Belgian Antarctic Expedition

The Belgian Antarctic Expedition of 1897 to 1899 was the first expedition to winter in the Antarctic region. The first Belgian Antarctic expedition, led by Adrien de Gerlache de Gomery, aboard the RV Belgica, is considered to be the first expedition of the heroic age of Antarctic exploration. Among its members were Frederick Cook and Roald Amundsen, explorers who will be responsible for the conquest of the North Pole and the conquest of the South Pole. In 1896, after a period of intensive lobbying, Adrien de Gerlache purchased the Norwegian-built whaling ship Patria, following an extensive refit, he renamed Belgica. Gerlache had worked together with the Geographical Society of Brussels to organize a national subscription, but was only able to outfit his expedition after the Belgian government voted in favor of two large subsidies, making it a state-supported undertaking. With a multinational crew that included Roald Amundsen from Norway, Emil Racoviță from Romania and Henryk Arctowski from Poland, they set sail from Antwerp on 16 August 1897.

After leaving Antwerp, the expedition visited Montevideo. The Belgica was received enthusiastically in Rio, where a large Belgian community lived. Frederick Cook, an American, joined the expedition here; the Brazilians were very interested in the Belgian scientific undertaking. The Historical and Geographical Society of Rio held a special meeting where the scientists and officers of the expedition were offered membership. A few weeks in Montevideo, Amundsen wrote in his diary that he had never seen so many beautiful women'in one place at the same time'. During January 1898, the Belgica reached the coast of Graham Land. On 22 January, Carl Wiencke was drowned. Wiencke Island was named in his honor. Sailing in between the Graham Land coast and a long string of islands to the west, Gerlache named the passage Belgica Strait, it was renamed Gerlache Strait in his honor. After charting and naming several islands from some 20 separate landings, they crossed the Antarctic Circle on 15 February. Failing to find a way through into the Weddell Sea, on 28 February, Gerlache's expedition became trapped in the ice of the Bellinghausen Sea, near Peter I Island.

It is that Gerlache intentionally sailed deep into the pack ice in order to freeze his vessel into the ice for the winter. Despite efforts of the crew to free the ship, they realised that they would be forced to spend the winter on Antarctica, they did not have enough winter clothing for every man on board. There was a shortage of food, what there was lacked in variety. Penguins and seals were killed and the meat stored before the onset of winter. Warm clothing was improvised out of the materials available. On 21 March 1898, the expedition's physician, Frederick Cook, wrote: "We are imprisoned in an endless sea of ice... We have told all the tales and imaginative, to which we are equal. Time weighs upon us as the darkness advances." Several weeks on 17 May, total darkness set in, which lasted until 23 July. Adrien de Gerlache disliked the fresh penguin and seal meat, killed and stored before the onset of winter and tried to ban their consumption, but encouraged it. Signs of scurvy began to show in a number of the men.

Captain Georges Lecointe and Gerlache became so ill. Two of the crew started to show signs of mental illness and morale in general was poor. Lieutenant Danco died on 5 June. Danco Island was named in his honor. Several men lost their sanity, including one Belgian sailor who left the ship "announcing he was going back to Belgium."Frederick Cook and the first mate, Roald Amundsen took command as Gerlache and Lecointe were unable to fulfil this role due to scurvy. Vitamin C was not discovered until the 1920s, but Cook was convinced that fresh meat was the cure for scurvy due to his experiences with Robert Peary in the Arctic, he insisted that each man ate some each day. Gerlache began to eat the meat and the men recovered their health. Several months of hardship followed. Attempts to free the ship and its crew from the grip of the ice failed. By January 1899, Belgica was still trapped in ice about seven feet thick and the possibility of another winter in the ice was becoming real. Open water was about half a mile away and Cook suggested that trenches should be cut to the open water to allow the Belgica to escape the ice.

The weakened crew used various tools to create the channel. On 15 February, they managed to start down the channel they had cleared during the weeks before, it took them nearly a month to cover seven miles, on 14 March, they cleared the ice. The expedition returned to Antwerp on 5 November 1899; the conditions were hard but the expedition had managed to collect a significant amount of scientific data, including a full year of meteorological observations. In Antwerp, the expedition was heartily welcomed. A special committee had been planning the festivities for months. Typical for polar expeditions in this age, feelings of national pride surrounded the homecoming celebrations. On the day they first set foot on Belgian soil again, La Brabançonne sounded and the national flag was seen waving from many houses; the Belgian state honored Gerlache and his men by making them members of the Royal Order of Leopold, the municipal government of Antwerp honored the men by medals and writing their names in the Golden Book of the city.

The expedition team included some notable individuals: Adrien de Gerlache – Belgian – commander Georges Lecointe – Belgian – captai


Babouk is a political-themed novel by Guy Endore, a fictionalized account of the Haitian Revolution told through the eyes of its titular slave. Though unknown today, Babouk has gained some notoriety in academic circles through its attempted linking of the slave trade with capitalism, one professor has suggested that it would make a valuable addition to post-colonial literary discourse. A committed leftist and opponent of racism, Endore spent many months in Haiti researching the story that would become Babouk, much of his findings make their way into the text, either in the form of epigraphs or explicitly noted in the text itself. Babouk is notable for the digressions the narrator makes from the main narrative, to expound his political sympathies. Endore, a popular writer and staunch socialist, had in 1933 published his book The Werewolf of Paris, which became a financial success. Hoping to profit on his newfound bankability, he was contracted by Simon & Schuster to write another novel that would be in the same mystery vein.

