click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Belgian Armed Forces

The Belgian Defense Forces is the national military of Belgium. The King of the Belgians is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces; the Belgian Armed Forces was established after Belgium became independent in October 1830. Since that time Belgian armed forces have fought in World War I, World War II, the Cold War, Kosovo and Afghanistan; the Paracommando Brigade intervened several times in Central-Africa, for maintaining public order and evacuation of Belgian citizens. The Armed Forces comprise four branches: the Land Component, the Air Component, the Naval Component and the Medical Component; when Belgium broke away from the Netherlands in 1830 it was expected that a neutral buffer state, with its borders guaranteed by France and Prussia, could avoid the need for an expensive permanent military force, relying instead on the part-time militia of the existing Garde Civique. The need for a regular army was however soon acknowledged; the basis for recruitment was one of selective conscription under which exemptions could be purchased by obtaining substitutes.

In practice this meant that only about a quarter of each year's eligible intake served, with the burden falling on the poorer classes. As part of the national policy of even-handed neutrality, the 19th century Belgian Army was deployed as an defensive force in fortifications facing the Dutch and French borders. Mobilisation plans required reservists to report to their depots, without arrangements being made in advance for deployment in a particular direction or against a particular enemy. Recruitment difficulties caused the army to remain below its intended strength of 20,000 men, although new legislation in 1868 tightened the basis for conscription; the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 required full mobilisation for nearly a year, a process which showed up serious training and structural weaknesses. The presence of Belgian forces in strength along the country's borders, supported by intelligence provided by the Belgian civil security service, did however ensure that the combat at no time spilled over into Belgian territory.

As late as the 1890s the Belgian Army still retained a system of selective service, at a time when most European states were moving to a principle of universal obligation, according to the Prussian model. In Belgium conscripts were selected through the drawing of ballots, but individuals could escape service by paying for substitutes; this system had been discarded elsewhere as inefficient and unpatriotic. For those conscripted the terms of service required eight years in the regular army, followed by five years as a reservist. Various categories of volunteer enjoyed such privileges as being able to specify their branch of service and higher pay; the Papal Army based in Rome included from 1860 a battalion-sized unit known as the Tirailleurs Franco-Belges. Recruited amongst volunteers from both countries, this became the Pontifical Zouaves in 1861 and fought as an allied force on the French side in 1871 during the Franco-Prussian War. In 1864 a Corps Expeditionnaire Belge was raised for service in Mexico.

Intended to serve as the Guard of the Belgian-born Empress Charlotte this 1,500 strong force was drawn from volunteers seconded from the Belgian Army. Known popularly as the Belgian Legion, it saw active service in Mexico as part of the Imperial forces, before returning to Belgium for disbandment in March 1867. From 1885 the Force Publique was established as the military garrison and police force in the Belgian Congo under the direct rule of King Leopold II. Led by a variety of European mercenaries, this colonial force was subsequently officered by Belgian regulars after 1908. From December 1904 a small detachment of Belgian troops was permanently based in China as the "Guard of the Belgian Legation in Peking". Reforms undertaken in the early years of the 20th century included the abolition in 1909 of the system of drawing lots for the selection of the annual intake of conscripts. In 1913, compulsory and universal military service for men was established in Belgium. While this enabled actual peacetime strength to be increased to 33,000 men, this was only sufficient to provide a basis for the creation of seven under-strength divisions plus artillery and fortress troops.

The Belgian military was affected by political and popular reliance on the certain protection of the country's internationally guaranteed neutrality. In the words of the historian Barbara W. Tuchman "the army was considered superfluous and absurd". Training and discipline were slack, equipment inadequate and field uniforms were old fashioned and impractical. Although improvements in the Belgian Army had been uneven during the 19th and early 20th centuries, one area of successful reform had been that of increasing the professionalism of the officer corps; the Royal Military Academy had been established in 1834, to be followed by the Ecole d'Application for technical training, the Ecole de Guerre for staff training in 1868. The Belgian Army pioneered the practice of training a corps of finance and general administration specialist officers instead of leaving such functions to civil servants without military experience or inadequately prepared line officers. There was however a serious shortage of trained officers in the expanding army of 1913.

