Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, was the younger daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and the only sibling of Queen Elizabeth II. Margaret spent much of her childhood with her parents and sister, her life changed in 1936, when her paternal uncle, King Edward VIII, abdicated to marry a divorcée, Wallis Simpson. Margaret's father became king, her sister became heir presumptive, with Margaret second in line to the throne. During the Second World War, the two sisters stayed at Windsor Castle, despite suggestions to evacuate them to Canada. During the war years, Margaret was considered too young to perform any official duties and instead continued her education. After the war, Margaret fell in love with Group Captain Peter Townsend. In 1952, Margaret's father died, her sister became queen, Townsend divorced his first wife. Early the following year, he proposed to Margaret. Many in the government believed he would be an unsuitable husband for the Queen's 22-year-old sister, the Church of England refused to countenance marriage to a divorced man.
Margaret abandoned her plans with him, in 1960 she married the photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones, created Earl of Snowdon by the Queen. The couple had two children: Sarah. Margaret was viewed as a controversial member of the British royal family, her divorce in 1978 earned her negative publicity, she was romantically associated with several men. Her health deteriorated in the final two decades of her life. A heavy smoker for most of her adult life, Margaret had a lung operation in 1985, a bout of pneumonia in 1993, at least three strokes between 1998 and 2001, she died at King Edward VII's Hospital on 9 February 2002. Margaret was born on 21 August 1930 at Glamis Castle in Scotland, her mother's ancestral home, was affectionately known as Margot within the royal family, she was delivered by the royal obstetrician. The Home Secretary, J. R. Clynes, was present to verify the birth; the registration of her birth was delayed for several days to avoid her being numbered 13 in the parish register. At the time of her birth, she was fourth in the line of succession to the British throne.
Her father was the Duke of the second son of King George V and Queen Mary. Her mother was the Duchess of York, the youngest daughter of the 14th Earl and the Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne; the Duchess of York wanted to name her second daughter Ann Margaret, as she explained to Queen Mary in a letter: "I am anxious to call her Ann Margaret, as I think Ann of York sounds pretty, & Elizabeth and Ann go so well together." King George V disliked the name Ann but approved of the alternative "Margaret Rose". Margaret was baptised in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 30 October 1930 by Cosmo Lang, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Margaret's early life was spent at the Yorks' residences at 145 Piccadilly and Royal Lodge in Windsor; the Yorks were perceived by the public as an ideal family: father and children, but unfounded rumours that Margaret was deaf and mute were not dispelled until Margaret's first main public appearance at her uncle Prince George's wedding in 1934. She was educated alongside her sister, Princess Elizabeth, by their Scottish governess Marion Crawford.
Margaret's education was supervised by her mother, who in the words of Randolph Churchill "never aimed at bringing her daughters up to be more than nicely behaved young ladies". When Queen Mary insisted upon the importance of education, the Duchess of York commented, "I don't know what she meant. After all I and my sisters only had governesses and we all married well—one of us well". Margaret was resentful about her limited education in years, aimed criticism at her mother. However, Margaret's mother told a friend that she "regretted" that her daughters did not go to school like other children, the employment of a governess rather than sending the girls to school may have been done only at the insistence of King George V. Margaret's grandfather, George V, died when she was five, her uncle acceded as King Edward VIII. Less than a year on 11 December 1936, Edward abdicated to marry Wallis Simpson, a twice-divorced American, whom neither the Church of England nor the Dominion governments would accept as queen.
The Church would not recognise the marriage of a divorced woman with a living ex-husband as valid. Edward's abdication left a reluctant Duke of York in his place as King George VI, Margaret unexpectedly became second in line to the throne, with the title The Princess Margaret to indicate her status as a child of the sovereign; the family moved into Buckingham Palace. Margaret was a Brownie in the 1st Buckingham Palace Brownie Pack, formed in 1937, she was a Girl Guide and a Sea Ranger. She served as President of Girlguiding UK from 1965 until her death in 2002. At the outbreak of World War II, Margaret and her sister were at Birkhall, on the Balmoral Castle estate, where they stayed until Christmas 1939, enduring nights so cold that drinking water in carafes by their bedside froze, they spent Christmas at Sandringham House before moving to Windsor Castle, just outside London, for much of the remainder of the war. Viscount Hailsham wrote to Prime Minister Winston Churchill to advise the evacuation of the princesses to the greater safety of Canada, to which their mother famously replied, "The children won't go without me.
