Association of Arab Universities
The Association of Arab Universities called the Union of Arab Universities, is an organization working within the framework of the Arab League. It is based in Jordan; the objective of the organization is to support and connect universities in the Arab world, to enhance cooperation among them. Two member institutions, the Arabic Academy in Denmark and Alhuraa University in the Netherlands, are outside of the Arab world. Universities that are members in the AARU are from the following 22 countries: Algeria Bahrain Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco Oman Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Somalia Sudan Syria Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen Association of Arab and European Universities
United Nations Global Compact
The United Nations Global Compact is a non-binding United Nations pact to encourage businesses worldwide to adopt sustainable and responsible policies, to report on their implementation. The UN Global Compact is a principle-based framework for businesses, stating ten principles in the areas of human rights, the environment and anti-corruption. Under the Global Compact, companies are brought together with UN agencies, labor groups and civil society. Cities can join the Global Compact through the Cities Programme; the UN Global Compact is the world's largest corporate sustainability initiative with 13000 corporate participants and other stakeholders over 170 countries with two objectives: "Mainstream the ten principles in business activities around the world" and "Catalyse actions in support of broader UN goals, such as the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals". Moving forward, the UN Global Compact and its signatories are invested and enthusiastic about supporting work towards the SDGs.
The UN Global Compact was announced by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan in an address to the World Economic Forum on 31 January 1999, was launched at UN Headquarters in New York City on 26 July 2000. The Global Compact Office works on the basis of a mandate set out by the UN General Assembly as an organization that "promotes responsible business practices and UN values among the global business community and the UN System." The UN Global Compact is a founding member of the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchanges initiative along with the Principles for Responsible Investment, the United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. The UN Global Compact was launched with nine Principles. On 24 June 2004, during the first Global Compact Leaders Summit, Kofi Annan announced the addition of the tenth principle against corruption in accordance with the United Nations Convention Against Corruption adopted in 2003; the UN Global Compact is not a regulatory instrument, but rather a forum for discussion and a network for communication including governments and labour organisations, whose actions it seeks to influence, civil society organisations, representing its stakeholders.
The UN Global Compact says that once companies declared their support for the principles "This does not mean that the Global Compact recognizes or certifies that these companies have fulfilled the Compact’s principles." Instead, as mentioned in a 2015 interview with Executive Director, Lise Kingo, "we are the guide dogs, not the watchdogs", with the organization seeking to prioritize providing resources and support instead of attempting to enforce discipline. The UN Global Compact's goals are intentionally flexible and vague, but it distinguishes the following channels through which it provides facilitation and encourages dialogue: policy dialogues, local networks and projects. Given recent climate talks and summits, the UN Global Compact stands to play a critical role in helping signatories and governments work in part to achieve the SDGs. Recent studies indicate that businesses are more open than to private sector interventions, such as carbon pricing and other mechanics to help curb climate effects within the scope of business solutions.
The Global Compact will periodically create resources and guides that business and non profit organizations may use in their efforts to support the Compact's overall mission. One such example is the SDG Compass, developed in collaboration with the Global Reporting Initiative and World Business Council for Sustainable Development, a collection of resources that companies can utilize in finding out their role in helping to achieve the SDGs; the first Global Compact Leaders Summit, chaired by the Secretary-General Kofi Annan, was held in UN Headquarters in New York on 24 June 2004, to bring "intensified international focus and increased momentum" to the UN Global Compact. The second Global Compact Leaders Summit, chaired by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, was held on 5–6 July 2007 at the Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, it adopted the Geneva Declaration on corporate responsibility. Marking the 10th anniversary of the Global Compact's launch, the Global Compact Leaders Summit 2010 took place on 24–25 June 2010 in New York.
On the occasion, the Blueprint for Corporate Sustainability Leadership identifying leadership criteria linked to implementation of the ten principles, efforts to support development objectives, engagement in the Global Compact was released. In 2009 Rotary International partnered with the UN Global Compact; this was a friendly partnership since Rotary International played a role in the chartering of the United Nations. Since its creation in 2000 the Global Compact has been focused on helping support and achieve the Millennium Development Goals, after those expired in 2015, their top priority has been updated to the pursuit and progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, the SDG's accompanying 2030 deadlines. In 2001, the City of Melbourne proposed that cities as well as corporations should be allowed to join the UN Global Compact, arguing that this would provide a clear statement of a city's commitment to positive change, as well as motivating participation in international dialogue.
