Universal manhood suffrage
Universal manhood suffrage is a form of voting rights in which all adult males within a political system are allowed to vote, regardless of income, religion, race, or any other qualification. It is sometimes summarized by the slogan, "one man, one vote". In 1789, Revolutionary France adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and, although short-lived, the National Convention was elected by all men in 1792, it was revoked by the Directory in 1795. Universal male suffrage was re-established in France in the wake of the French Revolution of 1848. In the United States, the rise of Jacksonian democracy from the 1820s to 1850s led to a close approximation of universal manhood suffrage among whites being adopted in all states by 1856. Poorer white male citizens gained representation; the expansion of suffrage was peaceful, excepting the Rhode Island Dorr Rebellion. Most African-American males remained excluded; as women began to win the right to vote during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the goal of universal manhood suffrage was replaced by universal suffrage.
The Garde Civique or Burgerwacht was a Belgian paramilitary militia which existed between 1830 and 1920. Created in October 1830 shortly after the Belgian Revolution, the Guard amalgamated the various militia groups, created by the middle classes to protect property during the political uncertainty, its role was as a quasi-military "gendarmerie", with the primary role of maintaining social order within Belgium. Anachronistic, it was demobilised in 1914 and disbanded in 1920, following a disappointing performance during the German invasion of Belgium in World War I; the Garde was organized at a local level in all communes with more than 30,000 inhabitants. It was composed of citizens aged between 21 and 50 who did not have military obligations as serving soldiers or reservists; those aged between 21 and 32 were required to undertake training ten times annually, while the second class were obliged only to register their addresses at regular intervals. A third class was composed of older volunteers, who were not equipped, uniformed or armed and were expected only to provide support functions in their local regions.
The Garde Civique was, in peacetime, the responsibility of the Ministry of the Interior rather than the Ministry of War. It was distinct from the Belgian Gendarmerie. Most of the Garde units were infantry but there were some artillery and mounted detachments. On the eve of World War I the Garde Civique included 33 companies of chasseurs-à-pied, 17 batteries of artillery, 4 squadrons of chasseurs-à-cheval and 3 companies of sapeurs-pompiers. About half of these special corps were concentrated in the urban areas of Brussels, Ghent and Liège, reflecting the historic role of the Garde as a force to maintain civil order; the stated purpose of the Garde was to maintain order and preserve the independence and integrity of Belgium. Each regional unit of the Garde had its own dark blue or green uniform following the pattern of those worn by the regular army but with a number of variations. Infantry wore a wide brimmed hat with plume, cavalry a fur artillery a shako; the 40,700 civil guardsmen serving in the active portion of the force were required to provide their own uniforms.
The Garde Civique were mobilised following the German invasion of Belgium on 4 August 1914. Their intended functions were to secure lines of communication, guard bridges and other installations, escort prisoners and maintain order outside the actual areas of combat; the German military authorities however chose to regard members of the Garde as franc-tireurs and, as such, not under the protection of international law if taken prisoner. Demands were made that they be disbanded. In view of the German shooting of Belgian civilian hostages during the early stages of the invasion such threats were taken and on 13 October 1914 King Albert I decreed the dissolution of the Garde. Most of its younger members transferred to the regular Belgian Army. Upon entering liberated Belgium territory in October 1918, King Albert was met by a saluting veteran of the Garde Civique in full-dress uniform who had kept his equipment and rifle hidden during the four years of German occupation; such incidents could not however avoid the reality that the Garde had proven to be of limited military use and was no longer required for the role of ensuring social order, its prime purpose during the 19th century.
