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Bela Lugosi

Béla Ferenc Dezső Blaskó, known professionally as Bela Lugosi, was a Hungarian-American actor best remembered for portraying Count Dracula in the 1931 film and for his roles in other horror films. After playing small parts on the stage in his native Hungary, Lugosi gained his first role in a film in 1917, he had to leave the country after the failed Hungarian Communist Revolution of 1919 because of his socialist activism. He acted in several films in Weimar Germany before arriving in the United States as a seaman on a merchant ship. In 1927, he appeared as Count Dracula in a Broadway adaptation of Bram Stoker's novel, he appeared in the 1931 film Dracula directed by Tod Browning and produced by Universal Pictures. Through the 1930s, he occupied an important niche in horror films, with their East European setting, but his Hungarian accent limited his potential casting, he unsuccessfully tried to avoid typecasting. Meanwhile, he was paired with Boris Karloff, able to demand top billing. To his frustration, Lugosi, a charter member of the American Screen Actors Guild, was restricted to minor parts, kept employed by the studio principally so that they could put his name on the posters.

Among his pairings with Karloff, he performed major roles only in The Black Cat, The Raven, Son of Frankenstein. By this time, Lugosi had been receiving regular medication for sciatic neuritis, he became addicted to morphine and methadone; this drug dependence was known to producers, the offers dwindled to a few parts in Ed Wood's low-budget films—including a brief appearance in Plan 9 from Outer Space. Lugosi had one son, Bela George, he died of a heart attack on August 16, 1956. Lugosi, the youngest of four children, was born Béla Ferenc Dezső Blaskó in Lugos, Kingdom of Hungary to Hungarian father István Blaskó, a banker, Serbian-born mother Paula de Vojnich, he based his last name on his hometown. He and his sister Vilma were raised in a Roman Catholic family. At the age of 12, Lugosi dropped out of school, he began his acting career in 1901 or 1902. His earliest known performances are from provincial theatres in the 1903–04 season, playing small roles in several plays and operettas, he went on to perform in Shakespeare's plays.

After moving to Budapest in 1911, he played dozens of roles with the National Theatre of Hungary between 1913–19. Although Lugosi would claim that he "became the leading actor of Hungary's Royal National Theatre" all his roles there were small or supporting parts. During World War I, he served as an infantryman in the Austro-Hungarian Army from 1914–16, rising to the rank of Lieutenant, he was awarded the Wound Medal for wounds. Due to his activism in the actors' union in Hungary during the revolution of 1919, he was forced to flee his homeland, he went first to Vienna before settling in Berlin. He took the name "Lugosi" in 1903 to honor his birthplace, travelled to New Orleans, Louisiana as a crewman aboard a merchant ship. Lugosi's first film appearance was in the movie Az ezredes; when appearing in Hungarian silent films, he used the stage name Arisztid Olt. Lugosi made 12 films in Hungary between 1918 before leaving for Germany. Following the collapse of Béla Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919, leftists and trade unionists became vulnerable.

Lugosi was proscribed from acting due to his participation in the formation of an actors' union. Exiled in Weimar-era Germany, he began appearing in a small number of well-received films, among them adaptations of the Karl May novels On the Brink of Paradise and Caravan of Death with Dora Gerson. Lugosi left Germany in October 1920, intending to emigrate to the United States, entered the country at New Orleans in December 1920, he made his way to New York and was inspected by immigration officers at Ellis Island in March 1921. He declared his intention to become a US citizen in 1928. On his arrival in America, the 6-foot-1-inch, 180-pound Lugosi worked for some time as a laborer, entered the theater in New York City's Hungarian immigrant colony. With fellow expatriate Hungarian actors he formed a small stock company that toured Eastern cities, playing for immigrant audiences. Lugosi acted in several Hungarian plays before breaking out into his first English Broadway play, The Red Poppy, in 1922.

Three more parts came in 1925–26, including a five-month run in the comedy-fantasy The Devil in the Cheese. In 1925, he appeared as an Arab Sheik in Arabesque which premiered in Buffalo, New York at the Teck Theatre before moving to Broadway, his first American film role was in the melodrama The Silent Command. Several more silent roles followed and continental types, all in productions made in the New York area. Lugosi was approached in the summer of 1927 to star in a Broadway theatre production of Dracula, adapted by Hamilton Deane and John L. Balderston from Bram Stoker's 1897 novel; the Horace Liveright production was successful, running for 261 performances before touring the United States to much fanfare and critical acclaim throughout 1928 and 1929. In 1928, Lugosi decided to stay in California, his performance had piqued the interest of Fox Film, he was cast in the studio's silent film The Veiled Woman

Anna Cotton

Anna Cotton or Anna Welby was an English nonconformist and ironmaster. She was the second wife of William Cotton, an ironmaster, she became a matriarch head of his family after he died. Cotton was born in the 1600s and she became the second wife of William Cotton, an ironmaster in south Yorkshire on 7 March 1683. William had eleven children by Eleanor. William and Eleanor, Anna became followers of the Reverend Oliver Heywood, a nonconformist minister. Anna had a son William Westby Cotton, baptised in 1689. On 6 May 1703 her husband died and she and her brother-in-law, Daniel Cotton, had to look after the four surviving children, her husband's empire was being encroached by his former partner John Spencer of Cannon Hall, known for taking advantage of partners who died. It fell upon Anna to defend their rights, her children made marriages. The eldest daughter Frances was married to William Vernon who looked after their Warmingham forge and the second daughter, married Edward Kendall who co-managed the Staffordshire works.

