Cremation is the combustion and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone. Cremation may serve as a funeral or post-funeral rite as an alternative to the interment of an intact dead body in a coffin or casket. Cremated remains, which do not constitute a health risk, may be buried or interred in memorial sites or cemeteries, or they may be retained by relatives and dispersed in various ways. Cremation is an alternative in other forms of disposal in funeral practices; some families prefer to have the deceased present at the funeral with cremation to follow. In many countries, cremation is done in a crematorium. However, in the Indian subcontinent, notably modern-day India and Nepal, different methods, such as open-air cremation, are preferred. Cremation dates from at least 42,000 years ago in the archaeological record, with the Mungo Lady, the remains of a cremated body found at Lake Mungo, Australia. Alternative death rituals emphasizing one method of disposal of a body—inhumation, cremation, or exposure—have gone through periods of preference throughout history.
In the Middle East and Europe, both burial and cremation are evident in the archaeological record in the Neolithic era. Cultural groups had their own prohibitions; the ancient Egyptians developed an intricate transmigration-of-soul theology, which prohibited cremation. This was widely adopted by Semitic peoples; the Babylonians, according to Herodotus, embalmed their dead. Early Persians practiced cremation. Phoenicians practiced both burial. From the Cycladic civilisation in 3000 BCE until the Sub-Mycenaean era in 1200–1100 BCE, Greeks practiced inhumation. Cremation appeared around the 12th century BCE, constituting a new practice of burial influenced by Anatolia; until the Christian era, when inhumation again became the only burial practice, both combustion and inhumation had been practiced, depending on the era and location. Romans practiced both, with cremation associated with military honors. In Europe, there are traces of cremation dating to the Early Bronze Age in the Pannonian Plain and along the middle Danube.
The custom became dominant throughout Bronze Age Europe with the Urnfield culture. In the Iron Age, inhumation again becomes more common, but cremation persisted in the Villanovan culture and elsewhere. Homer's account of Patroclus' burial describes cremation with subsequent burial in a tumulus, similar to Urnfield burials, qualifying as the earliest description of cremation rites; this may be an anachronism, as during Mycenaean times burial was preferred, Homer may have been reflecting the more common use of cremation at the time the Iliad was written, centuries later. Criticism of burial rites is a common form of aspersion by competing religions and cultures, including the association of cremation with fire sacrifice or human sacrifice. Hinduism and Jainism are notable for not only prescribing cremation. Cremation in India is first attested in the Cemetery H culture, considered the formative stage of Vedic civilization; the Rigveda contains a reference to the emerging practice, in RV 10.15.14, where the forefathers "both cremated and uncremated" are invoked.
Cremation remained common but not universal, in ancient Rome. According to Cicero, in Rome, inhumation was considered the more archaic rite, while the most honoured citizens were most cremated—especially upper classes and members of imperial families; the rise of Christianity saw an end to cremation, being influenced by its roots in Judaism, the belief in the resurrection of the body, following the example of Christ's burial. Anthropologists have been able to track the advance of Christianity throughout Europe with the appearance of cemeteries. By the 5th century, with the spread of Christianity, the practice of burning bodies disappeared from Europe. In early Roman Britain, cremation was usual but diminished by the 4th century, it reappeared in the 5th and 6th centuries during the migration era, when sacrificed animals were sometimes included with the human bodies on the pyre, the deceased were dressed in costume and with ornaments for the burning. That custom was very widespread among the Germanic peoples of the northern continental lands from which the Anglo-Saxon migrants are supposed to have been derived, during the same period.
These ashes were thereafter deposited in a vessel of clay or bronze in an "urn cemetery". The custom again died out with the Christian conversion of the Anglo-Saxons or Early English during the 7th century, when Christian burial became general. In parts of Europe, cremation was forbidden by law, punishable by death if combined with Heathen rites. Cremation was sometimes used by Catholic authorities as part of punishment for Protestant heretics, which included burning at the stake. For example, the body of John Wycliff was exhumed years after his death and burned to ashes, with the ashes thrown in a river, explicitly as a posthumous punishment for his denial of the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation; the first to advocate for the use of cremation was the physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1658. Honoretta Brooks Pratt became the first recorded cremated European individual in modern times when she died on 26 September 1769 and was illegally cremated at the burial ground on Hanover Square in London.
