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Belgium

Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it covers an area of 30,689 km2 and has a population of more than 11.5 million, making it the 22nd most densely populated country in the world and the 6th most densely populated country in Europe, with a density of 376 per square kilometre. The capital and largest city is Brussels. Belgium is a sovereign state and a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system, its institutional organization is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds. It is divided into three autonomous regions: the Flemish Region in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 60 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians.

A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons. The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium is part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its modern name is derived from the Latin word Belgium, used in Julius Caesar's "Gallic War", to describe the region in the period around 55 BCE. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan center of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars.

The country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa; the second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and its capital, hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as one of two seats of the European Parliament. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area.

Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy, it has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index. It ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world; the Belgae were the inhabitants of the northernmost part of Gaul, bigger than modern Belgium. Caesar used the word "Belgium" once. Gallia Belgica, as it was more called, became a Roman province as a result of his conquests. Areas closer to the Rhine frontier, including the eastern part of modern Belgium became part of the province of Germania Inferior, which interacted with Germanic tribes outside the empire. At the time when central government collapsed in the Western Roman Empire, the region of Belgium was inhabited by a mix of Frankish tribes and a more Romanized population. During the 5th century the area came under the rule of the Merovingian kings, who had seized power in what is northern France.

A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. The Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the Carolingian empire into three kingdoms, whose borders had a lasting impact on medieval political boundaries. Most of modern Belgium was in the Middle Kingdom known as Lotharingia. Only the coastal county of Flanders became part of the predecessor of France. In 870 in the Treaty of Meersen, modern Belgium lands all became part of the western kingdom, in 1880 in the Treaty of Ribemont, Lotharingia came under the lasting control of the Holy Roman Emperor, but the lordships along the "March" between the two great kingdoms maintained important connections. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries. Emperor Charles V extended the personal union

Botswana at the 2008 Summer Olympics

Botswana competed in the 2008 Summer Olympics which were held in Beijing, People's Republic of China from August 8 to August 24, 2008. KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Track & road eventsField eventsWomen Track & road events Botswana qualified two boxers for the Olympic boxing tournament. Ikgopoleng qualified in the bantamweight at the first African qualifying event. Batshegi qualified in the featherweight at the second African event. Qualifiers for the latter rounds of all events were decided on a time only basis, therefore positions shown are overall results versus competitors in all heats. MenWomen Botswana at the 2006 Commonwealth Games Botswana at the 2008 Summer Paralympics Botswana at the 2010 Commonwealth Games sports-reference

List of rulers of Matamba

The following is an incomplete list of the rulers of the Kingdom of Matamba, a late medieval West−Central African state centered in a region of present day Angola. The Kingdom of Matamba was ruled by native Northern Mbundu kings and queens since at least the early 16th century. During much of this time it was a nominal vassal to the powerful Kingdom of Kongo to its north. In 1631, Matamba was invaded by the warrior queen Nzinga Mbande of the neighboring Northern Mbundu Kingdom of Ndongo. From on, the state would be ruled by Ndongo monarchs of the Guterres Dynasty. Matamban and Ndongo monarchs Former monarchies of Africa Fernando Campos: Conflitos na dinastia Guterres através da sua cronologia1, África: Revista do Centro de Estudos Africanos. USP, S. Paulo, 27-28: 23-43, 2006/2007