José de San Martín
José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras, known as José de San Martín or El Libertador of Argentina and Peru, was a Spanish-Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern and central parts of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru. Born in Yapeyú, Corrientes, in modern-day Argentina, he left his mother country at the early age of seven to study in Málaga, Spain. In 1808, after taking part in the Peninsular War against France, San Martín contacted South American supporters of independence from Spain. In 1812, he set sail for Buenos Aires and offered his services to the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, present-day Argentina. After the Battle of San Lorenzo and time commanding the Army of the North during 1814, he organized a plan to defeat the Spanish forces that menaced the United Provinces from the north, using an alternative path to the Viceroyalty of Peru; this objective first involved the establishment of a new army, the Army of the Andes, in Cuyo Province, Argentina.
From there, he led the Crossing of the Andes to Chile, triumphed at the Battle of Chacabuco and the Battle of Maipú, thus liberating Chile from royalist rule. He sailed to attack the Spanish stronghold of Lima, Peru. On 12 July 1821, after seizing partial control of Lima, San Martín was appointed Protector of Peru, Peruvian independence was declared on 28 July. On 22 July 1822, after a closed-door meeting with fellow libertador Simón Bolívar at Guayaquil, Bolívar took over the task of liberating Peru. San Martín unexpectedly left the country and resigned the command of his army, excluding himself from politics and the military, moved to France in 1824; the details of the 22 July meeting would be a subject of debate by historians. San Martín is regarded as a national hero of Argentina and Peru, one of the Liberators of Spanish South America; the Order of the Liberator General San Martín, created in his honor, is the highest decoration conferred by the Argentine government. José de San Martín was the fifth and last son of Juan de San Martín, an unsuccessful Spanish soldier, Gregoria Matorras del Ser.
He was born in an Indian reduction of Guaraní people. The exact year of his birth is disputed. Documents formulated during his life, such as passports, military career records and wedding documentation, gave him varying ages. Most of these documents point to his year of birth as either 1777 or 1778; the family moved to Buenos Aires in 1781, when San Martín was four years old. Juan requested to be transferred to Spain, leaving the Americas in 1783; the family settled in Madrid. Once in the city, San Martín enrolled in Málaga's school of temporalities, beginning his studies in 1785, it is unlikely that he finished the six-year-long elementary education, before he enrolled in the Regiment of Murcia in 1789, when he reached the required age of 11. He began his military career as a cadet in the Murcian Infantry Unit. San Martín took part in several Spanish campaigns in North Africa, fighting in Melilla and in Oran against the Moors in 1791, among others, his rank was raised to Sub-Lieutenant in 1793, at the age of 15.
He began a naval career during the War of the Second Coalition, when Spain was allied with France against Great Britain, during the time of the French Revolution. His ship "Santa Dorotea" was captured by British forces. Soon afterward, he continued to fight in southern Spain in Cadiz and Gibraltar with the rank of Second Captain of light infantry, he continued to fight Portugal on the side of Spain in the War of the Oranges in 1801. He was promoted to captain in 1804. During his stay in Cádiz he was influenced by the ideas of the Spanish Enlightenment. At the outbreak of the Peninsular War in 1808, San Martín was named adjutant of Francisco María Solano Ortiz de Rosas. Rosas, suspected of being an afrancesado, was killed by a popular uprising which overran the barracks and dragged his corpse in the streets. San Martín was appointed to the armies of Andalucía, led a battalion of volunteers. In June 1808 his unit became incorporated into a guerrilla force led by Juan de la Cruz Mourgeón, he was saved by Sergeant Juan de Dios.
On 19 July 1808, Spanish and French forces engaged in the battle of Bailén, a Spanish victory that allowed the Army of Andalusia to attack and seize Madrid. For his actions during this battle, San Martín was awarded a gold medal, his rank raised to lieutenant colonel. On 16 May 1811, he fought in the battle of Albuera under the command of general William Carr Beresford. By this time, the French armies held most of the Iberian Peninsula under their control, except for Cádiz. San Martín resigned from the Spanish army, for controversial reasons, moved to South America, where he joined the Spanish American wars of independence. Historians propose several explanations for this action: the common ones are that he missed his native country, that he was a British agent and the congruence of the goals of both wars; the first explanation suggests that when the wars of independence began San Martín thought that his duty was to return to his country and serve in the military conflict. The second explanation suggests that Britain, which would benefit from the independence of the South American countries, sent San Martín to achieve it.
