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Beeswax is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis. The wax is formed into scales by eight wax-producing glands in the abdominal segments of worker bees, which discard it in or at the hive; the hive workers collect and use it to form cells for honey storage and larval and pupal protection within the beehive. Chemically, beeswax consists of esters of fatty acids and various long-chain alcohols. Beeswax has been used since prehistory as the first plastic, as a lubricant and waterproofing agent, in lost wax casting of metals and glass, as a polish for wood and leather and for making candles, as an ingredient in cosmetics and as an artistic medium in encaustic painting. Beeswax is edible, having similar negligible toxicity to plant waxes, is approved for food use in most countries and in the European Union under the E number E901; the wax is formed by worker bees, which secrete it from eight wax-producing mirror glands on the inner sides of the sternites on abdominal segments 4 to 7.

The sizes of these wax glands depend on the age of the worker, after many daily flights, these glands begin to atrophy. The new wax is glass-clear and colorless, becoming opaque after mastication and adulteration with pollen by the hive worker bees, becoming progressively more yellow or brown by incorporation of pollen oils and propolis; the wax scales are about three millimetres across and 0.1 mm thick, about 1100 are required to make a gram of wax. Worker bees use the beeswax to build honeycomb cells. For the wax-making bees to secrete wax, the ambient temperature in the hive must be 33 to 36 °C; the amount of honey used by bees to produce wax has not been determined. The book, Beeswax Production, Harvesting and Products, suggests one kilogram of beeswax is used to store 22 kg honey. According to Whitcomb's 1946 experiment, 6.66 to 8.80 kg of honey yields one kilogram of wax. Another study estimated; when beekeepers extract the honey, they cut off the wax caps from each honeycomb cell with an uncapping knife or machine.

Its color varies from nearly white to brownish, but most a shade of yellow, depending on purity, the region, the type of flowers gathered by the bees. Wax from the brood comb of the honey bee hive tends to be darker than wax from the honeycomb. Impurities accumulate more in the brood comb. Due to the impurities, the wax must be rendered before further use; the leftovers are called slumgum. The wax may be clarified further by heating in water; as with petroleum waxes, it may be softened by dilution with mineral oil or vegetable oil to make it more workable at room temperature. Beeswax is a tough wax formed from a mixture of several chemical compounds. An approximate chemical formula for beeswax is C15H31COOC30H61, its main constituents are palmitate and oleate esters of long-chain aliphatic alcohols, with the ratio of triacontanyl palmitate CH329O-CO-14CH3 to cerotic acid CH324COOH, the two principal constituents, being 6:1. Beeswax can be classified into European and Oriental types; the saponification value is lower for European beeswax, higher for Oriental types.

Beeswax has a low melting point range of 62 to 64 °C. If beeswax is heated above 85 °C discoloration occurs; the flash point of beeswax is 204.4 °C. When natural beeswax is cold, it is brittle, its fracture is dry and granular. At room temperature, it is tenacious and it softens further at human body temperature; the specific gravity of beeswax at 15 °C is from 0.958 to 0.975. Candle-making has long involved the use of beeswax, which burns and cleanly, this material was traditionally prescribed for the making of the Paschal candle or "Easter candle". Beeswax candles are purported to be superior to other wax candles, because they burn brighter and longer, do not bend, burn "cleaner", it is further recommended for the making of other candles used in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church. Beeswax is the candle constituent of choice in the Orthodox Church. Refined beeswax plays a prominent role in art materials both as a binder in encaustic paint and as a stabilizer in oil paint to add body. Beeswax is an ingredient in surgical bone wax, used during surgery to control bleeding from bone surfaces.

Beeswax blended with pine rosin is used for waxing, can serve as an adhesive to attach reed plates to the structure inside a squeezebox. It can be used to make Cutler's resin, an adhesive used to glue handles onto cutlery knives, it is used in Eastern Europe in egg decoration. Beeswax is used by percussionists to make a surface on tambourines for thumb rolls, it can be used as a metal injection moulding binder component along with other polymeric binder materials. Beeswax was used in the manufacture of phonograph cylinders, it may still be used to seal formal legal or royal decree and academic parchments such as placing an awarding stamp imprimatur of the university upon completion of postgraduate degrees. Purified and bleached beeswax is used in the