I won't leave without the King. And the King will never leave."Unlike other members of the royal family, Margaret was not expected to undertake any public or official duties dur
Holland Park School
Holland Park School is a coeducational secondary school and sixth form in Holland Park, England. In 2013, it has attained academy status. Opened in 1958, the school became the flagship for comprehensive education, at one time had over 2,000 students. A number of high-profile socialists sent their children to Holland Park School, it became known as'the socialist Eton'. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Holland Park School philosophy was to ensure large student numbers with the idea that the resulting size would enable more subject choices for the students. Indeed, amongst the more typical foreign languages Latin and Spanish were taught. A similar philosophy and scale applied to other comprehensive flagships such as the other "Labour-party Eton", the Haverstock School. In the early 1960s, each school year was divided into A, B, C, D, E streams up until the 3rd year; as the groups were so large, they were again divided into 3. The "A" "B" etc. grading was considered to be bad for children's self-esteem, so "A" "B" and "C" were replaced by "H" "P" and "S".
Nowadays, the banding system is divided into each with 3 levels inside them. In 1970, streaming was scrapped in favour of total egalitarianism. Another aspect of egalitarian thought was that many school traditions were dropped and in the 1970s there were no awards for academic achievement, in order not to demoralise low achievers. Dr Rushworth, who became head in 1971 favoured high achievement in niche areas, himself continued to teach Latin to children who requested lessons, his motto was "Everyone should know about everything," and critics saw this as leading to a dumbing down of the curriculum. The theory was that poorly achieving students would perform better if not segregated, but rather immersed in an equal learning environment. In the 1990s the school began to revert to more traditional teaching practices. Loyalists of the egalitarian approach argue that the experiment was never given a proper chance: Holland Park was the only comprehensive school in a borough where middle class parents tended to favour private schools.
Therefore, by definition, it was a sink school and thus some argue that the comprehensive experiment was never realised. Critics counter that the school was on a downward spiral and "more of the same" would only have worsened the situation, they hold that the school's improved performance when it returned to more traditional values is evidence the comprehensive experiment was doomed from the outset. "Traditionally few lower school pupils progressed to the sixth form. When the school opened in September 1958 it was divided into eight houses; the eight houses were called Addison, Hunter, Maine, Newton and Wilberforce. The house system has been retained, though there have been changes to the number of houses, their names. There are five houses: Anderson, Bennett and Seeley; the earlier approach of naming houses after historical figures has been replaced by the approach of naming them after people governors of the school or teachers, who "mark a way of being that the school considers worthy and noble".
When the school first opened the entire school assembled on only two days a week, in the Main Hall and four side halls which opened out to form The Great Hall. House assemblies took place in the morning in the side halls with two halls alternating where they shared, thus pupils had the potential, in theory at least, for guidance from Form Teachers, Tutors, as well as their Class Subject Teachers. There was a complete structure of Prefects, at the summit two head boys and two head girls headmasters/senior prefects, sub-prefects, TSPs; this separate organisation was called upon when teaching staff took the decision to stop monitoring the substantial play-grounds, in the sometimes turbulent mix of social classes and ethnic origins, the heady mix of boy and girl in the 1960s. Mr Williams, in the mid-1960s, one of two deputy heads, was required to dispense summary justice on boys presented by Prefects. In the 1960s into the early 1970s, the school magazine was called Octavo. In the 1976-9 period, the school magazine was called Andarkol, formed from Holland Park School and was the name of the cartoon dog which appeared throughout.
The magazine contained poetry, music reviews, cartoons, as well as articles about school plays and student-contributed essays on comprehensive education and the representation of the school in the press. Before Andarkol, the school had a magazine called Feedback, which ended in 1974. Students now receive a booklet called'Et cetera' about upcoming events around the school every half-term. Alpha Octavo Feedback Andarkol The school's crest is black. In 1808 William Phillimore, signed an agreement for the development of over 19 acres of land, which now is occupied by Holland Park School and Queen Elizabeth College, north of Duchess of Bedford Walk. On this land, seven grand houses with large gardens were completed in 1817. Throughout the 19th century, until the Second World War, they had a series o
A Royal Night Out
A Royal Night Out is a 2015 British romantic comedy-drama film directed by Julian Jarrold and written by Trevor de Silva and Kevin Hood. The film stars Sarah Gadon as the young Princess Elizabeth, who with Princess Margaret ventures out of Buckingham Palace to enjoy the VE Day celebrations. On VE Day in 1945, as peace is declared across Europe and London is celebrating, Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret are allowed to join the celebrations, against the Queen's wishes; the King, impressed by Elizabeth's pleading, asks her to report back on the people's feelings towards him and his midnight speech on the radio. Each girl, incognito, is chaperoned by an army officer with an itinerary to be back at Buckingham Palace by 1 a.m. Soon realising the Queen's planned itinerary does not fulfil their expectations of fun and meeting the ordinary people, Margaret is the first to slip away from her escort, followed by Elizabeth; the princesses are separated on two different buses. Margaret is befriended by a naval officer seeking to take advantage of what he believes is just an ordinary girl, Elizabeth by an airman, absent without leave.