The third suggests that both wars were caused by the conflicts b
Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London, famed as a fashionable residential area and as the home of numerous prestigious cultural and educational institutions. It is bounded by Fitzrovia to the west, Covent Garden to the south, Regent's Park and St. Pancras to the north, Clerkenwell to the east. Bloomsbury is home of the British Museum, the largest museum in the United Kingdom, numerous educational institutions, including the University College London, the University of London, the New College of the Humanities, the University of Law, the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, many others. Bloomsbury is an intellectual and literary hub for London, as home of world-known Bloomsbury Publishing, publishers of the Harry Potter series, namesake of the Bloomsbury Set, a group of famous British intellectuals, including author Virginia Woolf and economist John Maynard Keynes, among others. Bloomsbury began to be developed in the 1600's under the Earls of Southampton, but it was in the 19th century, under the Duke of Bedford, which the district was planned and built as an affluent Regency era residential area by famed developer James Burton.
The district is known for its numerous garden squares, including Bloomsbury Square, Russell Square, Tavistock Square, among others. The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is in the 1086 Domesday Book, which states that the area had vineyards and "wood for 100 pigs", but it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land. The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi -- the manor, of Blemond. An 1878 publication and New London: Volume 4, mentions the idea that the area was named after a village called "Lomesbury" which stood where Bloomsbury Square is now, though this etymology is now discredited. At the end of the 14th century, Edward III acquired Blemond's manor, passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area rural. In the 16th century with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the land back into the possession of the Crown and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton.
In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what became Bloomsbury Square. The Yorkshire Grey public house on the corner of Gray's Inn Road and Theobald's Road dates from 1676; the area was laid out in the 18th century by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, which opened in 1730. The major development of the squares that we see today started in about 1800 when Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford removed Bedford House and developed the land to the north with Russell Square as its centrepiece. Bloomsbury is associated with the arts and medicine; the area gives its name to the Bloomsbury Group of artists, the most famous of whom was Virginia Woolf, who met in private homes in the area in the early 1900s, to the lesser known Bloomsbury Gang of Whigs formed in 1765 by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford. The publisher Faber & Faber used to be located in Queen Square, though at the time T. S. Eliot was editor the offices were in Tavistock Square.
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street in 1848. The Bloomsbury Festival was launched in 2006 when local resident Roma Backhouse was commissioned to mark the re-opening of the Brunswick Centre, a residential and shopping area; the free festival is a celebration of the local area, partnering with galleries and museums, achieved charitable status at the end of 2012. As of 2013, the Duchess of Bedford is a festival patron and Cathy Mager is the Festival Director. Bloomsbury is home to Senate House and the main library of the University of London, Birkbeck College, Institute of Education, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, School of Pharmacy, School of Oriental and African Studies, the Royal Veterinary College and University College London, a branch of the University of Law, London Contemporary Dance School, the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, Goodenough College. Other colleges include the University of London's School of Advanced Study, the Architectural Association School of Architecture in Bedford Square, the London campuses of several American colleges including Arcadia University, the University of California, University of Delaware, Florida State University, Syracuse University, New York University, the Hult International Business School.
Different kinds of tutoring institutions like Bloomsbury International for English Language, Bloomsbury Law Tutors for law education, Skygate Tutors and Topmark Tutors Centre contributing to grow the private tutoring sector in Bloomsbury. The British Museum, which first opened to the public in 1759 in Montagu House, is at the heart of Bloomsbury. At the centre of the museum the space around the former British Library Reading Room, filled with the concrete storage bunkers of the British Library, is today the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court, an indoor square with a glass roof designed by British architect Norman Foster, it houses a cinema, a shop, a cafe and a restaurant. Since 1998, the British Library has been located in a purpose-built building just outside the northern edge of Bloomsbury, in Euston Road. In Bloomsbury is the Foundling Museum, close to Brunswick Square, which tells the story of the Foundling Hospital opened by Thomas Coram for unwanted children in Georgian London; the hospital, now demolished except for the Georgian colonnade, is today a playground and outdoor sports field for children, called Coram's Fields.