Like Toy Soldiers

"Like Toy Soldiers" is a song by American rapper Eminem, from his fifth album Encore. The song received positive reviews from music critics, peaked at number 34 on the Billboard Hot 100. Outside the United States, "Like Toy Soldiers" topped the charts in the United Kingdom and peaked within the top 10 of the charts in 12 countries, including Australia and New Zealand; the song samples "Toy Soldiers" by Martika and the opening music to the film "The Hot Rock" by Quincy Jones "Like Toy Soldiers" tells the story of Eminem's attempts to calm a violent community of rappers. Eminem speaks about problems with The Source magazine and its editor Benzino, as well as the situation between 50 Cent and Ja Rule and his label Murder Inc. which Eminem felt went far beyond the Jay Z vs. Nas feud; the song finishes. In addition, this song reveals that Eminem had tried to stop Ja Rule & 50 Cent's feud, but lost it when he heard Ja Rule making fun of his daughter on a track called "Loose Change" –. In the song "Loose Change", Ja Rule says Eminem claims his ex-wife is "a known slut" and his mother "a crackhead", asks him "so what's Hailie gonna be when she grows up?".

"Like Toy Soldiers" was included on Eminem's compilation album Curtain Call: The Hits in 2005. Throughout his career, Eminem, at most, only alludes to Suge Knight, completing a line in this song, "my intentions were good, I went through my whole career without mentioning -." Styles P used the instrumental version in his song "Soldiers Song", in 2006. As a result of this song, Eminem refused to get himself involved in some of 50 Cent's feuds, including Jadakiss, Fat Joe, The Game. AllMusic highlighted the song. A positive overview came from J-23: ""Like Toy Soldiers" is among his best work here, from his production, to his gripping recount and conclusion of the Benzino and Murder Inc beefs." Pitchfork was positive, calling it: a public hand-wringing over the feuds that Em and 50 Cent have been drawn into, the consequences of these battles, and-- most importantly-- the toll they've taken, both physically and emotionally. The martial beat is a bit heavy-handed, but it's counterbalanced by the pleasantly surprising chorus' sample of Martika's "Toy Soldiers" a nod to either Kanye's helium-vocaled samples or the 00s trend toward trance-pop covers of 80s hits.

NME wrote a favorable review:'Like Toy Soldiers’ is a case in point. The best track of this album, any album this year, it should be appalling, it interpolates the chorus to a long-forgotten ’80s power ballad by Martika, which would be a surefire route to disaster in anyone else’s hands. Instead, with its martial drumbeat, unashamedly vast-scale soft rock dynamics and that monolithic chorus, it is hip-hop’s first genuine lighters-in-the-air stadium anthem, and yet it’s the most personal track on the Em tries to draw a line under the various beefs he and his cohorts have been embroiled in. “Even though the battle was won/I feel like we lost it/I spent on it/Honestly I’m exhausted”, he admits. If the sheer volume and widescreen sweep of ‘Like Toy Soldiers’ is a cover for this exhaustion it sure works. Rolling Stone Magazine described: "it's mature, as when the Martika-sampling "Like Toy Soldiers" renounces battle rhyming and its deadly consequences." USA Today noted: "A military drumbeat drives Like Toy Soldiers, in which Eminem offers an explanation for his beef with the Murder Inc. rap clique, The Source magazine and its rapper/owner Benzino, his part in a dispute between 50 Cent and Ja Rule.

He seems to wish none of it had happened, he's ready to move on." RapReviews was less positive: "Continuing to wring out sympathy from his tear-soaked towel of a life, Eminem doubles-up with "Like Toy Soldiers," another self-produced, self-sorry introspection on the Slim Shady saga." The Guardian was happy of sampling: "Like Toy Soldiers, about Ja Rule and Benzino, is brilliant. Set to the album's one genuinely fantastic backing track, involving a military drumbeat and a sample from Martika's forgotten 1980s hit Toy Soldiers, its lyrics switch from truce-calling to belligerent indignation and back again in the space of one line." The New York Times described: " Toy Soldiers," scheduled to be the next single, recycles the 1980s pop hit by Martika so that Eminem can rehash his beefs with Ja Rule and the Source. But the vitriol is gone, he sounds sad and clear-eyed, ending the rhyme by proposing a truce: "It's not a plea that I'm coppin'/I'm just willing to be the bigger man/If y'all can poppin'/Off at the jaws,/'Cause frankly I'm sick of talkin'/I'm not gonna let someone else's coffin/Rest on my conscience."