The organized movement to reinstate cremation as a viable meth
The reyong is a musical instrument used in Balinese gamelan. It consists of a long row of metal gongs suspended on a frame. In gamelan gong kebyar, it is played by four players at once, each with two mallets; the individual pots can be removed from the frame and played individually as bonang in beleganjur
The angklung is a musical instrument from Indonesia made of a varying number of bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame. The tubes are carved to have a resonant pitch when struck and are tuned to octaves, similar to Western handbells; the base of the frame is held in one hand, whilst the other hand shakes the instrument, causing a repeating note to sound. Each of three or more performers in an angklung ensemble play just one note or more, but altogether complete melodies are produced; the angklung is popular throughout the world, but it originated in what is now West Java and Banten provinces in Indonesia, has been played by the Sundanese for many centuries. Angklung and its music has become the cultural identity of Sundanese communities in West Java and Banten. Playing the angklung as an orchestra requires cooperation and coordination, is believed to promote the values of teamwork, mutual respect and social harmony. On November 18, 2010, UNESCO recognized the Indonesian angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, encouraged the Indonesian people and the Indonesian government to safeguard, promote performances and to encourage the craftsmanship of angklung.
The word "angklung" may have originated from Sundanese "angkleung-angkleungan", suggesting the movement of the angklung player and the "klung" sound that comes from the instrument. Another theory suggests that the word "angklung" was formed from two Balinese words – angka and lung. Angka means "tone", lung means "broken" or "lost". Angklung thus means "incomplete tone". According to Dr. Groneman, angklung had been a favorite musical instrument of the entire archipelago before the Hindu era. According to Jaap Kunst in Music in Java, besides West Java, angklung exists in South Sumatra and Kalimantan. Lampung, East Java and Central Java are familiar with the instrument. In the Hindu period and the time of the Kingdom of Sunda, the angklung played an important role in ceremonies; the angklung was played to honor Dewi Sri, the goddess of fertility, so she would bless their land and lives. The angklung signaled the time for prayers, was said to have been played since the 7th century in Kingdom of Sunda.
In the Kingdom of Sunda, it provided martial music during the Battle of Bubat, as told in the Kidung Sunda. The oldest surviving angklung is 100 years old Angklung Gubrag, it was made in the 17th century in Bogor. Other antique angklung are stored in Bandung; the oldest angklung tradition is called "Angklung Buhun" from Lebak Regency, Banten Angklung buhun is an ancient type of angklung played by Baduy people of inland Banten province during Seren Taun harvest ceremony. In 1938, Daeng Soetigna, from Bandung, created an angklung, based on the diatonic scale instead of the traditional pélog or sléndro scales. Since the angklung has returned to popularity and is used for education and entertainment, may accompany western instruments in an orchestra. One of the first performances of angklung in an orchestra was in 1955 during the Bandung Conference. In 1966 Udjo Ngalagena, a student of Daeng Soetigna, opened his "Saung Angklung" as a centre for its preservation and development. UNESCO designated the angklung a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on November 18, 2010.
In Bali, an ensemble of angklung is called gamelan angklung. While the ensemble gets its name from the bamboo shakers, they are nowadays included outside of East Bali. An ensemble of bronze metallophones is used instead with about 20 musicians. While the instrumentation of gamelan angklung is similar to gamelan gong kebyar, there are several critical differences; the instruments in angklung are tuned to a 5-tone slendro scale, although most ensembles use a four-tone mode of the five-tone scale played on instruments with four keys. An exception is the five-tone angklung from the north of Bali. In four-tone angklung groups, the flute players will use an implied fifth tone. Additionally, whereas many of the instruments in gong kebyar span multiple octaves of its pentatonic scale, mosts gamelan angklung instruments only contain one octave, although some five-tone ensembles have an octave and a half; the instruments are smaller than those of the gong kebyar. Gamelan angklung is heard in Balinese temples, where it supplies musical accompaniment to temple anniversaries.