It is home to a small number of sheep. The nearby Lamb's Conduit Street i
George Dance (dramatist)
Sir George Dance was an English lyricist and librettist in the 1890s and an important theatrical manager at the beginning of the 20th century. Dance wrote several hit musicals, including The Gay Parisienne and A Chinese Honeymoon, one of the most successful musicals in history until the 1940s. In the early years of the 20th century, he became one of the most successful theatrical managers in the United Kingdom, managing many productions both on the West End and on tour. Dance was born in Nottingham, the son of Isaac Dance a pipe maker. Dance was educated at the National School, Nottingham, he married Grace Spong in 1898, the couple produced two sons and a daughter. His son Eric, who died in a prison camp during the World War II, was responsible for the building of the Oxford Playhouse, which opened in 1938. Early in his career, he was prolific songwriter; some of his most famous songs were for the music hall, including "Girls are the Ruin of Men", one of Vesta Tilley's successes, "Come Where Me Booze is Cheaper", "Angels without Wings", "His Lordship Winked at the Counsel".
In the 1890s Dance turned to writing libretti for light operas and musical comedies and producing musical comedies. His works included: The Nautch Girl, or, The Rajah of Chutneypore – 1891, a comic opera with lyrics by himself and Frank Desprez, music by Edward Solomon at the Savoy Theatre. Ma mie Rosette – 1892, a comic opera adapted from the French of Prevel and Liorat, with music by Paul Lacome and Ivan Caryll, featuring Courtice Pounds, Frank Wyatt, Jessie Bond and R. Scott Fishe A Modern Don Quixote – 1893; the Gay Parisienne in 1894. Buttercup and Daisy – 1895, with music by Arthur Richards and others. Lord Tom Noddy – 1896, starring Little Tich The Lady Slavey – operetta in 2 acts; the Gay Grisette – musical comedy with music by Carl Kiefert, 1898. The Ladies' Paradise with music and lyrics by Ivan Caryll, 1901. A Chinese Honeymoon – musical comedy in two acts, with music by Howard Talbot. Dance made a fortune on its historic run, he became one of the most successful theatrical managers in the United Kingdom having as many as 24 companies on tour at once.
He was behind the scenes financially at many of the big West End theatres in the days preceding the World War I, including the Adelphi Theatre, the Gaiety Theatre, Daly's Theatre and the Prince of Wales Theatre. He directed theatre companies at the Alhambra Theatre and the Kingsway Theatre and many Stoll Theatres Corporation productions. Dance was knighted in 1923 in recognition of his services to the theatre, which included a gift of £30,000 for the reconstruction of the Old Vic and stabilisation of that theatre as a permanent Shakespeare repertory theatre. Dance died at home in London in 1932 at the age of 75, his estate was valued at over 150,000 pounds. George Dance at the Internet Broadway Database Review of The Nautch Girl complimentary of Dance Brief profile of Dance Information about Dance as an impresario
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea
Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea, PC was a British statesman and a close ally and confidant of Florence Nightingale. He was the younger son of George Herbert, 11th Earl of Pembroke, his mother being the Russian noblewoman Countess Catherine Woronzow, daughter of the Russian ambassador to St James's, Semyon Romanovich Vorontsov; the Woronzow Road in St John's Wood, London, is named after the family. Educated at Harrow and Oriel College, Oxford, he made a reputation at the Oxford Union as a speaker. Herbert entered the House of Commons as Conservative member of Parliament for a division of Wiltshire in 1832. Under Peel he held minor offices, in 1845 was included in the cabinet as Secretary at War, again held this office from 1852 to 1855, being responsible for the War Office during the Crimean War, again in 1859. Herbert was a member of the Canterbury Association from 20 March 1848. Herbert ran the Pembroke family estates, centered at Wilton House, for most of his adult life, his elder half-brother, Robert Herbert, 12th Earl of Pembroke, had chosen to live in exile in Paris after a disastrous marriage in 1814 to a Sicilian princess, Ottavia Spinelli, widow of Prince Ercole Branciforte di Butera, daughter of the Duke of Laurino, a subsequent liaison with Alexina Gallot, which resulted in four illegitimate children.