The force was accordingly formally disbanded in 1920. Belgian Gendarmerie - Another paramilitary police force in the country, disbanded in 1992 Force Publique - A comparable quasi-military police force in the Belgian Congo Leclercq, Pierre. Histoire de la Garde Civique. Brussels: Labor. ISBN 9782804020224. Garde Civique at 1914-1918 Online: International Encyclopedia of the First World War
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Belgium in "the long nineteenth century"
The history of Belgium from 1789 to 1914, the period dubbed the "Long Nineteenth Century" by the historian Eric Hobsbawm, includes the end of Austrian rule and periods of French and Dutch occupation of the region, leading to the creation of the first independent Belgian state in 1830. In the years leading up to 1789, the territory today known as Belgium was divided into two states, called the Austrian Netherlands and Prince-Bishopric of Liège, both of which were part of the Holy Roman Empire; the area was captured by the French during the French Revolutionary Wars and incorporated into the French First Republic from 1794 to 1815. In the aftermath of Napoleon's final defeat in 1815, the Congress of Vienna added the territory of Belgium to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. In 1830, with the Belgian Revolution the Belgian provinces declared their independence, but only gained it in 1839. From 1885 the creation of a personal colony by Leopold II, the Congo Free State caused and international outcry over human rights abuses, forced the Belgian state to annex the region in 1908, forming the Belgian Congo.
In 1909, after his uncle's death, Albert I began his reign, which lasted until 1934. Despite declaring neutrality, Belgium was invaded by the German Empire in August 1914, beginning the country's involvement in World War I; the "long nineteenth century" saw profound economic changes in Belgium. The Industrial Revolution, which began to take effect in Belgium during the period of French rule, transformed the region's economy over the course of the period. By 1914, Belgium was acknowledged as one of the most densely industrialized countries in Europe, with notable coal mining and manufacturing industries. At the start of the period, French was the dominant language, was the only one approved for use in legal and government business, however Belgium become bilingual in 1870 and Dutch was recognized as an equal language to French in legal matters in 1898; the territory of Belgium varied little over the period. Belgium's border with the Netherlands was the same as that, created after the Dutch Revolt in the early 17th century, its western border was the same as those of the 18th-century polities the Austrian Netherlands and Prince-Bishopric of Liège.
It was only after the French annexation of 1795. In the 1830s, Belgian revolutionaries sought to create an independent state within the borders of the nine provinces, established under French occupation while ending the traditional roles of the small duchies and counties which had traditionally been the basic territorial units. Aside from Zeelandic Flanders, part of Luxembourg, Northern Limburg, which were ceded to the Dutch to compensate for the loss of the rest of the territory, the outline of Belgium in 1914 was identical to that established by the French in 1795; the three ceded territories had a total of 300,000 inhabitants at the time. The northern half of Belgium, which would come to be known as Flanders, was a agricultural area containing the important port of Antwerp, the city of Ghent and the capital, Brussels. In the southern half, which would come to be known as Wallonia, a number of smaller towns and cities along the valley of the Sambre and Meuse rivers – the sillon industriel – became the focus of industrialization.
In the west of the valley, around Charleroi, was the Pays Noir, which held significant coal deposits. In southeast Belgium, along the border with Luxembourg and Prussia, was the forested and agricultural region known as the Ardennes. In 1784, Belgium's population was 2.6 million, with just 25 percent living in cities. During the 19th century, the population both urbanized. Between 1830 and 1875 the population of Brussels grew from 100,000 to 180,000, by 1910 the population of the metropolitan area soared to 750,000; the population of Belgium was universally Roman Catholic, though free-thinking movements like Freemasonry were popular among intellectuals and the urban middle classes. Throughout the "long nineteenth century," as a common destination for political refugees, Belgium was home to important émigré communities in Brussels. From 1871, many of the Paris Communards fled to Brussels; the far-right politician General Georges Boulanger arrived in 1889. Other notable exiles living in Belgium included the theorist Karl Marx.