It is characteristic of rituals related to death, therefore connected in Balinese culture to the invisible spiritual realm and transitions from life to death and beyond. Because of its portability, gamelan angklung instruments may be carried in processions while a funeral bier is carried from temporary burial in a cemetery to the cremation site; the musicians often play music to accompany the cremation ceremony. Thus, many Balinese listeners associate angklung music and its slendro scale with strong emotions evoking a combination of sacred sweetness and sadness; the structure of the music is similar to gong kebyar. A pair of jegog metallophones carries the basic melody, elaborated by gangsa, ceng-ceng and small drums played with mallets. A medium-sized gong, called kempur, is used to punctuate a piece's major sections. Most older compositions do not employ gong kebyar's more ostentatious showmanship. Many Balinese composers have created kebyar-style works for gamelan angklung or have rearranged kebyar melodies to fit the angklung's more restricted four-tone scale.
These new pieces feature dance, so the gamelan angklung is augmented with heavier gongs an
The gong ageng is a musical instrument. It is the largest of the bronze gongs in the Javanese and Balinese gamelan orchestra and the only large gong, called gong in Javanese. Unlike the more famous Chinese or Turkish tam-tams, Indonesian gongs have fixed, focused pitch, are dissimilar to the familiar crash cymbal sound, it is circular, with a conical, tapering base of diameter smaller than gong face, with a protruding polished boss where it is struck by a padded mallet. Gongs with diameter as large as 135 centimeters have been created in the past, but gongs larger than about 80 centimeters are more common to suit the budget of educational institutions. There is at least one large gong in each gamelan, but two are common and older gamelans may have three or more; the gong ageng has its own name, which may be bestow upon the entire set of instruments. The gong ageng is considered the most important instrument in a gamelan ensemble: the soul or spirit of the gamelan is said to live in the gong. Gong ageng are proffered ritual offerings of flowers, and/or and incense before performances or each Thursday evening to appease spirits believed to live in and around it.
Less expensive iron gong ageng or a slit-type gong are made to fulfill the role of the bronze gong, though at the loss of sound quality- for poorer regions and villages. The cost of expertly pure cast & beaten bronze has seen a rise in bronze-plated and bronze-laminated iron gongs created for the undiscerning expatriate. Traditionally, it is the first of the instruments to be made. A skilled gong-smith will smelt and cast supervises the hammering process, but will be responsible for the final fine tuning of the gong ageng pitch- the rest of the ensemble is tuned according to the qualities of the gong ageng, it is the single most costly and lengthy item to fabricate- and requires multiple re-castings due to stress-cracks created in the beating process of forming it and undesired tonal or timbre qualities. The pitch desired is deep, distinctly pitched rumble that sound like thunder or the "rolling waves of the sea". Slight differences in the opposite halves of a gong create a desired "beating" in the sound.
It is named according to subjective poetic descriptive images for different speeds of beats, comparing slow beats with waves of water and faster beats with Bima’s laughter. The gong is fabricated to resonate at the lowest thresholds of human hearing. Actual pitch will vary, but a fine gong ageng of example of the Nusantara Museum of Delft was measured to have a fundamental tone of 44.5 Hz. The Gong Ageng has about a dozen prominent exponentially decaying partials, with some component frequency ratios that correspond to harmonics and others that are enharmonic. Many of the partials have a slow amplitude and frequency modulation of a few Hertz, a faster modulation around 20 Hz; the instruments of the gamelan are fabricated on the fundamental tone of the gong ageng pitch is basis of the slendro pitch "6" of It is pitched to match the 6 of the gamelan. Gong ageng demarcates gongan. Within the gongan structure, the gong suwukan and kempul punctuate the subdivisions of time. A gongan is the time span between the gong ageng strikes, which are subordinate to the tempo: irama, length of the structure.