It was Sidney Herbert who sent Florence Nightingale out to Scutari, with Nightingale led the movement for Army Health and War Office reform after the war. The hard work entailed caused a breakdown in his health, so that in July 1861, having been created a baron in the peerage of the United Kingdom, he had to resign office, he died from Bright's disease on 2 August 1861. His statue by Foley was placed in front of the War Office in Pall Mall and after that building's demolition placed next to A. G. Walker's statue of Florence Nightingale in Waterloo Place, adjacent to the Crimean Monument. In the early 1840s, Herbert is thought to have had an affair with the noted society beauty and author Caroline Norton, unable to get a divorce from an abusive husband, so that the relationship ended in 1846. In 1846 Sidney Herbert married Elizabeth, only daughter of Lt.-Gen. Charles Ash is niece of William à Court, 1st Baron Heytesbury, she was a philanthropist and translator, a friend of Benjamin Disraeli, Cardinal Manning and Cardinal Vaughan.
After her husband's death, Lady Herbert became an "ardent ultramontane" Roman Catholic, along with their eldest daughter, Mary. Sidney and Elizabeth Herbert lived at 49 Belgrave Square and had seven children: Mary Catherine, who m. 1873 the great modernist theologian, Baron Friedrich von Hügel. George Robert Charles Herbert, who succeeded in the title and became the 13th Earl of Pembroke, the barony is now merged in that earldom. Elizabeth Maud, who m. 1872 the composer, Sir Charles Hubert Parry, 1st Baronet, of Highnam Court, near Gloucester. Sidney Herbert a Member of Parliament, who succeeded his brother as the 14th Earl of Pembroke. William Reginald Herbert, lost at sea aboard HMS Captain, aged 16. Michael Henry Herbert, after whom the town of Herbert in Saskatchewan, Canada, is named, was a diplomat who ended his career as British Ambassador to the US in Washington DC in succession to Lord Pauncefote, he m. 1888 Lelia "Belle", daughter of Richard Thornton Wilson, a New York banker and cotton broker, had Sir Sidney Herbert, 1st Baronet.
Constance Gwladys, who m. 1st 1878 St George Henry Lowther, 4th Earl of Lonsdale and m. 2ndly 1885 Frederick Oliver Robinson, the Earl de Grey 2nd and last Marquess of Ripon. Sidney Herbert is buried in the churchyard at Wilton, rebuilt by his father in neo-Romanesque style, with inside the church a marble monumental effigy of him beside Elizabeth, his wife. Herbert Sound in the Antarctic and Pembroke, Ontario in Canada are named after Sidney Herbert. Mount Herbert, the highest peak on Banks Peninsula, was named by the chief surveyor of the Canterbury Association, Joseph Thomas, in 1849. Crimean War Memorial Mount Merrion Royal Herbert Hospital Sir Tresham Lever, The Herberts of Wilton Burke's Peerage, 107th edition Mark Bostridge, Florence Nightingale; the Woman and Her Legend Works by or about Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea at Internet Archive Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Herbert of Lea
Institute of Directors
The Institute of Directors is a business organisation for company directors, senior business leaders and entrepreneurs. It is the UK’s longest running organisation for professional leaders, having been founded in 1903 and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1906; the IoD, per its mission statement, stands for "free enterprise, entrepreneurialism, wealth creation and good corporate governance," and represents "the views of businesses and IoD members in the media and with government."The IoD is located in a Grade I-listed building at 116 Pall Mall the United Service Club. Members of the IoD gain access to co-working spaces around the UK, bespoke market intelligence, tailored tax and legal support, exclusive member-only events along with discounts on IoD professional development courses and events. From a high of 55,000 members in 2005, the IoD has just over 30,000 full members. Members of the IoD come from all industries. Around 70% work for small and medium-sized enterprises and are in senior management and boardroom-level positions, while 78% of FTSE 100 companies have an IoD member on their board or in a senior management position.