The proposal was accepted, the UN Global Compact - Cities Programme was launched in 2002. It was formed as an urban-focused component of the Global Compact with its International Secretariat located in Melbourne, Australia; the aim of the programme is to improve urban li
Qatar the State of Qatar, is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Whether the sovereign state should be regarded as a constitutional monarchy or an absolute monarchy is disputed, its sole land border is with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. An arm of the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the nearby Bahrain. In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates. Islam is the official religion of Qatar; the country has the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of high human development and is regarded as the most advanced Arab state for human development. Qatar is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves. Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status.
Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. In 2003, the constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with 98% in favour. In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a significant power in the Arab world both through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring. For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, has been identified as a middle power. Qatar is the subject of a diplomatic and economic embargo by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt, which began in June 2017. Saudi Arabia has proposed the construction of the Salwa Canal, which would run along the Saudi-Qatar border turning Qatar into an island. Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer, documented the earliest account pertaining to the inhabitants of the peninsula around the mid-first century AD, referring to them as the Catharrei, a designation which may have derived from the name of a prominent local settlement.
A century Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, referring to it as Catara. The map referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the peninsula; the term'Catara' was used until the 18th century, after which'Katara' emerged as the most recognised spelling. After several variations -'Katr','Kattar' and'Guttur' - the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the country's name. In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced. Human habitation of Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago. Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula. Mesopotamian artifacts originating from the Ubaid period have been discovered in abandoned coastal settlements. Al Da'asa, a settlement located on the western coast of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the country and is believed to have accommodated a small seasonal encampment. Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC found in Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the inhabitants of Qatar and the Kassites in modern-day Bahrain.
Among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. It has been suggested that Qatar is the earliest known site of shellfish dye production, owing to a Kassite purple dye industry which existed on the coast. In 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian Gulf. Qatar played a role in the commercial activity of the Sasanids, contributing at least two commodities: precious pearls and purple dye. Under the Sasanid reign, many of the inhabitants in Eastern Arabia were introduced to Christianity following the eastward dispersal of the religion by Mesopotamian Christians. Monasteries were constructed and further settlements were founded during this era. During the latter part of the Christian era, Qatar comprised a region known as'Beth Qatraye'; the region was not limited to Qatar. In 628, Muhammad sent a Muslim envoy to a ruler in Eastern Arabia named Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi and requested that he and his subjects accept Islam. Munzir obliged his request, accordingly, most of the Arab tribes in the region converted to Islam.
After the adoption of Islam, the Arabs led the Muslim conquest of Persia which resulted in the fall of the Sasanian Empire. Qatar was described as a famous camel breeding centre during the Umayyad period. In the 8th century, it started benefiting from its commercially strategic position in the Persian Gulf and went on to become a centre of pearl trading. Substantial development in the pearling industry around the Qatari Peninsula occurred during the Abbasid era. Ships voyaging from Basra to India and China would make stops in Qatar's ports during this period. Chinese porcelain, West African coins and artefacts from Thailand have been discovered in Qatar. Archaeological remains from the 9th century suggest that Qatar's inhabitants used greater wealth to construct higher quality homes and public buildings. Over 100 stone-built houses, two mosques, an Abbasid fort were constructed in Murwab during this period. However, when the caliphate's prosperity declined in Iraq, so too did it in Qatar. Qatar is mentioned in 13th-century Muslim scholar Yaqut al-Hamawi's book, Mu'jam Al-Buldan, which alludes to the Qataris' fine striped wov
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Arab Forum for Environment and Development
The Arab Forum for Environment and Development is a not-for-profit regional non-governmental organization, membership-based organization headquartered in Beirut, with the status of international organization. While it maintains its character as a non-governmental organization, AFED admits, in the capacity of observers, national and international bodies working in the fields of environment and sustainable development, it has been endorsed by the League of the United Nations Environment Programme. AFED was proclaimed in Beirut on 17 June 2006, at the conclusion of a regional conference on Public Opinion and the Environment, organized by Al-Bia Wal-Tanmia; the initiative, which started in 2001 by Al-Bia Wal-Tanmia publisher Najib Saab as an informal gathering of the magazine’s region-wide readers, was established as a regional organization on the occasion of its tenth anniversary. AFED has subsequently earned the status of international non-governmental organization, with the associated amenities for its secretariat based in Beirut.