While in control of Belgium and the Netherlands each tried to force assimilation of their national languages, but in neither case did their rule last long enough for the language to become entrenched across the region or for local dialects to be displaced. In 1846, 57 percent of Belgians spoke dialects of Dutch or Flemish as their primary language while 42 percent spoke dialects of French, such as Walloon, Picard or Gaumais. Under one percent of the population spoke German. Across the country, the aristocracy and middle classes spoke French as a second language, French was the language of the legal system and government. There was a huge variation in accents and grammar across the country in Flanders, where regional dialects were incomprehensible to those from other regions. In Brussels, situated in a predominantly Dutch-speaking area, 38 percent spoke French in 1842 while 61 percent spoke Dutch. By the end of the period, social change and internal immigration from Wallonia contributed to the growing importance of French in Brussels.
In 1789, the area of modern-day Belgium was divided into two independently-governed poli
German occupation of Belgium during World War I
The German occupation of Belgium of World War I was a military occupation of Belgium by the forces of the German Empire between 1914 and 1918. Beginning in August 1914 with the invasion of neutral Belgium, the country was completely overrun by German troops before the winter of the same year as the Allied forces withdrew westwards; the Belgian government went into exile, while King Albert I and the Belgian Army continued to fight on a section of the Western Front. Under the German military, Belgium was divided into three separate administrative zones; the majority of the country fell within the General Government, a formal occupation administration ruled by a German general, while the others, closer to the front line, came under more repressive direct military rule. The German occupation coincided with a widespread economic collapse in Belgium with shortages and widespread unemployment, but with a religious revival. Relief organisations, which relied on foreign support to bring food and clothing to Belgian civilians, cut off from imports by the Allied naval blockade and the fighting became important to the social and cultural life of the country.
The German occupation administration repressed political dissent and launched numerous unpopular measures, including the deportation of Belgian workers to Germany and forced labour on military projects. It supported the radical Flemish Movement by making numerous concessions as part of the Flamenpolitik in an attempt to gain support among the country's Flemish population; as a result, numerous resistance movements were founded which attempted to sabotage military infrastructure, collect intelligence for the Allies or print underground newspapers. Low-level expressions of dissent were common although repressed. From August 1918, the Allies advanced into occupied Belgium during the Hundred Days Offensive, liberating some areas. For most of the country, the occupation was only brought to an end in the aftermath of the armistice of November 1918 as the Belgian Army advanced into the country to replace evacuating German troops in maintaining law and order. Following its independence in 1830, Belgium had been obliged to remain neutral in perpetuity by an 1839 treaty as part of a guarantee for its independence.
Before the war, Belgium was a constitutional monarchy and was noted for being one of the most industrialised countries in the world. On 4 August 1914, the German army invaded Belgium just days after presenting an ultimatum to the Belgian government to allow free passage of German troops across its borders; the German army advanced into Belgium and capturing the fortified cities of Liège, Namur and Antwerp and pushing the 200,000-strong Belgian army, supported by their French and British allies, to the far west. Large numbers of refugees fled to neighbouring countries. In October 1914, the German advance was stopped near the French border by a Belgian force at the Yser and by a combined Franco-British force at the Marne; as a result, the front line stabilised with most of Belgium under German control. In the absence of any decisive offensive, most of Belgium remained under German control until the end of the war. While most of Belgium was occupied, King Albert I continued to command the Belgian Army along a section of the Western Front, known as the Yser Front, through West Flanders from his headquarters in Veurne.
The Belgian government, led by Charles de Broqueville, established itself in exile in Le Havre in north-western France. Belgium's colonial possession in Africa, the Belgian Congo remained loyal to the Allies and the Le Havre government. During the course of their advance through Belgium, the Germans committed a number of war crimes against the Belgian civilian population along their route of advance; these massacres were responses to towns whose populations were accused of fighting as Francs-Tireurs or guerillas against the German army. Civilians were summarily executed and several towns deliberately destroyed in a series of punitive actions collectively known as The Rape of Belgium; as many as 6,500 people were killed by the German army between August and November 1914. In Leuven, the historic library of the town's university was deliberately burned. News of the atrocities widely exaggerated by the Allied press, raised considerable sympathy for the Belgian civilian population in occupied Belgium.