The gongan is the longest time-span in the colotomic structure of gamelan. In larger gendhing, only the gong ageng is employed; some gamelan sets for cost considerations will use the gong ageng for both pélog and sléndro scale systems. A full set in a keraton will have two gong ageng; the gong suwukan or gong siyem is the smaller gong in the set used for smaller phrases. It is pitched higher, at different pitches for pélog and sléndro. Gamelans will have more than one gong suwukan, for different ending notes, different pathet. Most common is a 1 for pathet sanga and lima, 2 for pélog pathet nem and barang, sléndro pathet nem and manyura. A 1 can be played for gatra ending in 1 or 5, a 2 for 2 or 6. A few gamelans include a gong suwukan 3 as well; the goong ageung plays a similar role in Sundanese gamelan. The kempur in Balinese gamelan is similar to the gong suwukan. In other Indonesian and Philippine cultures, its analog is the agung; the gong ageng is fundamental to the gamelan orchestra. Similes between the gong ageng are made in relations to Indonesian, the Javanese and related Balinese society cultures.
A large gong ageng is commissioned for prestigious state-sponsored projects. Two famous ones include the Surabaya Naval Dockyard statue and in the seaside resort of Ancol in Jakarta; these two former gong ageng can be heard a distance of 20 kilometers out to sea. On auspicious or important occasions a gong ageng is struck, just as in Western society a ribbon may be cut or a champagne bottle smashed. In the houses of the wealthy Javanese aristocrat families of Jakarta, gong ageng are used to herald the arrival of guests. Less important guests are heralded by the kempul
Gamelan Degung is a Sundanese musical ensemble that uses a subset of modified gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. The instruments are manufactured under local conditions in towns in West Java such as Bogor. Degung music is played at public gatherings in West Java, such as at local elections, as well as many other events. There is international interest in degung as well amongst communities in other countries interested in Indonesia and gamelan music; the instrumentation of gamelan degung is quite flexible. It may include: Bonang/kolènang: two rows of seven small bulbous gongs, it differs from its Javanese counterpart in that the rows are each placed on either side of the player. Saron/peking: a high-pitched bronze metallophone with fourteen keys. Panerus: another bronze metallophone, similar to the peking but pitched an octave lower. Jengglong: six bulbous gongs suspended from the same frame. Goong ageung: a large gong. A set of kendang, consisting of one two small double-sided drums.
Suling degung: a four-holed bamboo flute. Gambang: a wooden xylophone. In classical degung, the bonang serves as a conductor for the whole ensemble. Except in certain modern compositions, it is absent
Gamelan is the traditional ensemble music of Java and Bali in Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments. The most common instruments used are metallophones played by mallets and a set of hand-played drums called kendhang which register the beat. Other instruments include xylophones, bamboo flutes, a bowed instrument called a rebab, vocalists called sindhen. Although the popularity of gamelan has declined since the introduction of pop music, gamelan is still played on formal occasions and in many traditional Indonesian ceremonies. For most Indonesians, gamelan is an integral part of Indonesian culture; the word gamelan comes from the low Javanese word gamel, which may refer to a type of mallet used to strike instruments or the act of striking with a mallet. The term karawitan refers to classical gamelan music and performance practice, comes from the word rawit, meaning'intricate' or'finely worked'; the word derives from the Javanese word of Sanskrit origin, which refers to the sense of smoothness and elegance idealized in Javanese music.
Another word from this root, means a person with such sense, is used as an honorific when discussing esteemed gamelan musicians. The high Javanese word for gamelan is gangsa, formed either from the words tembaga and rejasa referring to the materials used in bronze gamelan construction, or tiga and sedasa referring to their proportions; the gamelan predates the Hindu-Buddhist culture that dominated Indonesia in its earliest records and thus represents an indigenous art form. In contrast to the heavy Indian influence in other art forms, the only obvious Indian influence in gamelan music is in the Javanese style of singing, in the themes of the Wayang kulit. In Javanese mythology, the gamelan was created by Sang Hyang Guru in Saka era 167, the god who ruled as king of all Java from a palace on the Maendra mountain in Medang Kamulan, he thus invented the gong. For more complex messages, he invented two other gongs; the earliest image of a musical ensemble is found on the bas-relief of 8th century Buddhist monument of Borobudur, Central Java.