On the eve of World War I, the Belgian Army comprised 19 infantry regiments, 10 cavalry (Guide

Hair Zeqiri

Hair Zeqiri is an Albanian retired footballer who last played as a midfielder for Kamza in the Albanian Superliga. Zeqiri is a product of the Flamurtari Vlorë academy where he was promoted to the first team for the 2006–07 season. In total he made 92 Albanian Superliga appearances between 2006 and 2011 with Flamurtari Vlorë. Zeqiri signed a three-year contract with Çaykur Rizespor on 26 June 2011 worth €450,000 plus bonuses. On 30 July 2014, Zeqiri joined fellow Albanian Superliga side Kukësi by penning a one-year contract worth €80,000. On 30 August 2015, Zeqiri completed a transfer to his first club Flamurtari Vlorë, returning for the second time. On 1 February 2017, Zeqiri played 84 minutes in the returning leg of Albanian Cup quarter-final against Besëlidhja Lezhë, which ended in a 1–2 home shock loss, which brought the elimination from the competition. After the match, while at dressing room, he had a clash with club administrator Sinan Idrizi, which resulted him being suspended, it was raported by the media.

As the debate went on, Izridi told Zeqiri to leave the room, as he was no longer in his plans, but he refused, telling to send him a release note. On 3 February, he was told that he was going to train with the youth time until a second decision. On 11 February, he was released by the club, thus becoming a free agent. On 17 June 2017, Zeqiri reached an agreement with his former side Kukësi for the next season. Three days he transfer was made official and the player signed a two-year contract with the club, was handed squad number 7, he stated: "I'm happy to be signing with Kukësi. Representation of northeastern team is a honour for me and I'm happy to cooperate again with the champions. I promise the fans, he started the season by appearing in the two-legged match against Sheriff Tiraspol for the 2017–18 UEFA Champions League second qualifying round, playing both matches as Kukësi were eliminated on away goal rule. Zeqiri started the domestic season. On 9 October, it was confirmed. On 21 November, Zeqiri parted company with Kukësi after handing a transfer request.

After two months unemployed, Zeqiri agreed personal terms and joined Kamza on a six-month contract, only to force a departure from the club 3 weeks later. Zeqiri was a member of the under-21 national team, where he scored one goal, he was first called up to the senior team in 2012 by Gianni De Biasi for a friendly against Georgia on 29 February. He featured in the game as a substitute in the 55th minute for Jahmir Hyka, he earned a total of 4 caps. His final international was an August 2012 friendly match against Moldova; as of 16 November 2017 As of match played 15 August 2012 Flamurtari VlorëAlbanian Cup: 2008–09, 2013–14 Albanian Superliga Player of the Month: September 2010, November 2013 Hair Zeqiri – UEFA competition record Hair Zeqiri at National-Football-Teams.com Hair Zeqiri at the Turkish Football Federation Profile - FSHF

SMKA Tun Hajah Rahah

SMKA Tun Hajah Rahah or Tun Hajah Rahah Religious National Secondary School is a Malaysia educational institution established in 1982. The institution is located at Pekan Simpang Lima, Sungai Besar in the District of Sabak Bernam, Malaysia. In 1979, the Ministry of Education under the Division of Technical and Vocational and the Selangor State Education Department were planning to build a vocational school for agriculture in Selangor; the development was financed by a special facilities loan for education development from the World Bank. An area of 19.75 acres at an agricultural village in Simpang Lima was chosen as the site for construction. The site selection was based on the factors; the school was named Simpang Lima after a penta-junction at Jalan Kuala Selangor Lama near Sungai Nibong village. The construction completed in 1982 and the school was opened for admission on January 1982. However, due to political and public pressure, it was established as SMK Simpang Lima, a public secondary school and not as a vocational school as per planned.

After six years of service, there was a move by the school's Parent-Teacher Association with recommendation from the District Education Office of Sabak Bernam, to elevate the school status into a religious boarding school. This proposal was accepted by the Ministry of the Selangor Education Department. In 1988, the school's name was changed from SMK Simpang Lima to SMKA Simpang Lima. In 2015, the school was rebranded as SMKA Sabak Bernam to represent the whole district of Sabak Bernam. In 2016, the school was rebranded as SMKA Tun Rahah At its opening, the school was made up of 1 double-storey block for administration, 3 double-storey blocks for classrooms, 1 single-storey block for laboratories and workshop, 8 medium quarters for teachers and school staff, a canteen; when the school evolved into a boarding school, one of the classroom blocks was converted into a hostel. In 1992, the school received a dining hall. In the same year, with the effort from the PTA and the local communities, a new surau was built.