Endore, who spoke French, decided to write a romance set against the backdrop of the Haitian Revolution, went to Haiti to conduct research on the slave trade. Horrified by what he learned, he became interested in the story of a rebellious slave named Dutty Boukman, who many consider to be the catalyst behind the Haitian slave rebellion. Endore created a fictionalized version named Babouk, but he used his story to try to tell an anti-capitalist parable that borrowed much of its philosophy from Karl Marx; the resulting manuscript was dubbed by the publishing house of Simon and Schuster to be, "a powerful, moving piece of work. It won't sell because it's just too horrible." The book was not successful, it languished in obscurity until it was chosen by the leftist journal Monthly Review to be published as part of its "Voices of Resistance" series. The republished novel included a foreword by writer Jamaica Kincaid and an afterword by historians David Barry Gaspar and Michel-Rolph Trouillot, it was published in 1991 by Monthly Review Press.

Babouk is a slave renowned by many tribes for his excellent storytelling abilities. He is taken to Saint Domingue to work on the sugar cane fields. Unaware of the reasons for his capture and hoping to be reunited with his lost love Niati, Babouk escapes his slave compound and wanders into the forest, only to meet some indigenous Americans, he is soon captured by a group of runaway slaves who had agreed to turn in other runaways on the condition that they are allowed their freedom and returned to the compound, where his ear is cut off. Such a traumatic experience forces him to remain silent for several years, doing his labor without complaint but without much energy, he can maintain his silence no longer, he re-establishes himself as a great storyteller. Unhappy with the way the slave masters treat him, Babouk becomes the figurehead for a group of slaves that intend to revolt against their masters. Babouk and his group are successful in their endeavors, but are held back by the combined might of the French and British military.

Babouk's arm is severed. The novel ends with an impassioned statement from Endore that warns of the inevitability of a race war as the result of the white man's transgressions. Babouk explicitly highlights the supposed relationship between the slave capitalism. Endore removes himself from the principal narrative involving Babouk in order to talk about certain historical accounts he researched for the book itself, he liberally passes severe judgment over those who were either involved in the slave trade or, more controversially, those whom he supposed passively continued its existence by not questioning the capitalist system. Endore makes the point of comparing racist practices of the eighteenth century with contemporary ones, rejects the notion that men are treated in the United States if, what the Constitution claims. Babouk's narrative voice is heavily infused with irony taking the side of the slave masters or pro-slavery ideologues in an effort to further highlight what he sees as the absurdity of their position.

He openly mocks the production of what he believes to be useless objects to project status, such as jewelry. The handful of critics who reviewed Babouk gave it lukewarm reviews at the time of its 1934 release, recoiling at its brazenness and unflattering portrayal of whites. Even from sources sympathetic to the anti-slavery part of his message. Book critics agreed that Babouk's story had "epic possibilities" that did not reach fruition; the New Republic wrote, "'Babouk' is a horrible and an unforgettable book, but it somehow misses being a great, tragic or memorable one." The Nation declared that "The book is full...of interesting facts and descriptions. But...the denunciation of capitalism as bad writing fake poetry." Paul Allen authored the harshest review when he rejected the linkage of the voluntary exchange of capitalism and the forced labor of slavery, wrote: "the heavy irony and the strident shrieking about the brotherhood of man culminating, on the last two pages of the book, in gibberish and exclamation points ruins the book as either literature or propaganda."A review in the NAACP house organ The Crisis lauded Babouk, stating "Here is a book that should be in the bookcase of every Negro family...speaking through Babouk, seeing through the slaves' eyes, the author punctures all the cruelty, greed

Abner Lloveras

Abner Lloveras Hernández is a Spanish professional mixed martial artist in the lightweight division. Abner received a Gold Medal in the Spanish Olympic boxing tournament in 2010, he competed on The Ultimate Fighter: Team McGregor vs. Team Faber. Lloveras made his professional MMA debut in August 2004 with the UK Mixed Martial Arts Championship promotion in England. Over the next decade, he would compete for a variety of promotions – including Shooto and M-1 Global – as he amassed a record of 19 wins against 7 losses. One of Lloveras most notable bouts during this period was with UFC fighter Phillipe Nover. On August 31, 2015, it was announced that Lloveras would be a contestant on the 22nd season of The Ultimate Fighter reality show. In the elimination round, he defeated Vlado Sikic by verbal submission due to a shoulder injury. In the preliminary round, he defeated Jason Gonzalez by unanimous decision. In the quarterfinals, Lloveras lost to Julian Erosa on a controversial split decision. Lloveras faced fellow cast member Chris Gruetzemacher at the TUF 22 Finale on December 11, 2015.

On a competitive three rounds, with Abner finishing the fight with a standing rear-naked choke, he lost the bout by unanimous decision and was subsequently released from the promotion. Lloveras faced UFC veteran Andre Winner on June 25, 2016, for the SHC interim welterweight title, in Geneva, he lost the fight via split decision. Respect Fighting Championship Respect Lightweight Championship 2015 best MMA fight by GNP MAGAZINE in Europe Kickboxing Spain Amateur champion Boxing Spain Spain champion Except where otherwise indicated, details provided in the record box are taken from Sherdog. Professional MMA record for Abner Lloveras from Sherdog Abner Lloveras at UFC M-1 Mixfight Profile for Abner Lloveras Official Website of Esport Rogent