The Borobudur's musicians play lute-like stringed instruments, kendang drums, suling flutes, small cymbals and bells. Some of these musical instruments are indeed included in a complete gamelan orchestra. Musical instruments such as the bamboo flute, drums in various sizes and bowed and plucked string instruments were identified in this image; however it lacks xylophones. The image of this musical ensemble is suggested to be the ancient form of the gamelan; the instruments developed into their current form during the Majapahit Empire. According to the inscriptions and manuscripts dated from the Majapahit period, the kingdom had a government office in charge of supervising the performing arts, including the gamelan; the arts office oversaw the construction of musical instruments, as well as scheduling performances at the court. In the palaces of Java the oldest known ensembles, Gamelan Munggang and Gamelan Kodok Ngorek, are from the 12th century; these formed the basis of a "loud style" of music.
In contrast, a "soft style" developed out of the kemanak tradition and is related to the traditions of singing Javanese poetry, in a manner believed to be similar to the chorus that accompanies the modern bedhaya dance. In the 17th century, these loud and soft styles mixed, to a large extent the variety of modern gamelan styles of Bali and Sunda resulted from different ways of mixing these elements. Thus, despite the seeming diversity of styles, many of the same theoretical concepts and techniques are shared between the styles. A gamelan is a multi-timbre ensemble consisting of metallophones, flutes, voices, as well as bowed and plucked strings; the hand-played drum called kendhang controls the tempo and rhythm of pieces as well as transitions from one section to another, while one instrument gives melodic cues to indicate treatment or sections of a piece. Some of the instruments that make up a gamelan in present-day Central Java are shown below: Instruments Varieties of gamelan are distinguished by their collection of instruments and use of voice, repertoire and cultural context.
In general, no two gamelan ensembles are the same, those that arose in prestigious courts are considered to have their own style and tuning. Certain styles may be shared by nearby ensembles, leading to a regional style; the varieties are grouped geographically, with the principal division between the styles favored by the Balinese and Sundanese peoples. The Madurese had their own style of gamelan, although it is no longer in use, the last orchestra is kept at the Sumenep palace. One important style of Sundanese gamelan is Gamelan Degung, which uses a subset of gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. Balinese gamelan is associated with the virtuosity and rapid changes of tempo and dynamics of Gamelan gong kebyar, its best-known style. Other popular Balinese styles include Kecak, a theatrical dance and music form known as the "monkey chant." Javanese gamelan dominated by the courts of the 19th century central Javanese rulers, each with its own style, is known for a slower, more meditative quality than the gamelan music of Bali.
Javanese gamelan can be made from brass. Outside the main core on Java and Bali, gamelan has spread through migration and cultural interest, new styles sometimes resulting as well. Malay Gamelan comes from the Javanese tra
Dangdut is a genre of Indonesian folk and traditional popular music, derived from Hindustani and Arabic music. Dangdut is a popular genre in Indonesia because of its melodious instrumentation and vocals. Indonesians dance in somewhat similar to the ghoomar while listening to dangdut music, but in a much slower version. Dangdut features gendang beat. One of the most popular Dangdut musicians and singers such as Rhoma Irama, known as the "King of Dangdut". Dangdut is popular throughout Indonesia, Singapore and other Malay-speaking lands. A dangdut band consists of a lead singer, male or female, backed by four to eight musicians. Instruments include a tabla, flute, guitars, drum machines, synthesizers; the term has been expanded from the desert-style music to embrace other musical styles. Modern dangdut incorporates influences from Middle Eastern pop music, Western rock, house music, hip hop music, contemporary R&B, reggae; the popularity of Dangdut peaked in the 1990s. By 2012, it was popular in the western parts of Indonesia and not in the eastern parts, apart from Maluku.