In 1998, under the Sixth Malaysia Plan, the Ministry of Education approved another construction of one three-storey classroom block and two three-storey hostel blocks, a new dining hall for female students, a water tank and two new playing court. In 2002, the school received a new shuttle bus. In 2004, the new one storey Computer Laboratories block completed. In 2008, the school received a Class C Quarters for Headmaster residence and a new block next to the Multipurpose Hall; the school's emblem was introduced and has been used since the school's establishment in 1983. The design of the emblem did not undergo any major or significant change during the upgrading of SMK Simpang Lima into SMKA Simpang Lima and pursuant to the rebranding of SMKA Simpang Lima as SMKA Sabak Bernam; the school's management might have decided to incorporate the original emblem together with the motto "Disiplin Teras Kejayaan" into the identity of the new School. The only modification made are the color of the torch at the center of the emblem was changed from blue to green colour and the former school's name was replaced with the new one.

The emblem was made of five major colors and seven elements, each to represents unique quality or identity of the school. The school anthem was written by Madam Ustazah Latifah binti Abdullah in Arabic; the title of this song is "Madrasatuna". Students and teachers will sing this song on annual events; the school's annual magazine is called "Al-Hidayah" which means "The Right Way". Articles are contributed by teachers; the magazine reports the school's activities for the year, club activities, official school functions, news about teachers and students and class photos. Education in Malaysia Religious National Boarding School Sungai Besar Official website SMKA Simpang Lima Alumni - Alumni Association Official SMKA Simpang Lima Blog - Official Blog slisskool - Alumni connection

Laverne Pavlinac

Laverne Arlyce Pavlinac was an American woman who falsely confessed to assisting in the 1990 murder of 23-year-old Taunja Bennett of Portland, Oregon. Both Pavlinac and Sosnovske were convicted, with Pavlinac receiving a 10-year sentence, they served four years before both were exonerated after serial killer Keith Jesperson confessed to Bennett's murder. Pavlinac was born Laverne Johnson on December 19, 1932 in Oregon, she was raised in Clatskanie, where she graduated from Clatskanie High School in 1950. She worked as an aide at Dammasch State Hospital in Wilsonville, resided in West Linn. In 1950, she married Warren Brown, who died in 1978, she subsequently married Rudy Pavlinac that year, but the marriage was short-lived, as he died in 1979. On February 5, 1990, the Multnomah County Police Department received an anonymous phone call from a woman claiming she overheard a man in a bar bragging about committing the murder of 23-year-old Taunja Bennett, of Portland, Oregon. Bennett had gone missing on January 21, was found deceased on January 22, lying on the side of an embankment along the Old Columbia River Highway in the Columbia River Gorge, east of Portland.

She had been beaten, sexually assaulted, strangled to death. The anonymous caller identified the braggart as 39-year-old John Sosnovske, but his name was misspelled in the report, which prevented a follow-up from the sheriff's office; the following week, another call was placed to Clackamas County police. At the time, Sosnovske was a parolee. Through police correspondence with Sosnovske's parole officer, it was determined that the caller who implicated him was Laverne Pavlinac, Sosnovske's 58-year-old girlfriend. Both Pavlinac and Sosnovske were separately interviewed by law enforcement, Pavlinac was sent home with a recording wire, which police hoped to use in order to record Sosnovske implicating himself in conversation. In subsequent interviews, Pavlinac told law enforcement that on the night of January 21, she had received a phone call from Sosnovske, who told her he was "in trouble" and asked her to meet him at a truck stop in Troutdale. Upon her arrival, she claimed that Sosnovske was hiding between two large trailers, that the body of Bennett lay wrapped in a blanket at his feet.