Her son William was married to his first cousin Anna Cotton. In 1716 Anna started to retire and she transferred her control of the Colne bridge forge to her son William, she told John Spencer but he appears to have taken little notice as they had to remind him of £600 owed to them and fot not receiving the May 1717 accounts. Reverend Thomas Dickinson of Darton, the Reverend Oliver Heywood's replacement, records her death as 8 July 1721 at Stourbridge, she was buried at Darton on 13 July. After her death the Cotton family continued their iron based empire

IRT White Plains Road Line

The White Plains Road Line is a rapid transit line of the IRT division of the New York City Subway serving the central Bronx. It is elevated and served both subway and elevated trains until 1952; the original part of the line, the part opened as part of the first subway was called the West Farms Division, the extension north to 241st Street as part of the Dual Contracts was called the White Plains Road Line. However, the two parts came to be known as the White Plains Road Line, it is being used by the 2 as the local at all times and the 5 as the local at all times except rush hours in peak direction and late nights. The following services use part or all of the IRT White Plains Road Line: The IRT White Plains Road Line begins at the Wakefield–241st Street terminal, with two tracks, one island platform, two closed side platforms. Crossovers just south of the station take trains to the correct tracks and a center express track comes out of those crossovers. Between Wakefield–241st Street and Nereid Avenue, a connection comes in from the 239th Street Yard.

Just north of Gun Hill Road, the now demolished IRT Third Avenue Line split from the local tracks. The line went to a lower level of Gun Hill Road and turned west; the IRT Dyre Avenue Line merges to the local tracks just north of East 180th Street, crossovers allow those trains to reach the express tracks. The 5 late-night Dyre Avenue Shuttle uses the center track to end its run, rush hour 5 trains in the peak direction change to the express track here. On the west side of this junction is the East 180th Street Yard while the Unionport Yard is to the east; the now-gone three-track Bronx Park Spur merged from the west after East 180th Street with one track into each of the mainline tracks. Just after this on the east side was a connection to the West Farms Yard gone; the express track ends north of Third Avenue–149th Street, from there to the end the line has two tracks. In that area there was a connection just to the north to the local tracks of the IRT Third Avenue Line, a connection to the south, bypassing 149th Street on the Third Avenue Line.

Just past those former connections, the White Plains Road Line goes underground. Just after 149th Street–Grand Concourse, the tracks split off and the two used by the 5 train turn south to merge with the local tracks of the IRT Jerome Avenue Line; the other tracks used by the 2 train, pass under the Harlem River via the 149th Street Tunnel and end at the at-grade 142nd Street Junction, connecting to the IRT Lenox Avenue Line. The first contract for the construction of a subway in New York, Contract 1, was executed on February 21, 1900, between the Board of Rapid Transit Railroad Commissioners and the Rapid Transit Construction Company, organized by John B. McDonald and funded by August Belmont, for the construction of the subway and a 50-year operating lease from the opening of the line. Contract 1 called for the construction of a line from City Hall north to Kingsbridge and a branch under Lenox Avenue and to Bronx Park; the initial segment of the IRT White Plains Road Line opened on November 26, 1904 between East 180th Street and Jackson Avenue.

Trains on the line were served by elevated trains from the IRT Second Avenue Line and the IRT Third Avenue Line, with a connection running from the Third Avenue local tracks at Third Avenue and 149th Street to Westchester Avenue and Eagle Avenue. Once the connection to the IRT Lenox Avenue Line opened on July 10, 1905, trains from the newly opened IRT subway ran via the line. Elevated service via this connection was resumed on October 1, 1907 when Second Avenue locals were extended to Freeman Street during rush hours. On October 28, 1910, the new 180th Street station, known as Zoological Park station, opened as the new terminal of the West Farms Division of the subway, replacing the temporary station at 180th Street, abandoned; the Dual Contracts, which were signed on March 19, 1913, were contracts for the construction and operation of rapid transit lines in the City of New York. The contracts were "dual" in that they were signed between the City and two separate private companies, all working together to make the construction of the Dual Contracts possible.

The Dual Contracts promised the construction of several lines in the Bronx. As part of Contract 3, the IRT agreed to extend the existing West Farms Division from 179th Street to 241st Street as an elevated line along White Plains Road. Intervale Avenue station opened on April 1910 as an in-fill station, it was the first station in the Bronx with escalators. The station was built at the cost of $100,000, it was paid with private capital. Portions of the White Plains Road Line were opened at different times, they opened once construction finished on a segment, as opposed to waiting for the completion of the entire line; the first segment, from East 177th Street–East Tremont Avenue to East 219th Street–White Plains Road, opened on March 3, 1917, providing access to rapid transit service to the communities of Williamsbridge and Wakefield in the Bronx. Service on the new portion of the line was operated as a four-car shuttle from 177th Street due to the power conditions at the time. Service was extended to East 238th Street on March 31, 1917.

The part of the line from the S-curve north of West Farms Square—East Tremont Avenue station to the terminal at 241st Street was built as a part of the Dual Contracts. On July 1, 1917, a new connection between the White Plains