Al-Bia Wal-Tanmia magazine became an organ of AFED as of January 2013, after Saab turned it over to the pan-Arab organization. Since 2007, AFED has been a public forum for influential eco-advocates. During six years, it has become a major dynamic player in the environmental arena. AFED works towards bringing together all parties concerned with environment and development in the Arab world to discuss regional and national issues related to the environment, in view of local and global changes, emphasizing the pivotal role of civil society and the private sector, it groups regional environmental organizations and experts with leading academic institutions and the business community, on common debate grounds to further the cause of environment and sustainable development. The Forum, which cooperates with regional and international institutions, aims at spreading environmental awareness through promoting sensible information and education programmes, as well as supporting civil society organizations active in the environmental sector.
AFED aims at encouraging Arab societies to protect the environment and use natural resources in a sensible manner resulting in sustainable development. An independent periodic report on the State of Arab Environment is yearly produced by AFED, to be presented to the General Assembly of the Forum; the high-level annual forum is designed to attract participants from the private and public sectors, experts and civil society. Bringing together those concerned about environment and development in the Arab countries, to discuss problems in the light of changing regional and global conditions, help addressing challenges, through appropriate policies. Motivating Arab societies to protect the environment, rationally utilize natural resources, realize sustainable development goals, through positive interaction among policy makers, academia, civil society and other stakeholders. Propagating environmental awareness, by supporting environmental education and information and providing capacity building for civil society organizations.
AFED works to achieve its goals through the following course: Issuing a periodical report on the state of the environment and natural resources in the Arab world, with an emphasis on evaluating the progress towards the realization of sustainable development targets, as well as examining Arab contribution to global environmental endeavors. Convening to discuss regional reports on environmental matters and to investigate their impact on the process of sustainable development in the Arab world, with subsidiary meetings to discuss issues of special concern or specific sub-regional problems. Working with the business community in the Arab world to develop a Corporate Environmental Responsibility Programme, adopt sustainable practices and move towards cleaner production technologies. Encouraging scientific research on current and emerging environmental issues in the Arab world. Cooperating with the media and the advertising sectors to promote environmental awareness through various tools. Working with educational institutions and research centres towards the development of environmental education programmes at all levels, both for promoting constructive environmental behavior and attitudes, building up capacities in the domains of environmental sciences and management.
Supporting networking of NGO’s active in the domain of environment and development and coordinating joint programmes among them. The Arab Forum for Environment and Development is governed by a Board of Trustees, representing environmental experts alongside business and civil society leaders; the Board of Trustees elects an Executive Committee that includes a Chairman, Vice Chairman, Secretary General and members. It appoints honorary members and an external auditor, it meets annually to decide on AFED policies and budget. The Executive Committee oversees the overall management of AFED, including programs and finance, meets at least twice a year. Responsibility for the daily management of AFED lies with the Secretary General, assisted by a core secretariat. AFED funds come from: Membership fees Contributions to AFED Endowment Sponsorship by corporate partners and organizations Income from activities and servicesAs a not-for-profit organization, any surplus capital is invested in new initiatives or existing programs.
Prospective members and observers must submit their applications to AFED Executive Committee, which will consider each cas
Rafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri was a Lebanese business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on 20 October 2004. He headed five cabinets during his tenure. Hariri is credited with his role in constructing the Taif Agreement that ended the 15 year Lebanese Civil War and reconstructing the capital Beirut, he was the first post-civil war Prime Minister and the most influential and wealthiest Lebanese politician until his assassination. Hariri was assassinated on 14 February 2005 by a suicide truck bomb in Beirut. Four Hezbollah members were indicted for the assassination and are being tried in absentia by the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, but others have linked the assassination to the Syrian government. Hariri's assassination was a catalyst for dramatic political change in Lebanon; the massive protests of the Cedar Revolution helped achieve the withdrawal of Syrian troops and security forces from Lebanon, a change in governments. Hariri was born on 1 November 1944 to a modest Sunni Muslim family in the Lebanese port city of Sidon.