Pavlinac thought she was ill, but was told by Sosnovske that she was in fact dead. Pavlinac claimed the two rolled Bennett's body into a shower curtain that she had brought with, disposed of her body along the Old Columbia River Highway, around 20 miles east in the Columbia River Gorge, she stated that before disposing of Bennett's body, Sosnovske cut a piece of fabric from her jeans to keep as a souvenir. Pavlinac accompanied law enforcement to the truck stop, where she identified the specific location she claimed to have seen Sosnovske standing with Bennett's body. Based on Pavlinac's interviews with law enforcement, Sosnovske was arrested. Following Sosnovske's arrest, a forensic analysis of Pavlinac's vehicle was completed, but no evidence indicating a body had been transported in it was found; the shower curtain, which Pavlinac claimed was thrown out of the car along the side of Interstate 84, was unable to be located. Pavlinac's story was at odds with several eyewitness accounts which placed Bennett at a bar 25 miles from where Pavlinac claimed Sosnovske met Bennett.

These eyewitnesses stated that they saw Bennett playing pool with two unidentified men, neither of whom were Sosnovske. In a subsequent interview with police, Pavlinac altered her story significantly: She now claimed that when she arrived at the truck stop on the night of January 21, Bennett was alive and willingly got into her car with Sosnovske. Pavlinac claimed she began to drive toward northeast Portland, where Bennett said she lived with her mother, but Sosnovske forced her to drive east on Interstate 84 instead, before punching Bennett in the face and rendering her unconscious. Pavlinac said she drove to Crown Point, where the three entered the Vista House, an historic building which serves as a rest stop. Inside the Vista House, Pavlinac stated she held a rope around Bennett's neck while Sosnovske raped her strangling her to death. After Pavlinac relayed this account of events, she was arrested, both she and Sosnovske were indicted in Bennett's murder. Pavlinac's trial began on January 24, 1991.

During the trial, she recanted her confession, claiming that she had lied to police in an attempt to escape her relationship with Sosnovske, whom she said was physically abusive to her throughout their ten-year relationship. "I started a lie, it snowballed on me," she testified in court. In the midst of Pavlinac's trial, a graffito was found inside a rest stop bathroom in Livingston, which read: I killed Tanya Bennett Jan. 21, 1990 in Portland, Oregon. I beat her to death, raped her, I loved it. Yes, I'm sick. People took the blame and I'm free. Another graffito of a similar nature was found in a rest stop in Oregon. Pavlinac was convicted of Bennett's murder, sentenced to life imprisonment on January 31, 1991. A key piece of evidence was her taped confession. Sosnovske pleaded no contest to murder in order to avoid the death penalty, was given a sentence of life imprisonment. Kei

Sujit Nair

Sujit Nair is a political commentator, anchor and a communication professional. He is the Chairperson and Managing Editor of HW News Network, he continues to run two shows named Editorial. Born in Thane, Nair's father Mr. P Balakrishnan Nair was a naval officer and his mother Mrs. Satyabhama Nair is a homemaker, he completed his schooling from St. John's The Baptist High School, he received his both postgraduate degrees from the Mumbai University. He was a former Executive Director at Lowe Lintas, his experience in direct marketing, mainline advertising, rural marketing and activation helped build a lot of successful brands. During his work in Lowe Lintas he attracted to cooperation a lot of companies such as Tata, Idea Cellular and Castrol, he was a key member in overseeing Lowe Lintas operations in Kochi, South India, Pune and Hyderabad. Lowe Lintas began its south Indian operations under his management as a president with Mayden Pharma that became its first partner in Kochi. Sujit had shown his support to New Media that launched the nationwide Cop-Community Connect seminars to ensure the safety of the denizens of the city.

He supported the campaign The Alert Mumbaikar, which promoted public awareness about the issues related to public safety. Sujit is the Managing Editor of HW News Network. HW News is a digital News channel which focuses on Political & Economic scenario of India; as an ongoing strategic process, HW News tied up with South Live. Both the platforms, that roll out a horde of news items across different genres, with HW News specializing in churning out political stories, aim to have a far-reaching impact of authentic journalism in the stream of politics. Sujit started IACA a self-help group to gather like-minded people for raising awareness against child abuse and to help children avail their rights