Margaret is led by her naval officer into a world of nightclubs, spiked drinks and brothels. Elizabeth and her airman have their own adventures trying to catch up with Margaret, which take them far beyond the 1 a.m. deadline into the early hours of the following morning. The two officer escorts and the airman in the screenplay were fictional creations. In reality, the princesses in an organised group of 16 went out at 10 p.m. to mingle with revellers, returned to Buckingham Palace at 1 a.m. A Royal Night Out was released in the United Kingdom on 8 May 2015 and on DVD on 7 September 2015; the film was released in the United States on 4 December 2015, released on DVD on 3 May 2016. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 71% rating, based on 51 reviews, with an average rating of 5.8/10. The site's consensus states: "Undeniably slight yet charming, A Royal Night Out uses a fascinating historical footnote as a springboard into a fun dramedy diversion." Metacritic reports a 59 out of 100 rating, based on 16 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".
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University of Manchester
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century; the main campus is south of Manchester city centre on Oxford Road. In 2016/17, the university had 40,490 students and 10,400 staff, making it the second largest university in the UK, the largest single-site university; the university had a consolidated income of £1 billion in 2017–18, of which £298.7 million was from research grants and contracts. It has the fourth-largest endowment of any university in the UK, after the universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh, it is a member of the worldwide Universities Research Association, the Russell Group of British research universities and the N8 Group. For 2018–19, the University of Manchester was ranked 29th in the world and 6th in the UK by QS World University Rankings.
In 2017 it was ranked 38th in the world and 6th in the UK by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 55th in the world and 8th in the UK by Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 59th in the world by U. S. News and World Report. Manchester was ranked 15th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 5th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework; the university owns and operates major cultural assets such as the Manchester Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library and Jodrell Bank Observatory and its Grade I listed Lovell Telescope. The University of Manchester has 25 Nobel laureates among its past and present students and staff, the fourth-highest number of any single university in the United Kingdom. Four Nobel laureates are among its staff – more than any other British university; the University of Manchester traces its roots to the formation of the Mechanics' Institute in 1824, its heritage is linked to Manchester's pride in being the world's first industrial city.
The English chemist John Dalton, together with Manchester businessmen and industrialists, established the Mechanics' Institute to ensure that workers could learn the basic principles of science. John Owens, a textile merchant, left a bequest of £96,942 in 1846 to found a college to educate men on non-sectarian lines, his trustees established Owens College in 1851 in a house on the corner of Quay Street and Byrom Street, the home of the philanthropist Richard Cobden, subsequently housed Manchester County Court. The locomotive designer, Charles Beyer became a governor of the college and was the largest single donor to the college extension fund, which raised the money to move to a new site and construct the main building now known as the John Owens building, he campaigned and helped fund the engineering chair, the first applied science department in the north of England. He left the college the equivalent of £10 million in his will in 1876, at a time when it was in great financial difficulty.
Beyer funded the total cost of construction of the Beyer building to house the biology and geology departments. His will funded Engineering chairs and the Beyer Professor of Applied mathematics; the university has a rich German heritage. The Owens College Extension Movement based their plans after a tour of German universities and polytechnics. Manchester mill owner, Thomas Ashton, chairman of the extension movement had studied at Heidelberg University. Sir Henry Roscoe studied at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen and they collaborated for many years on research projects. Roscoe promoted the German style of research led teaching that became the role model for the redbrick universities. Charles Beyer studied at Dresden Academy Polytechnic. There were many Germans on the staff, including Carl Schorlemmer, Britain's first chair in organic chemistry, Arthur Schuster, professor of Physics. There was a German chapel on the campus. In 1873 the college moved to new premises on Oxford Road, Chorlton-on-Medlock and from 1880 it was a constituent college of the federal Victoria University.
The university was established and granted a Royal Charter in 1880 becoming England's first civic university. By 1905, the institutions were active forces; the Municipal College of Technology, forerunner of UMIST, was the Victoria University of Manchester's Faculty of Technology while continuing in parallel as a technical college offering advanced courses of study. Although UMIST achieved independent university status in 1955, the universities continued to work together. However, in the late-20th century, formal connections between the university and UMIST diminished and in 1994 most of the remaining institutional ties were severed as new legislation allowed UMIST to become an autonomous university with powers to award its own degrees. A decade the development was reversed; the Victoria University of Manchester and the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology agreed to merge into a single institution in March 2003. Before the merger, Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST counted 23 Nobel Prize winners amongst their former staff and students, with two further Nobel laureates being subsequently added.