He had two siblings He attended elementary and secondary school in Sidon, graduated in business administration from Beirut Arab University. In 1965, Hariri went to Saudi Arabia to work. There, he taught for a short period of time before shifting to the construction industry. In 1978, he gained Saudi Arabian citizenship, in addition to his Lebanese citizenship. In 1969, Hariri established a small subcontracting firm, which soon went out of business, he went in business with the French construction firm Oger for the construction of a hotel in Ta’if, Saudi Arabia, the timely construction of which earned praise from King Khaled. Hariri took over Oger, forming Saudi Oger, which became the main construction firm used by the Saudi Royal family for all their important developments; as a result, a few years after his first contract with King Khaled, Hariri had become a multi-billionaire. Having accumulated his wealth, Hariri started a number of philanthropic projects, including the building of educational facilities in Lebanon.
His first initiative in Lebanon was the Islamic Association for Culture and Education, which he founded in 1979. The association was renamed the Hariri Foundation. Hariri became progressively more embroiled in politics, his appeals to the United Nations and services as an emissary to the Saudi Royal family won him international recognition on the political stage for his humanitarian efforts. In 1982, Hariri donated $12 million to Lebanese victims of the 1978 South Lebanon conflict and helped clean up Beirut's streets with his company's money and contributed to early reconstruction efforts during lulls in the Lebanon war. Said to have financed opposing militias during the war, his former deputy Najah Wakim accused him of helping to destroy downtown Beirut in order to rebuild it again and make billions of dollars in the process. After the conflict, he acted as an envoy of the Saudi royal family to Lebanon, he laid the groundwork that led to the 1989 Taif Accord, which Saudi Arabia organised to bring the warring factions together.
Taif put an end to the civil war. While acting as the Saudi envoy to Lebanon, he spent more time in Damascus than in Beirut where he ingratiated himself with the Assad regime. Hariri returned to Lebanon in the early 1980s as a wealthy man and began to build a name for himself by making large donations and contributions to various groups in Lebanon. However, he continued to serve as a political advisor to Prince Bandar bin Sultan in 1983, he was implanted as the Saudis' strong man following the collapse of the PLO and the paucity of any viable Sunni leadership in the country as well as a response to the rising power of the Shiite militia Amal. As a former Saudi diplomatic representative, he played a significant role in constructing the 1990 Taif Agreement that ended Lebanon's sixteen-year civil war. In 1992, Hariri became the first post-civil war prime minister of Lebanon under president Elias Hrawi. Hariri put the country back on the financial map through the issuing of Eurobonds and won plaudits from the World Bank for his plan to borrow reconstruction money as the country's debt grew to become the largest per capita in the world.
His first premiership lasted until 1998, Hariri was replaced by Salim Hoss as prime minister. In fact, as a result of the power struggle between Hariri and newly elected president Émile Lahoud, he left office. In October 2000, Hariri was again appointed prime minister, replacing Salim Hoss, formed the cabinet. In September 2004, Hariri defended UN Security Council Resolution 1559, which called for "all remaining foreign forces to withdraw from Lebanon." On 20 October 2004, his second term ended. Omar Karami succeeded him as prime minister. Hariri implemented an aggressive new economic policy. Hariri's most important creation in the beginning of his career was "Horizon 2000" the government's name for its new rejuvenation plan. A large component of "Horizon 2000" was Solidere, the owned construction company, established to reconstruct post-war Lebanon. Solidere was owned by the government and private investors. Solidere was focused on redeveloping Beirut's downtown and turning it into a new urban center as as possible as one aspect of the various infrastructure redevelopment plans that would be implemented by "Horizon 2000".
Another aspect of the decade-long plan was the privatization of
Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and