the Wellington district and by 1865 had the control of 672,000 acres, he was a director of numerous colonial companies including, coal mines, meat works and the Commercial Banking Company of Sydney. He married a daughter of William Lee. At the first election under the new constitution Lord was elected to the Legislative Assembly as the member for Wellington and Bligh, he remained in the Assembly until 1877, representing Bogan after Wellington and Bligh was abolished at the 1859 election. He was an active politician who, by avoiding party intrigues was able to achieve a great deal for his electorate.

He was a supporter of James Martin. In 1877, he accepted a life appointment to the Legislative Council. George's brother Francis, was a member of the Legislative Council for many years, Lord was New South Wales' Colonial Treasurer in the liberal government of Martin, he presented one budget to the Assembly, criticized and amended because of a 10% ad valorem property tax