Stylus Magazine, however, is a bit negative: "perhaps you don’t mind that Em ruins maybe the best musical moment on the record, the Martika interpolation of “Like Toy Soldiers”, just so he can recapitulate ad nauseum the details of his pitiful n-word controversy." Entertainment Weekly was critical of the song: "Instead of addressing other matters that extend beyond his immediate universe, he wastes time attacking his sworn enemies at The Source." The Boston Phoenix called it a "self-knowing anti-anthem". SPIN, seemed to put the song in a different light: "On'Like Toy Soldiers,' over a stirring,'Jesus Walks

Noctilucent cloud

Noctilucent clouds, or night shining clouds, are tenuous cloud-like phenomena in the upper atmosphere of Earth. They are only visible during astronomical twilight. Noctilucent means "night shining" in Latin, they are most observed during the summer months from latitudes between 50° and 70° north and south of the Equator. They are visible only during local summer months and when the Sun is below the observer's horizon, but while the clouds are still in sunlight. Recent studies suggest that increased atmospheric methane emissions produce additional water vapor once the methane molecules reach the mesosphere – creating, or reinforcing existing noctilucent clouds, they are the highest clouds in Earth's atmosphere, located in the mesosphere at altitudes of around 76 to 85 km. They are too faint to be seen in daylight, are visible only when illuminated by sunlight from below the horizon while the lower layers of the atmosphere are in Earth's shadow. Noctilucent clouds are not understood and are a discovered meteorological phenomenon.

No confirmed record of their observation exists before 1885, although they may have been observed a few decades earlier by Thomas Romney Robinson in Armagh. Doubts now surround Robinson's out-of-season records, following observations, from several points around high northern latitudes, of NLC-like phenomena following the Chelyabinsk superbolide entry in February 2013 that were in fact stratospheric dust reflections visible after sunset. Noctilucent clouds can form only under restricted conditions during local summer, they are a recent classification. The occurrence of noctilucent clouds appears to be increasing in frequency and extent. Noctilucent clouds are composed of tiny crystals of water ice up to 100 nm in diameter and exist at a height of about 76 to 85 km, higher than any other clouds in Earth's atmosphere. Clouds in the Earth's lower atmosphere form when water collects on particles, but mesospheric clouds may form directly from water vapour in addition to forming on dust particles. Data from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite suggests that noctilucent clouds require water vapour and cold temperatures to form.

The sources of both the dust and the water vapour in the upper atmosphere are not known with certainty. The dust is believed to come from micrometeors, although particulates from volcanoes and dust from the troposphere are possibilities; the moisture could be lifted through gaps in the tropopause, as well as forming from the reaction of methane with hydroxyl radicals in the stratosphere. The exhaust from Space Shuttles, in use between 1981 and 2011, entirely water vapour after the detachment of the Solid Rocket Booster at a height of about 46 km, was found to generate minuscule individual clouds. About half of the vapour was released into the thermosphere at altitudes of 103 to 114 km. In August 2014, a SpaceX Falcon 9 caused noctilucent clouds over Orlando, FL after a launch; the exhaust can be transported to the Arctic region in little over a day, although the exact mechanism of this high-speed transport is unknown. As the water migrates northward, it falls from the thermosphere down into the colder mesosphere, which occupies the region of the atmosphere just below.

Although this mechanism is the cause of individual noctilucent clouds, it is not thought to be a major contributor to the phenomenon as a whole. As the mesosphere contains little moisture one hundred millionth that of air from the Sahara, is thin, the ice crystals can form only at temperatures below about −120 °C; this means that noctilucent clouds form predominantly during summer when, counterintuitively, the mesosphere is coldest as a result of seasonally varying vertical winds, leading to cold summertime conditions in the upper mesosphere and wintertime heating. Therefore, they can't be observed inside the Polar circles because the Sun is never low enough under the horizon at this season at these latitudes. Noctilucent clouds form near the polar regions, because the mesosphere is coldest there. Clouds in the southern hemisphere are about 1 km higher than those in the northern hemisphere. Ultraviolet radiation from the Sun breaks water molecules apart, reducing the amount of water available to form noctilucent clouds.

The radiation is known to vary cyclically with the solar cycle and satellites have been tracking the decrease in brightness of the clouds with the increase of ultraviolet radiation for the last two solar cycles. It has been found that changes in the clouds follow changes in the intensity of ultraviolet rays by about a year, but the reason for this long lag is not yet known. Noctilucent clouds are known to exhibit high radar reflectivity, in a frequency range of 50 MHz to 1.3 GHz. This behaviour is not well understood but a possible explanation is that the ice grains become coated with a thin metal film composed of sodium and iron, which makes the cloud far more reflective to radar, although this explanation remains controversial. Sodium and iron atoms are stripped from incoming micrometeors and settle into a layer just above the altitude of noctilucent clouds, measurements have shown that these elements are depleted when the clouds are present. Other experiments have demonstrated that, at the cold temperatures of a noctilucent cloud, sodium vapour can be deposited onto an ice surface.