Laser Interferometer Space Antenna

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna is a mission led by the European Space Agency to detect and measure gravitational waves—tiny ripples in the fabric of space-time—from astronomical sources. LISA would be the first dedicated space-based gravitational wave detector, it aims to measure gravitational waves directly by using laser interferometry. The LISA concept has a constellation of three spacecraft arranged in an equilateral triangle with sides 2.5 million km long, flying along an Earth-like heliocentric orbit. The distance between the satellites is monitored to detect a passing gravitational wave; the LISA project started out as a joint effort between the United States space agency NASA and the European Space Agency ESA. However, in 2011, NASA announced that it would be unable to continue its LISA partnership with the European Space Agency due to funding limitations; the project is a recognized CERN experiment. A scaled down design known as the New Gravitational-wave Observatory was proposed for ESA's Cosmic Vision L1 mission selection.

In 2013, ESA selected'The Gravitational Universe' as the theme for its L3 mission in the early 2030s. Whereby it committed to launch a space based gravitational wave observatory. In January 2017, LISA was proposed as the candidate mission. On June 20, 2017 the suggested mission received its clearance goal for the 2030s, was approved as one of the main research missions of ESA; the LISA mission is designed for direct observation of gravitational waves, which are distortions of space-time travelling at the speed of light. Passing gravitational waves alternately stretch objects by a tiny amount. Gravitational waves are caused by energetic events in the universe and, unlike any other radiation, can pass unhindered by intervening mass. Launching LISA will add a new sense to scientists' perception of the universe and enable them to study phenomena that are invisible in normal light. Potential sources for signals are merging massive black holes at the centre of galaxies, massive black holes orbited by small compact objects, known as extreme mass ratio inspirals, binaries of compact stars in our Galaxy, other sources of cosmological origin, such as the early phase of the Big Bang, speculative astrophysical objects like cosmic strings and domain boundaries.

The LISA mission's primary objective is to detect and measure gravitational waves produced by compact binary systems and mergers of supermassive black holes. LISA will observe gravitational waves by measuring differential changes in the length of its arms, as sensed by laser interferometry; each of the three LISA spacecraft contains two telescopes, two lasers and two test masses, arranged in two optical assemblies pointed at the other two spacecraft. This forms Michelson-like interferometers, each centred on one of the spacecraft, with the test masses defining the ends of the arms; the entire arrangement, ten times larger than the orbit of the Moon, will be placed in solar orbit at the same distance from the Sun as the Earth, but trailing the Earth by 20 degrees, with the orbital planes of the three spacecraft inclined relative to the ecliptic by about 0.33 degree, which results in the plane of the triangular spacecraft formation being tilted 60 degrees from the plane of the ecliptic. The mean linear distance between the formation and the Earth will be 50 million kilometres.

To eliminate non-gravitational forces such as light pressure and solar wind on the test masses, each spacecraft is constructed as a zero-drag satellite. The test mass floats free inside in free-fall, whilst the spacecraft around it absorbs all these local non-gravitational forces. Using capacitive sensing to determine the spacecraft's position relative to the mass precise thrusters adjust the spacecraft so it follows, keeping itself centered around the mass; the longer the arms, the more sensitive the detector is to long-period gravitational waves, but its sensitivity to wavelengths shorter than the arms is reduced. As the satellites are free-flying, the spacing is adjusted before launch, with upper bounds being imposed by the sizes of the telescopes required at each end of the interferometer and the stability of the constellation orbit. Another length-dependent factor which must be compensated for is the "point-ahead angle" between the incoming and outgoing laser beams; the original 2008 LISA proposal had arms 5 million km long.

When downscoped to eLISA in 2013, arms of 1 million km were proposed. The approved 2017 LISA proposal has arms 2.5 million km long. Like most modern gravitational wave observatories, LISA is based on laser interferometry technique, its three satellites form a giant Michelson interferometer in which two "slave" satellites play the role of reflectors and one "master" satellite the one of source and observer. While a gravitational wave is passing through the interferometer, lengths of the two eLISA arms are varying due to space-time distortions resulting from the wave, it measures a relative phase shift between one local laser and one distant laser by light interference. Comparison between the observed laser beam frequency and the local laser beam frequency encodes the wave parameters. Unlike terrestrial GW observatories, LISA cannot keep its arms "lo