The sympathy for the plight of Belgian civilians and Belgian refugees continued in Allied newspapers and propaganda until the end of the war. By November 1914, the vast majority of Belgian territory was under German occupation. From November 1914, occupied Belgium, together with the occupied French border areas of Givet and Fumay, was divided by the Germans into three zones; the first, the Operationsgebied, covered a small amount of territory near the front line in the far west of Belgium. Near this zone was the Etappengebied, covering most of East and West Flanders along with parts of Hainaut and Luxembourg; the remainder of the country, was the largest of the zones, the Generalgouvernement, which covered the majority of the country and the French territories. Unlike the Operational and Staging Zones, the General Government was intended to be a total administration and so was markedly less repressive that the other two zones whose governance was based on military concerns alone. Civilians in the Operational and Staging Zones were classed as "prisoners" by the German military.
The General Government was placed under the command of a German general, accountable to the Army. After a brief tenure by Colmar von der Goltz in 1914, command was held by Moritz von Bissing and from
Charles Neal Ascherson is a Scottish journalist and writer. Ascherson was born in Edinburgh on 5 October 1932, he was awarded a scholarship to Eton. Before going to university, he did his National Service as an officer in the Royal Marines, serving from July 1951 to September 1952, seeing combat in Malaya, he attended King's College, where he read history and graduated with a triple starred first degree. The historian Eric Hobsbawm was his tutor at Cambridge and described Ascherson as "perhaps the most brilliant student I had. I didn't teach him much, I just let him get on with it." He is a member of the semi-secretive Cambridge Apostles society. After graduating he declined offers to pursue an academic career. Instead, he chose a career in journalism, first at The Manchester Guardian and at The Scotsman, The Observer and The Independent on Sunday, he contributed scripts for the documentary series The World at the Cold War. He has been a regular contributor to the London Review of Books. Ascherson has written extensively about Polish and Eastern Europe affairs.
In the 1999 election for the Scottish Parliament he stood as the Liberal Democrat candidate in the West Renfrewshire constituency but was not successful. As of 2016 Ascherson is a Visiting Professor at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, he has been editor of Public Archaeology, an academic journal associated with UCL devoted to CRM and public archaeology issues and developments, since its inception in 1999. In 1991 Ascherson was awarded an honorary degree from the Open University as Doctor of the University. On St Andrew's Day 2011 at their Anniversary Meeting the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland elected Ascherson an Honorary Fellow. Neal Ascherson's first wife was Corinna Adam, they had two daughters together before separating in 1974. The couple divorced in 1982. Corinna Ascherson a journalist, died in March 2012. In 1984, he married the journalist Isabel Hilton; the couple live in London and have two children and Alexander. His aunt was the British actress Renée Asherson.
The King Incorporated: Leopold the Second and the Congo. 1963. ISBN 1-86207-290-6; the Polish August: The Self-limiting Revolution. 1981. ISBN 0-670-56305-6; the Book of Lech Wałęsa. 1982. ISBN 0-671-45684-9; the Spanish Civil War The Nazi Legacy. 1984. ISBN 0-03-069303-9. With Magnus Linklater and Isabel Hilton The Struggles For Poland. 1987. ISBN 0-7181-2812-5. Games With Shadows. 1988. ISBN 0-09-173019-8. Black Sea. 1995. ISBN 0-8090-3043-8. Stone Voices: The Search for Scotland. 2002. ISBN 0-8090-8491-0. Opposition to Turkey's Ilisu Dam rises again with Maggie Ronayne, published 27 November 2007, chinadialogue Death of the Fronsac: A Novel. 2017. ISBN 978-1786694379. Works by or about Neal Ascherson in libraries Neal Ascherson's CV at PFD Neal Ascherson on IMDb Neal Ascherson - Guardian Neal Ascherson - Prospect