Noctilucent clouds are first known to have been observed in 1885, two years after the 1883 eruption of Kra

2016–17 FHL season

The 2016–17 Federal Hockey League season is the seventh season of the Federal Hockey League. The regular season ran from October 28, 2016 to April 2, 2017, with an unbalanced 56-game schedule between the seven teams; the Danville Dashers won their first Commissioner's Cup. The Watertown Wolves completed renovations to their ice rink and signed a new one-year lease agreement with the city of Watertown in order to return after one season off. In May 2016, the league expanded to St. Clair Shores, with the new St. Clair Shores Fighting Saints, playing out of the St. Clair Shores Civic Arena. On July 13, 2016, the "Dayton Pro Hockey" team known as the Dayton Demolition before removing references of the Demolition name in March 2016, announced it would be going dormant for the 2016–17 season. Owner Joe Pace, Sr. claimed that Hara Arena was unable to sign leases to tenants and he did not believe he could put together a team without a proper lead up time and secured arena. He stated he would look to keep the team in Dayton in 2017 if Hara Arena is still not available.

Hara Arena would end up closing permanently in August 2016. In June 2016, Brewster Bulldogs owner, Bruce Bennett mentioned to The News-Times that he would focus on his Danbury Titans team and would no longer be involved with the Bulldogs. Without finding new ownership, Bennett decided to suspend Bulldogs operations on July 14, 2016. On September 14, the city of Cornwall, approved a team called the Cornwall Nationals to begin play for the 2016–17 season out of the Ed Lumley Arena. On September 16, the FHL approved of the addition to the league for the upcoming season; the new team replaced the folded Cornwall River Kings and led by Mitch Gagne and Rodney Rivette. Midway through their first season, Rivette bought out Gagne's share of the team and Gagne left his position of general manager on 18 December. On December 21, the Nationals announced that it had secured another local investor, Will Beauvais, to help support the team, while Nationals forward, Basem Awwad took over general manager duties at that time.

Final standings Advance to playoffs Federal Hockey League website

Don Johnson Memorial Cup

The Don Johnson Memorial Cup Don Johnson Cup, is the Junior B ice hockey championship for Atlantic Canada, including Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island as of 2014. From 1982 until 1990 and 1997 until 2013, the Don Johnson Cup was emblematic of the Junior B championship of the Atlantic Provinces of Canada -- Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island; the cup is named in honour of Don Johnson, a sports enthusiast who dedicated his efforts to the growth of hockey in Atlantic Canada. Johnson, who died in 2012, awarded the first Don Johnson Cup in 1982 to his own son, a player for the St. John's Jr. Celtics. There is no National Championship for Junior B hockey in Canada, similar championships are held in Southern Ontario, Eastern Ontario and Western Canada —leaving five teams at the end of each year with a shared claim to being the best Junior B team in Canada. In the 1980s, Newfoundland and Labrador teams dominated the early tournaments. NL teams won five of the first seven Don Johnson Cups.

In 1990, the tournament was retired. Since 2002, the Don Johnson Cup has been dominated by teams from Nova Scotia. From 2003 until 2008, the teams of the NSJHL have won six consecutive Atlantic titles; the streak was broken in 2009 as St. John's of Newfoundland and Labrador eliminated all hopes of a seventh straight Nova Scotia crown. Going into the semi-final round of the Don Johnson Cup, the three NL teams present were 0-6 against PEI's Sherwood Falcons and NS's Cumberland County Cool Blues. In the semi-final, the third seeded St. John's Caps of the St. John's Junior Hockey League upset the second seeded Cumberland County 6-5; the Caps advanced to the final to play the Falcons and upset them 3-2 in overtime to win Newfoundland and Labrador's first Atlantic Jr. B championship in 21 years. With the passing of Don Johnson, starting with the 2013 tournament, the trophy was renamed the Don Johnson Memorial Cup. On April 22, 2014, the Casselman Vikings of the Eastern Ontario Junior Hockey League played in Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia and became the first non-Atlantic Canada team to compete at the event.