The term dangdut is a Javanese language onomatopoeia for the sound of the tabla drum, written dang and ndut. It was coined by music magazine Aktuil, although Rhoma Irama stated that it was coined as a term of derision by the rich to the music of the poor. Despite its derogatory intent, it was seized upon by those playing it, the term appears in Rhoma's 1973 dangdut classic Terajana: Sulingnya suling bambu - The flute, a bamboo flute Gendangnya kulit lembu - The drum, from cow hide Dangdut suara gendang rasa ingin berdendang - Dangdut's drum sound makes you want to singDangdut as a term distinguished the music of Javanese from the Orkes Melayu of North Sumatran Malays. Besides orkes Melayu, the primary musical influence on dangdut was Indian Bollywood music; the song "Terajana" pays homage to the 1959 Bollywood hit "Tera Jana Ke," and though dangdut is written in the Indonesian language, respect was paid to the Indian influence. The next verse of "Terajana" is as follows: Terajana... Terajana - Terajana, Terajana Ini lagunya... lagu India - This is the song, song of IndiaOrkes Melayu singer Ellya Khadam switched to dangdut in the 1970s, and, by 1972, she was the number-one artist in Indonesia.
Her success, with that of Rhoma Irama, meant that by 1975, 75 percent of all recorded music in Indonesia was of the dangdut genre, with pop bands such as Koes Plus adopting the style. Most major cities on Java, have one or more venues that have a dangdut show several times a week; the concerts of major dangdut stars are broadcast on television. Beginning in 2003, certain dangdut musicians became the focus of a national controversy in Indonesia regarding performances by singer Inul Daratista, which religious conservatives described as pornography. Protests led by dangdut megastar and devout Muslim Rhoma Irama called for Daratista to be banned from television, legislation was passed in 2008 by the People's Consultative Assembly that introduced a broad range of activities described as pornography; the flamboyant performances at some dangdut shows attracted collateral attention in May 2012 when a row broke out in Indonesia over a planned performance by international star Lady Gaga in Jakarta due to be held in early June 2012.
In the face of opposition from conservative Muslim groups in Indonesia, the planned show was canceled. This cancelation led numerous commentators to note that opposition to Lady Gaga's performances was surprising given the nature of some dangdut shows. Dangdut remains an integral part of Indonesian life and pop culture despite conservative Muslim concerns over the supposed vulgarity of some performances; because the popularity of the genre, some movies and TV show have dangdut-centered themes, such as Rhoma Irama's movies and Rudy Soedjarwo's Mendadak Dangdut. A. Harris Ellya Emilia Contessa Hasnah Tahar Husein Bawafie Johana Satar M. Mashabi Munif Bahaswan Said Effendi Soneta Group A. Rafiq Camelia Malik Elvy Sukaesih Herlina Effendi Ida Laila Noer Halimah Reynold Panggabean Rhoma Irama Rita Sugiarto Erie Suzan Hamdan ATT Iis Dahlia Ikke Nurjanah Ine Sinthya Itje Trisnawati Iyeth Bustami Nur Halimah Riza Umami Vetty Vera Mirnawati Minawati Dewi Mega Mustika Nais Larasati Yus Yunus Asep Irama Lilis Karlina Nada Soraya Mansyur S. Muchsin Alatas Abiem Ngesti Leo Waldy Irvan Mansyur s Yulia Citra Inul Daratista Citra Marcelina Zaskia Gotik Siti Badriah Fitri Karlina Ira Swara Anisa Bahar Uut Permatasari Nitha Thalia Jenita Janet Cici Paramida Juwita Bahar Alam Ayu Ting Ting Beniqno Aquino Dewi Persik Melinda Saipul Jamil Nafa Urbach Inul Daratista Ridho Rhoma Ira Swara Trio Macan Julia Perez Kristina Shamila Danang D Academy Duo Serigala Zaskia Gotik Lesti Andryani Siti Badriah Fitri Karlina Jenita Janet Ayu Ting Ting Dewi Persik Ridho Rhoma Trio Macan Julia Perez Ikif D Academy Ria Amelia Cita Citata Evi D Academy Sendy Ariani Siti Rinayanti JKT48 Dangdut BFA Crew Via Vallen Nella Kharisma Music of Indonesia Indo pop Gambus Campursari Example of a Dangdut song by Mansyur S Andrew N. Weintraub, Dangdut Stories: A Social and Musical History of Indonesia's Most Popular Music, Oxford University Press, 2010.