The IoD was founded in 1903 and incorporated by royal charter in 1906. The royal charter compels the IoD to: Promote for the public benefit high levels of skill, professional competence and integrity on the part of directors Represent the interests of members and the business community to government and in the public arena Encourage and foster a climate favourable to entrepreneurial activity and wealth creation Promote the study and development of corporate governance The IoD represents individual members; every member’s voice carries equal weight within the organisation, members retain their membership of the IoD throughout their career. This allows the IoD free rein to speak out on behalf of the business community and discuss individual companies in public. There are 30,000 IoD members in the UK and overseas, with an additional 2,500 student members. Anybody who has an interest in business, is running a business, sits on a board or runs their own company can join the IoD. In order to help address declining membership the IoD 99 was established in 2015.
This initiative is aimed at members who are under the age of 42, gives a substantial discount on membership fees. Additionally IoD Advance was launched in March 2016, which gives additional benefits in return for a higher annual subscription; the IoD represents its members and makes the case for enterprise, entrepreneurialism and business in the public and to government. Working with various stakeholders, the IoD campaigns on issues of importance to its members and the wider business community to build an environment in the UK which supports businesses and makes is easy to start and run a company; the IoD has experts on tax, law, corporate governance, financial services, education and regulation, campaigns on all of these issues. The IoD’s Information and Advisory Services offer members tailored and bespoke business advice on all aspects of running a business, including unbiased and confidential legal, financial, HR, tax support. Members of the IoD can access the support through online, telephone or face-to-face consultations, are allowed up to 25 different consultations each year.
The IoD is one of the country’s most prestigious training providers, has a range of courses to suit business leaders at every stage of their career. There are role-specific training courses to equip directors with new skills to take on different roles along with the flagship Chartered Director course. Training courses are open to both members and non-members alike, around 5,000 people take part in an IoD course every year; the IoD networks provide executive coaching, mentoring services and online learning zones. The IoD hosts hundreds of networking and social events throughout the year and across the country; the Annual Convention is the flagship IoD event and a fixture of the business calendar and has taken place at the Royal Albert Hall each year. It draws some of politicians and leaders from across the world; the convention has taken place every year since 1950. Nine different prime ministers have addressed the convention on more than eighteen occasions along with pioneers such as Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Wikipedia, Richard Branson, serial entrepreneur, members of the British royal family, including the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and the Charles, Prince of Wales.
The last Annual Convention took place in September 2016 and included former Greece finance minister Yanis Varoufakis, Lord Norman Lamont of Lerwick, global economist Dambisa Moyo, Nicola Sturgeon. Because of declining ticket and sponsorship revenues the Annual Convention took a year's break in 2017; the event in March 2018 was billed as "IoD Open House", a three-day business festival held at 116 Pall Mall. In 2015, the IoD launched the annual Rhondda Lecture, in honour of Margaret Mackworth, 2nd Viscountess Rhondda, the first female President of the IoD; the lecture celebrates radical thought, bold ideas and activism. Julia Gillard, former Australian prime minister, delivered the inaugural lecture in June 2015 at 116 Pall Mall to an audience of politicians and business leaders. Ruth Davidson, leader of the Scottish Conservative party, gave the 2016 lecture and was interviewed by BBC journalist Laura Kuenssberg at 116 Pall Mall in December. Director is a lifestyle magazine for business leaders.
It is circulated is free to IoD members and available to purchase through subscription. It contains interviews with business leaders and politicians, updates from the
Embassy of Germany, London
The Embassy of Germany in London is the diplomatic mission of Germany in the United Kingdom. The embassy is located in Belgravia, it occupies three of the original terraced houses in Belgrave Square and a late 20th-century extension. The Prussian Consul-General was housed at 9 Carlton House Terrace in the so-called Prussia House. After World War II Prussia House was requisitioned as enemy property and the Federal Republic of Germany moved its consulate and diplomatic operations to Belgrave Square, still operating as a Consulate General; the Consulate became a functional Embassy in June 1951, the FRG leasing the building for 99 years in 1953. In the 1970s, office space in the embassy was tight so an extension was erected at Chesham Place, inaugurated in 1978, it won the Westminster City Council prize for architecture. In 1990, after German reunification, the East German embassy building at 34 Belgrave Square became part of the German embassy. 1701–1703 Balthasar Heinrich von Nischwitz 1714–1718 Georg Sigismund Nostitz Karl Georg Friedrich von Flemming 1702 Ernst August von Platen-Hallermund 1713–1714 Gerhard Nath 1714–1719 Hermann von Petkum 1715–1716 Franz Ludwig Viktor Effern 1715 Hermann Beveren 1692: Opening of diplomatic mission 17??–1739: Johann Franz von Haslang 1739–1783: Joseph Franz Xaver von Haslang 1783–1803: Siegmund von Haslang 1800–1801: Franz Gabriel von Bray 1804–1814: Interruption of diplomatic relations, due to alliance with France during Napoleonic Wars 1814–1822: Christian Hubert Pfeffel von Kriegelstein 1822–1833: August Baron de Cetto 1833–1835: Franz Oliver von Jenison-Walworth 1835–1867: August Baron de Cetto 1868–1871: Ferdinand von Hompesch-Bollheim 1871: Closure of Legation 1604 Hans von Bodeck 1651–1655: 1655–16??: Johann Friedrich Schlezer 1671–1675: Lorenz Georg von Krockow 1675–1678: Otto von Schwerin 1678–1682: 1682–1685: Pierre de Falaiseau 1685–1686: Johann von Besser 16??–16??: Wolfgang von Schmettau 16??–1688: Samuel von Schmettau 1688–1697: Thomas Ernst von Danckelmann 1697–1698: Friedrich Bogislaw Dobrženský von Dobrženitz 1698–1699: Christoph I. zu Dohna-Schlodien 1700–1700: David Ancillon the Younger 1707–1710: Ezechiel von Spanheim 1711–1712: Johann August Marschall von Bieberstein 1712–1719: Ludwig-Friedrich Bonnet de Saint-Germain 1719–1726: Johann Christoph Julius Ernst von Wallenrodt 1726–1730: Benjamin Friedrich von Reichenbach 1730–1733: Christoph Martin von Degenfeld-Schonburg 1733–1737: Caspar Wilhelm von Borcke 1737–1742: 1742–1744: Count Karl-Wilhelm Finck von Finckenstein 1744–1748: 1748–1750: Joachim Wilhelm von Klinggräff 1750–1758: Abraham Louis Michell, Geschäftsträger 1758–1760: Dodo Heinrich zu Innhausen und Knyphausen 1760–1764: Abraham Louis Michell 1764-1766: 1766–1780: Joachim Carl von Maltzan 1780–1788: Spiridion von Lusi 1788–1790: Philipp Karl von Alvensleben 1790–1792: Sigismund Ehrenreich Johann von Redern 1792–1807: Constans Philipp Wilhelm von Jacobi-Klöst 1807–1815: 1815–1817: Constans Philipp Wilhelm von Jacobi-Klöst 1817–1818: Wilhelm von Humboldt 1818–1821: vacant 1821–1824: Heinrich von Werther 1824–1827: Bogislaw von Maltzan 1827–1841: Heinrich von Bülow 1841–1854: Christian Charles Josias Bunsen 1854–1861: Albrecht von Bernstorff 1861–1862: vacant 1862–1873: Albrecht von Bernstorff Albrecht von Bernstorff Albrecht von Bernstorff Georg Herbert zu Münster Paul von Hatzfeldt Paul Wolff Metternich Adolf Marschall von Bieberstein Karl Max, Prince Lichnowsky diplomatic relations disrupted due to World War I Friedrich Sthamer Konstantin von Neurath Leopold von Hoesch Leopold von Hoesch Joachim von Ribbentrop Herbert von Dirksen diplomatic relations disrupted due to World War II 1959 Kurt Wolf 1963 1963 Jost Prescher 1965 Representative at the Chamber of Commerce 1965 Erich Rennstein 1967 1967 Dieter Butters 1971 1971 Erich Albrecht 1971 Karl Heinz Kern 1980 1984 Gerhard Lindner 1989 Joachim Mitdank 1990 Hans Schlange-Schöningen Hans Heinrich Herwarth von Bittenfeld Hasso von Etzdorf Herbert Blankenhorn Karl-Günther von Hase Hans Helmut Ruethe Jürgen Ruhfus Rüdiger von Wechmar Hermann von Richthofen Peter Hartmann Jürgen Oesterhelt Gebhardt von Moltke Hans-Friedrich von Ploetz Thomas Matussek Wolfgang Ischinger Georg Boomgaarden Peter Ammon Peter Wittig Official site German Foreign Office