The Vikings would defeat the Fredericton Jr. Caps 6-1 in their debut; the 2014 tournament would mark the tournament being rebranded from the Atlantic Junior B Championships to the Eastern Canadian Junior B Championships. The Vikings would sweep the event with no losses; the rebranding did not last long. The 2015 championship was slated to take place in Arnprior, the first to take place outside of Atlantic Canada, it was instead moved to Prince Edward Island with no Eastern Ontario team taking part. Regional Champions Newfoundland - CBR Jr. Renegades Nova Scotia - Sackville Blazers Prince Edward Island - Western Red Wings New Brunswick - Moncton Vito's Don Johnson Cup website


Tetsuya is a masculine Japanese given name. Tetsuya can be written using different kanji characters and can mean: 哲也, "philosophy, to be" 鉄也, "iron, to be" 哲哉, "philosophy, alas" 徹也, "devotion, to be" 徹矢, "penetrate, arrow" 鉄弥, "iron, increasingly"The name can be written in hiragana or katakana. Tetsuya, Japanese dancer Tetsuya, Japanese musician Tetsuya Abe, Japanese footballer Tetsuya Chiba, Japanese manga artist Tetsuya Chikushi, Japanese newscaster Tetsuya Endo, multiple people Tetsuya Enomoto, Japanese football player Tetsuya Fujii, a Japanese astronomer Tetsuya Fujimori, Japanese shogi player Tetsuya Theodore "Ted" Fujita, Japanese severe storms researcher Tetsuya Harada, Japanese former GP motorcycle racer Tetsuya Hibino, Japanese professional drifting driver Tetsuya Ichimura, Japanese photographer Tetsuya Ishida, Japanese painter Tetsuya Ito, Japanese footballer Tetsuya Iwanaga, Japanese voice actor Tetsuya Kajiwara, Japanese drummer Tetsuya Kakihara, Japanese voice actor Tetsuya Kiyonari, Japanese professional Go player Tetsuya Koishi, Japanese footballer Tetsuya Kokubo, Japanese baseball player Tetsuya Komuro, Japanese keyboardist and music producer Tetsuya Kumakawa, Japanese ballet dancer Tetsuya Makita, Japanese actor Tetsuya Matoyama, Japanese professional baseball catcher Tetsuya Matsumoto, Japanese baseball player Tetsuya Mizuguchi, Japanese video game designer and producer Tetsuya Murayama, Japanese football manager Tetsuya Naito, Japanese professional wrestler Tetsuya Nakashima, Japanese film director Nishikigi Tetsuya, Japanese sumo wrestler Tetsuya Nomura, Japanese video game director Tetsuya Ota, Japanese racecar driver Tetsuya Saito, Japanese ice hockey player Tetsuya Saruwatari, Japanese manga artist Tetsuya Shibata, video game music composer Tetsuya Shimizu, Japanese professional wrestler Tetsuya Shikawa 鉄也, Japanese politician Tetsuya Shiroo, Japanese yakuza Tetsuya Takahashi, Japanese video game creator Tetsuya Takeda, Japanese singer and actor Tetsuya Totsuka, Japanese footballer and manager Tetsuya Wakuda, Japanese-born Australian chef Tetsuya Watari, Japanese stage and television actor Tetsuya Yamaguchi, Japanese baseball player Tetsuya Yamamoto, Japanese baseball player Tetsuya Yanagisawa, Japanese anime director Tetsuya Yoneda, Japanese professional baseball pitcher Tetsuya Yoroizaka, Japanese long-distance runner Tetsuya Azuma, protagonist of the 1973 anime series Casshan and of the 2004 film Casshern Tetsuya Kajiwara, in the manga and anime series Fushigi Yūgi Tetsuya Kuroko, protagonist of the manga and anime series Kuroko's Basketball Tetsuya Tsurugi, protagonist of manga and anime series Great Mazinger Tetsuya Sendo, friend of Ritsu Kasanoda in the manga and anime series Ouran High School Host Club Tetsuya Takahashi, in Haruki Murakami's novel After Dark Tetsuya Watarigani, recurring character in the anime series Beyblade: Metal Fusion Tetsuya Yuuki, in the manga and anime series Ace of Diamond Tetsuya, Japanese name of Tyson from Pokémon: Advanced Battle Tetsuya Yano, a character from Choujuu Sentai Liveman Tetsuya from Yokai Watch 4343 Tetsuya, a main-belt asteroid Legendary Gambler Tetsuya, a gambling manga Tetsuya's, a restaurant in Sydney, Australia