Manchester has traditionally been strong in the sciences. Notable scientists as
Michael Austin Cera is a Canadian actor, singer and musician. He started his career as a child actor, portraying a young Chuck Barris in Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, he is known for his role as George Michael Bluth on the sitcom Arrested Development and for his film roles as Evan in Superbad, as Paulie Bleeker in Juno, as Scott Pilgrim in Scott Pilgrim vs. the World, as a fictional version of himself in This Is the End, as the voice of Dick Grayson / Robin in The Lego Batman Movie. Cera made his Broadway debut in the 2014 production of Kenneth Lonergan's. For his performance in the 2018 production of Lonergan's Lobby Hero, Cera was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Play. In addition to acting, Cera is a musician, having released his debut album True That in 2014. Cera has acted as the touring bassist for indie rock supergroup Mister Heavenly. Cera was born in Ontario, he is Luigi Cera, a technician. His father is Sicilian, his mother has Irish, Dutch and English ancestry.
His parents both worked for Xerox. Cera has an older sister, a younger sister, Molly, he became interested in acting after viewing Ghostbusters when sick with the chicken pox at the age of three. He idolized Bill Murray, he took improvisation classes. Cera attended Conestoga Public School, Robert H. Lagerquist Senior Public School and Heart Lake Secondary School until grade nine, but completed school online through grade 12, his first role was an unpaid appearance in a Tim Hortons summer camp commercial. That appearance landed him a position in a Pillsbury commercial in which he poked the Pillsbury Doughboy, his first role with lines, he found not being cast in commercials after auditioning "really disheartening" but, in 1999, Cera was cast as Larrabe Hicks in the Canadian children's show I Was a Sixth Grade Alien, which ran for two seasons. That year, he appeared in the television films What Katy Did and Switching Goals starring the Olsen twins. Cera made his theatrical film debut in the science fiction film Frequency as the son of Noah Emmerich's character.
Cera appeared in the films Steal This Movie! and Ultimate G's: Zac's Flying Dream in 2000, the latter of which featured Cera in his first leading role and was presented in IMAX theaters. Cera appeared in several television films in 2001 including My Louisiana Sky and The Familiar Stranger and began voicing Josh Spitz in the animated series Braceface, continuing to do so until 2004. In 2002, Cera played the young Chuck Barris in the George Clooney-directed film Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, he provided the voice for Brother Bear – an anthropomorphic bear – in the 2003 The Berenstain Bears animated series, which aired for three seasons. Following a role in the critically panned unaired Fox pilot The Grubbs in 2002, Cera auditioned for a part in another Fox sitcom, Arrested Development, which began airing in November 2003; the show follows the wealthy and dysfunctional Bluth family, with Cera playing George Michael Bluth, the teenage son of Jason Bateman's character, Michael Bluth. After three seasons, Fox canceled the series in 2006 due to low viewership despite critical acclaim.
In 2006, he created and starred in a parody of Impossible is Nothing, a video résumé created by Aleksey Vayner. Cera and his Arrested Development co-star Alia Shawkat guest starred as a pair of college students in the teen noir drama Veronica Mars in the episode "The Rapes of Graff" in 2006. Along with best friend Clark Duke, Cera wrote and starred in a series of short videos released on their website; the idea came from Duke, enrolled at Loyola Marymount University and did it for his film school studies. In 2007, they signed a deal with CBS Television to write, produce and act in a short-form comedy series entitled Clark and Michael; the show featured guest stars such as David Cross, Andy Richter and Patton Oswalt, was distributed via CBS's internet channel, CBS Innertube. In May 2007, Cera appeared in a staged comedy video that shows him being fired from the lead role of the film Knocked Up after belittling and arguing with its director Judd Apatow, in a scene that mocks the David O. Russell blow up on the set of I Heart Huckabees.
Cera starred in the Apatow-produced teen comedy Superbad alongside Jonah Hill. Their characters in the film – two virgin teenagers about to graduate from high school whose party plans go awry – were based on its writers Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg. Superbad was released in cinemas in August 2007. Cera's performance was met with critical acclaim, with The Atlantic opining that the film "belongs to Michael Cera" for capturing "teenage sexual abashment as indelibly as he did in the role of George Michael", while The New York Times felt he was "excellent" and CNN praised Cera and Hill for playing "off each other beautifully". In November 2007, Cera hosted an untelevised live staged version of Saturday Night Live, not broadcast due to the then-ongoing 2007 Writers Guild of America Strike. In his second film of 2007, Cera co-starred in Juno as Paulie Bleeker, a teenager who impregnates his long-time school friend Juno. For Superbad and Juno, Cera won Breakthrough Artist in the Austin Film Critics Association Awards 2007 and was included in Entertainment Weekly's 30 Under 30 list in February 2008.
Cera starred alongside Kat Dennings in the romantic comedy-drama Nick & Norah's Infinite Playlist, in whic
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo