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Belgian Revolution

The Belgian Revolution was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium. The people of the south were Dutch-speaking Flemings and French-speaking Walloons. Both peoples were traditionally Roman Catholic as contrasted with the Protestant people of the north. Many outspoken liberals regarded King William I's rule as despotic. There were high levels of unemployment and industrial unrest among the working classes. On 25 August 1830, riots erupted in Brussels and shops were looted. Theatregoers who had just watched the nationalistic opera La muette de Portici joined the mob. Uprisings followed elsewhere in the country. Factories were occupied and machinery destroyed. Order was restored after William committed troops to the Southern Provinces but rioting continued and leadership was taken up by radicals, who started talking of secession. Dutch units pulled out; the States-General in Brussels declared independence.

In the aftermath, a National Congress was assembled. King William appealed to the Great Powers; the resulting 1830 London Conference of major European powers recognized Belgian independence. Following the installation of Leopold I as "King of the Belgians" in 1831, King William made a belated attempt to reconquer Belgium and restore his position through a military campaign; this "Ten Days' Campaign" failed because of French military intervention. Not until 1839 did the Dutch accept the decision of the London conference and Belgian independence by signing the Treaty of London; the Dutch overthrew Napoleonic rule in 1813 and, after the British-Dutch Treaty of 1814, named their state the "United Provinces of the Netherlands" or the "United Netherlands". After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, the Congress of Vienna created a kingdom for the House of Orange-Nassau, thus combining the United Provinces of the Netherlands with the former Austrian Netherlands in order to create a strong buffer state north of France.

Symptomatic of the tenor of diplomatic bargaining at Vienna was the early proposal to reward Prussia for its staunch fight against Napoleon with the former Habsburg territory. When the British insisted on retaining the former Dutch Ceylon and the Cape Colony the new kingdom of the Netherlands was compensated with these southern provinces; the union of these two areas reverted to the original cultural area of the Netherlands before the 16th century and were called the "United Kingdom of the Netherlands". The Belgian Revolution had many consequences. Catholic bishops in the south viewed the Protestant-majority north with suspicion, forbade working for the new government; this rule, originated in 1815 by Maurice-Jean de Broglie, the French nobleman, bishop of Ghent, caused an under-representation of Southerners in government apparatus and the army. The traditional economy of trade and an incipient Industrial Revolution were centred in the present day Netherlands in the large port of Amsterdam. Furthermore, although 62% of the population lived in the South, they were assigned the same number of representatives in the States General.

At the most basic level, the North was for free trade, while less-developed local industries in the South called for the protection of tariffs. Free trade lowered the price of bread, made from wheat imported through the reviving port of Antwerp; the more numerous Northern provinces represented a majority in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands' elected Lower Assembly, therefore the more populous Southerners felt under-represented. King William I was from the North, lived in the present day Netherlands, ignored the demands for greater autonomy, his more progressive and amiable representative living in Brussels, the twin capital, was the Crown-Prince William King William II, who had some popularity among the upper class but none among peasants and workers. A linguistic reform in 1823 was intended to make Dutch the official language in the Flemish provinces, since it was the language of most of the Flemish population; this reform met with strong opposition from the upper and middle classes who at the time were French-speaking.

On 4 June 1830, this reform was abolished. Religion was another cause of the Belgian Revolution. In the politics of the south Roman Catholicism was the important factor, its partisans fought against the freedom of religion proclaimed by William, at that time still supported by the liberal faction. Over time the liberal faction began to support the Catholics to accomplish its own goals: freedom of education and freedom of the press; the Belgian Revolution of 1830 crystallised this antagonism. The language policy of King William was abolished. Catholic partisans watched with excitement the unfolding of the July Revolution in France, details of which were swiftly reported in the newspapers. On 25 August 1830, at the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in Brussels, an uprising followed a special performance, in honor of William I's birthda

Roll On (Alabama album)

Roll On is the eighth studio album of country music band Alabama, released in 1984. All four singles released from this album reached Number One on the Hot Country Singles chart: "Roll On", "When We Make Love", "If You're Gonna Play in Texas" and " Fire in the Night". Music videos were made for "I'm Not That Way Anymore" and " Fire in the Night"; the album was certified quadruple platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. This was the last Alabama album to feature the Confederate battle flag on the cover. "Roll On" - 4:21 "Carolina Mountain Dewe" - 4:22 "The End of the Lyin'" - 2:59 "I'm Not That Way Anymore" - 4:49 "If You're Gonna Play in Texas" - 4:28 " Fire in the Night" - 4:14 "When We Make Love" - 3:36 "Country Side of Life" - 3:46 "The Boy" - 3:34 "Food on the Table" - 3:59Note: "I'm Not That Way Anymore" was recorded live at the Reunion Arena in Dallas, Texas. AlabamaRandy Owen: rhythm guitar, lead vocals Teddy Gentry: bass guitar, lead vocals on "The Boy" Jeff Cook: lead guitar, lead vocals on "Country Side of Life" Mark Herndon: drums, percussionAdditional musiciansJack Eubanks: acoustic guitar Gregg Galbraith: electric guitar Carl Jackson: banjo George "Leo" Jackson: acoustic guitar Shane Keister: keyboards Farrell Morris: percussion Fred Newell: electric guitar Larry Paxton: bass guitar Willie Rainsford: keyboards Larry Shell: acoustic guitar Milton Sledge: drums Blaine Sprouse: fiddleStrings by the "A" Strings, arranged by Kristin Wilkinson

Infiltrator (video game)

Infiltrator is a 1986 video game published in the US by Mindscape and in Europe by U. S. Gold, it was developed for the Atari 8-bit family, Apple II, MS-DOS, Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum by Chris Gray Enterprises. The player takes on the role of a master-of-all-trades hero named Johnny "Jimbo Baby" McGibbits; the player's objective is to fly an Airwolf-like helicopter named the Gizmo DHX-3, land at enemy bases, infiltrate compounds to stop the mad leader. Infiltrator is divided into six missions: three helicopter flying missions, three ground-based missions, which are paired together. During the helicopter missions, the goal is to take off in the helicopter, program the ADF to set the correct course, maneuver the helicopter to the landing area while hailing nearby planes to determine if they are friend or foe and engaging in firefights if the player responds incorrectly, land the helicopter safely without detection through use of whisper mode, their helicopter is equipped with missiles, chaffs, Radio Communications, a Status terminal, a Turbo engine and a whisper mode.

Once the player lands safely, the ground base mission begins. The player has access to five different items in their inventory; the papers are used to trick the enemy into thinking. If the guards get suspicious the player must use their gas canister or gas grenades to knock them out; the mine detector is used to discover buried mines while walking about. The explosives are used in the final ground mission to destroy the mad leader's base; the player's goal in each mission is to find a security card hidden in a cabinet in one of several multi-room buildings. Once located, the card will open up the locked security doors protecting the goal for each mission. In the second mission, the player must find the four chemical containers and take them to the lab for analysis to determine, the nerve gas neutralizer, find the vat of nerve gas to neutralize it. In the fourth mission, the player must find and rescue Dr. Phineas Gump, a scientist, captured by the mad leader; the player must feed him the invisibility pill to make their escape.

In the sixth mission, the player must find all seven of the mad leader's missile control rooms and plant explosives in them escape before the 10-minute timer counts down to zero. After completing the ground mission, the player must return to the helicopter and fly back to home base; the return flight is much shorter with fewer enemy planes than the missions to get to the enemy base. Once the player completes a mission, they are given a four letter passcode, so that they can return to the same mission during subsequent plays. Infiltrator was Mindscape's second best-selling Commodore game as of late 1987. Steve Panak writing for ANALOG Computing approved of the documentation but preferred Ace of Aces as an Atari 8-bit flight simulator. A 1994 survey of strategic space games set in the year 2000 and gave the game one star out of five, stating that "Tongue-in-cheek documentation grows tiresome, as does the program itself". Infiltrator II received zero stars and was described as "Even worse than the original".

Infiltrator was followed by a sequel, Infiltrator II: The Next Day, released in 1988 for the Apple II, Commodore 64, MS-DOS, the Nintendo Entertainment System. Because the original was never released on the NES, the sequel was released as "Infiltrator" on that platform; the game was novelized by Peter Lerangis, as part of the Worlds of Power series published by Scholastic Books. Infiltrator at Atari Mania Infiltrator at Lemon 64 Infiltrator at SpectrumComputing.co.uk